theguard! ApplicationManager System Windows Data Collector

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1 theguard! ApplicationManager System Windows Data Collector Status: 10/9/2008

2 Introduction... 3 The Performance Features of the ApplicationManager Data Collector for Microsoft Windows Server... 3 Overview of Microsoft Windows Server... 4 Registry... 6 Event Log... 7 Applications on Windows Server... 8 The System Windows Data Collector... 9 Monitoring Hardware and Software Resources Monitoring Processors Monitoring Memory Monitoring Physical Disks, Logical Disks and Mount Points Monitoring the Swap Files (Virtual Memory) Monitoring the System Service Monitoring Monitoring Processes Status Events Performance Service Levels and Standard Reporting Monitoring Printers Status Events Performance Monitoring the Windows Event Log Pre-configured Monitoring Policies Appendix A: The Data Collector's Object Structure Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 2 of 16

3 Introduction There is more to efficiently managing an application than maximizing its availability. Targeted tuning can increase the performance and stability of business-critical applications without having to invest in additional hardware (processors, RAM, disk space). A number of data collectors have been developed for theguard! ApplicationManager that provide comprehensive monitoring and generate detailed data analyses. Data collectors do more than simply collect events according to pre-defined rules. They deliver every performance value and the current status of each application object in real time. They also provide insight into configuration attributes, such as the release status or the application's parameter settings. Data collectors model an application in objects and sub-objects, enabling a dedicated handling of alerts, monitoring or status messages. This model ensures that information is clearly structured and that messages are easy to allocate to a problem. Pre-defined and reusable policies for each type of application facilitate the implementation of the solution and the adaptation of monitoring to dynamic landscapes. The ease with which thresholds are set ensures the early recognition of potential errors. Comprehensive reaction management enables flexible alerting for more than 100 different devices and alarm consoles. The automatic discovery of new application instances and objects, including the automatic allocation of policies, enables automatic monitoring even in those cases in which system administrators have completely reconfigured the application, for example, by adding new instances or objects. Central reporting at the application instance and application object level provides for a detailed and effective capacity management of all resources. Integrated Service Level Management ensures that the service levels for application availability and performance are achieved, while Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) can be easily defined at the application object level. The Performance Features of the ApplicationManager Data Collector for Microsoft Windows Server The data collector for Microsoft Windows Server provides a comprehensive monitoring of large multi-processorservers (32 and 64 bit) running Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and 2008 or Microsoft Windows Server operating system. With ApplicationManager, a number of operational parameters and application processes can be monitored and compared in parallel. All of the hardware and software resources of a Microsoft Windows Server, such as processors, memory, virtual memory, physical hard disks, logical hard disks, mount points, services, processes, etc., are defined and analyzed individually within the framework of the CIM model as Managed Objects (MO). With ApplicationManager's event and threshold monitoring resource, bottlenecks and system overloads can be detected and reported at an early stage. The data collector for Microsoft Windows Server consists of a number of objects, event categories, and performance counters. All of the information is described in the data collector's online documentation. The present document provides an overview of the most important functions of the data collector. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 3 of 16

4 Overview of Microsoft Windows Server Microsoft Windows Server 2000 / 2003 and 2008 are the successors of the successful Microsoft Windows NT Server operating system. Both of the Windows operating systems are designed to run on high-availability servers, and support preemptive multitasking and/or multiprocessing as well as multiprocessor operation. As every other operating system, Microsoft Windows is the interface between the hardware, the users, and the applications. It conceals the complexity of the hardware by providing a comprehensive and simple access model to the running software even in hybrid environments. In addition, it supplies services for system administration and interfaces for applications. In contrast to many other operating systems, Microsoft Windows has a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of operating system functionality and hence increases the users' efficiency. To meet today's high demands on operating systems, Microsoft Windows has to manage a variety of different tasks: Process Management o Load, start, interrupt, and end processes o Allocate processor time to processes (scheduling) o Synchronize the workload distribution on multiprocessor machines Memory Management o Allocate memory to processes. o Protect the main memory from other processes accessing them (process isolation) o Temporarily move processes (swapping) to mass storage devices (virtual memory) File Management o Manage mass storage devices such as hard disks, CDs, floppy disks, etc. o Organize and manage the data on the mass storage devices in a hierarchical file structure in the form of files o Manage access permissions to the file system I/O Control o Manage computer peripherals such as terminals, mass storage devices, I/O ports, the network, etc. o Transfer common read/write operations to device-specific control signals o Coordinate concurrent accesses to I/O resources Network Management o Manage communication through the network o Gather, identify, and route incoming network packages to the processes Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 4 of 16

5 Authentication and Access Control o Manage users and their access permissions to system resources o Log users in to and out of the system o Protect system resources from users that do not have the correct permissions Log Processing o Record important functions and events such as error statuses in the system log Error Handling o Recognize error statuses and process them accordingly User Interface o Provide services for system administration o Provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for communication between man and machine o Provide application programming interfaces (API) o Provide a hardware abstraction for applications To ensure the stability of the system, the Windows operating system is divided into two modes: kernel mode and user mode. Elementary operating system processes with high privileges run in protected kernel mode. These processes can impact the stability of the entire operating system when an error occurs (blue screen). Nonelementary operating system processes and user applications with low privileges run in unprotected user mode. Errors generated by individual applications and/or processes have no effect on either the operating system or any of the other processes. Microsoft Windows combines the advantages of a monolithic kernel with those of a microkernel by enabling some of the operating system functions to run directly in protected kernel mode (execution services and device drivers) and moving others to separate processes that run in unprotected user mode (sub-systems). The subsystem processes are merely delegated by the microkernel. Applications generally run in user mode to guarantee the stability of the operating system when applications are flawed. To reduce complexity, the Windows operating system is internally divided into several layers. The individual layers are built according to a hierarchical structure, and each performs a special task. The lowest layer of the Windows operating system, the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL), maps characteristics of the hardware (for example, the processor) to a uniform abstraction model on which the superimposed layers (device drivers and micro kernel) are built. The micro kernel is the core of the Windows operating system. It controls the processor and the elementary sequences of process communication. In multiprocessor operations, it ensures that processes are evenly distributed between the individual processors and priorities kept. Device drivers are special small programs that control individual hardware components. They are the interface between the operating system and the hardware. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 5 of 16

6 Execution services, such as the file system and I/O manager, object management, the security monitor, process management, memory management, power management, plug-and-play control, and the IPC manager (interprocess communication), run in the top layer of kernel mode. Registry The Windows registry database, or "registry," is a feature of Microsoft Windows that is not found in other operating systems. Here, all of the configuration parameters of the operating system and applications are stored in a hierarchical structure. Applications have an interface for adding, reading, and deleting configuration parameters. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 6 of 16

7 Event Log Microsoft Windows records important events, warnings, and errors in the event log. The event log is divided into three areas: application log, security log, and system log. Windows operating system messages are recorded in the system log, and application messages are recorded in the application log. Security messages, such as users logging in and out of the system and failed log in attempts, are recorded in the security log. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 7 of 16

8 Applications on Windows Server In general, applications use the resources of an operating system such as Windows in terms of main memory, disk space, and processor capacity, as well as special process procedures such as multithreading, messaging, processor binding, or queuing. Application tuning is often coupled to operating system tuning. Reconfiguring certain aspects of the system can increase performance and improve resource utilization. It might also be possible to reduce the number of application licenses when, for example, licensing depends on the number of used processors and processors can be bound (for example, as is the case with MS SQL Server). Services + Processes Application Start/Stop/Execute Processes Logical Pages Application Data Print Jobs Network Communikation I/O Commands Config. Parameter Log Entries Application Programming Interface (API) Process Management Memory Management Storage Management Print Management Network Management I/O Management Configuration Tracing Microsoft Windows Operating System Instructions Execution Virtual Memory Physical Pages File- System Files Spool Service Print Commands Network Packages Processor Physical Memory Harddisk User Interaction I/O Commands Registry Event Log Logical Interface Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) Printer Network Device I/O Devices Physical Interface Hardware Network Communikation Clients Users Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 8 of 16

9 The System Windows Data Collector This data collector monitors the hardware and software resources of a Microsoft Windows Server. Both types of resources are important for highly available and dynamic operations. The below figure shows the status of all of the objects of a Microsoft Windows Server in theguard! ApplicationManager. Appendix A contains a complete list of all of the objects. Hardware and software resources, such as processors, memory, virtual memory (swap file), physical hard disks, logical disks, printers, processes (process groups), processor queues, printer queues, etc., are entered and displayed as managed objects in the managed monitor. Managed objects are hierarchically arranged and clearly structured, thus providing the current status of every component at a glance. Monitoring parameters can be set individually for each component. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 9 of 16

10 Monitoring Hardware and Software Resources In order to guarantee a trouble-free function of the operating system and the productive applications as well the monitoring of the hard- and software resources e.g. processors, working memory hard disks, virtual memory, processes, printers, queues etc. is most important with it, the resources have according to sufficient capacity and performance to be monitored. If one of the resources is overloaded or used up, the performance of the complete system drops drastically; this may have a negative impact on the productive server operation! In many cases, this leads to a malfunction of the productive applications. In worst case, the stability of the entire system is endangered. By continuously monitoring the system resources, the data collector for Microsoft Windows reports overloads and highly used resources at an early stage. This enables the system administrator to react early to resource bottlenecks and remove them before they impact or bring down the live system. The system Windows DC provides numerous statistical data regarding the current utilization and performance of the different hardware- and software resources of the monitored Windows Server. Thresholds, which are used to trigger alerts when they are violated, can be defined for all of the statistical values. Resource bottlenecks with it will be detected at an early stage and can be removed. Function and performance monitoring can be performed at the same time. All of the statistical values can be monitored and compared in the real-time performance monitor. These values can be used to optimize the performance and the memory. The below figure shows the current utilization of system resources such as CPU, memory, handles, threads, etc. for the JLaunch processes of an SAP Web Application Server in the real-time performance monitor: Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 10 of 16

11 The ability to compare the system resources of the different Windows servers provides useful information for optimization tasks, such as a more efficient distribution of the load between the servers. The statistical values can also be collected in the ApplicationManager database and evaluated using REALTECH Reporting. This information can be used to generate trend analyses, for example, for the utilization of system resources such as CPU, memory, disk space, etc., and used as a basis for cost and capacity planning. The below list of possible monitoring criteria is not exhaustive: Monitoring Processors Current processor usage in percent Partial processor usage in user mode in percent Current length of the processor queue The availability and performance of an application can be increased in bottleneck situations by upgrading the processors or reconfiguring the application. Monitoring Memory Free Memory Utilization of virtual memory Utilization of kernel memory Requests of memory pages moved to swap file (page faults/sec, pages input/sec, page reads/sec) The availability and performance of an application can be increased in bottleneck situations by upgrading the processors or reconfiguring the operating system (for example, the application cache/main memory ratio). Monitoring Physical Disks, Logical Disks and Mount Points Free/used space Read/write operations per time Read/write speed Monitoring the Swap Files (Virtual Memory) Current size of the swap file (these values are currently available in the System Windows 2003 / 2008 data collector) Current utilization rate of the swap file with regard to the defined maximum size Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 11 of 16

12 Monitoring the System Fill level of the Windows registry database with regard to its maximum size Context switch rate (context switches/sec) Number of open files Service Monitoring The data collector can monitor the status of all of the services installed on a Microsoft Windows server. The monitored services can also be started and stopped from the ApplicationManager's interface. Monitoring Processes Processes that are relevant for the live system, such as the processes of important services or applications, can be monitored by freely definable process groups. Processes are assigned to process groups using process patterns. The filter principle is used to add active processes to the process with a matching process pattern. The status of a process group indicates if at least one process that matches the group's process name pattern is currently running. Example: Configuration of a process pattern for the JLaunch processes of SAP Web Application Server. A list of all of the running processes that match the process group's pattern can be viewed in the properties of the respective process group. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 12 of 16

13 Example: List of current Disp+Workprocesses of an SAP R/3 system. Processes that belong together, for example, because they belong to the same service or application, can be combined into process groups. This enables applications to be monitored as an entity in real time: Status The status of a process group indicates if at least one process that matches the process pattern is running Events Notification when a new process is started that matches the process pattern of a process group (also applies to extremely short-lived processes) Notification when a process that was assigned to a process group is ended (also applies to extremely short-lived processes) Performance Number of processes currently assigned to a process group Memory allocated by the processes of a process group Virtual memory allocated by the processes of a process group CPU time consumed by the processes of a process group Handles used by the processes of a process group Threads used by the processes of a process group An analysis by process group in Reporting provides a comparison of the resource utilization of the different application processes that can be used for activity allocation. Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 13 of 16

14 Service Levels and Standard Reporting Availability of an application in terms of the process and/or process group Load and resource utilization of an application's process and/or process group by the above-mentioned parameters Process groups are managed objects that can be used in business maps to map distributed applications and business processes in theguard! ServiceCenter. Monitoring Printers The data collector can monitor the local printer and/or the print jobs of a Windows print server according to the following criteria: Status Status of the individual local printers Events Notification of events such as low paper, paper jam, low toner, print job error, etc. Performance CPU, handle, and thread utilization of the process started by the spool service Size of the spool directory Size of the spool directory in relation to the available disk space Number of print jobs in the print queue This enables you to react to printer problems at an early stage and analyze and optimize printer utilization via the connected network printers. Printers can be monitored with the data collectors for Microsoft Windows Server 2000 / 2003 / Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 14 of 16

15 Monitoring the Windows Event Log With the Managed Object Type "EventLog", the monitoring of all events in the Windows event log can be automated. The security log, the system log, the application log, and the user-defined event logs can be monitored. Pre-configured Monitoring Policies The data collector for Microsoft Windows contains a number of pre-configured policies for each object type, such as processor, logical disk, process group, Win32 service, printer, etc. For more information about REALTECH s software solutions: REALTECH AG Industriestr. 39c Walldorf Germany Tel Fax Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 15 of 16

16 Appendix A: The Data Collector's Object Structure The collector is structured in object types, which among other things, is essential for the configuration and allocation of events as well as for all of the other functions: Object Type Sub-object Type Metrics Topic Computer System Network Adapter Physical Disk 1 Computer System object Processor EventLog 3 to n event logs Monitoring the event logs Logical Disk 1 to n logical drives or mount points + total object Capacity, file rate and throughput of logical drives Network Adapter 1 to n network adapters Availability of the network adapters Network Interface 1 to n network interfaces Monitoring the network interfaces Operating System EventLog Logical Disk Network Interface Page File Printer Process Group Server Work Queue Service 1 Operating system object Page File 1 to n page files + Total object Physical Disk 1 to n physical disks + Total object. Memory monitoring, file system-cache, System objects Monitoring page files. Capacity, fill rate and throughput of physical disks Printer and print job monitoring Printer n Printers + "Print Queues Total Process Group n Process Groups Monitoring of processes Processor 1 to n processors + Total Processor monitoring object Server Work Queue 1 queue per processor + Queue monitoring "Blocking Queue" Service n Windows services Service monitoring Copyright REALTECH 2008 Page 16 of 16

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