Chapter 2: OS Overview

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 2: OS Overview"

Transcription

1 Chapter 2: OS Overview CmSc 335 Operating Systems 1. Operating system objectives and functions Operating systems control and support the usage of computer systems. a. usage users of a computer system: programs - use memory, use CPU time, use I/O devices human users programmers - use program development tools such as debuggers, editors end users - use application programs, e.g. Internet explorer b. computer system = hardware + software OS is a part of the computer software, it is a program. It is a very special program, that is the first to be executed when the computer is switched on, and is supposed to control and support the execution of other programs and the overall usage of the computer system. c. control The operating system controls the usage of the computer resources - hardware devices and software utilities. We can think of an operating system as a Resource Manager. Here are some of the resources managed by the OS: Processors, Main memory, Secondary Memory, Peripheral devices, Information. d. support The operating system provides a number of services to assist the users of the computer system: For the programmers: Utilities - debuggers, editors, file management, etc. For the end users - provides the interface to the application programs For programs - loads instructions and data into memory, prepares I/O devises for usage, handles interrupts and error conditions. The hierarchical view of the computer system illustrates how the operating system interacts with the users of the computer system: 1

2 Main Objectives in OS design: Convenience makes computer user friendly. Efficiency- allows computer to use resources efficiently. Ability to evolve- constructed in a way to permit effective development, testing and introduction of new functions without interfering with service. 2. Evolution of Operating Systems Serial Processing s 1950 s programmer interacted directly with hardware. No operating system. problems Scheduling - users sign up for machine time. Wasted computing time Setup Time- Setup included loading the compiler, source program, saving compiled program, and loading and linking. If an error occurred - start over. 2

3 Simple Batch Systems Improve the utilization of computers. Jobs were submitted on cards or tape to an operator who batches jobs together sequentially. The program that controls the execution of the jobs was called monitor - a simple version of an operating system. The interface to the monitor was accomplished through Job Control Language (JCL). For example, a JCL request could be to run the compiler for a particular programming language, then to link and load the program, then to run the user program. Hardware features: Memory protection: do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered Timer: prevents a job from monopolizing the system Problems: Bad utilization of CPU time - the processor stays idle while I/O devices are in use. Multiprogrammed Batch Systems More than one program resides in the main memory. While a program A uses an I/O device the processor does not stay idle, instead it runs another program B. 3

4 New features: Memory management - to have several jobs ready to run, they must be kept in main memory Job scheduling - the processor must decide which program to run. Time-Sharing Systems Multiprogramming systems : several programs use the computer system Time-sharing systems : several (human) users use the computer system interactively. Characteristics: Using multiprogramming to handle multiple interactive jobs Processor s time is shared among multiple users Multiple users simultaneously access the system through terminals Batch Multiprogramming Time Sharing Principal objective Maximize processor use Minimize response time Source of directives to operating system Job control language commands provided with the job Commands entered at the terminal Time sharing is multiprogramming. The key differences between time-sharing systems and batch multiprogramming systems are given in the table above. 3. Major Achievements Five major theoretical advances in development Processes Memory Management Information protection and security Scheduling and resource management System structure 4

5 3.1. Processes What is a process? A program in execution An instance of a program running on a computer The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor A unit of activity characterized by a single sequential thread of execution, a current state, and an associated set of system resources Difficulties with designing system software: Improper Synchronization: results from an improper design of a signaling mechanism can result in duplicate signals, or lost signals. Failed Mutual Exclusion: two programs attempt to modify shared piece of data. Nondeterministic program operation: a program may change the contents of memory used by another program, and in this way affect unpredictably the operation of the other program. Deadlock: each program is waiting for the other program to release its resource Solution to these problems: use the concept of a process that consists of An executable program Associated data needed by the program Execution context of the program: The entire state of the process at any instant is contained in its context. All information the operating system needs to manage the process: Contents of process registers Information about priority of the process Whether the process is waiting for an I/O event etc 5

6 3.2. Memory Management Responsibilities of OS Process isolation - prevent independent processes from interfering with each other Automatic allocation and management - transparent to the programmer Support of modular programming Protection and access control Long-Term Storage The above requirements are satisfied by means of virtual memory and file system facilities 6

7 Virtual memory and paging Allows programmers to address memory from a logical point of view Allows process to be comprised of a number of fixed-size blocks, called pages Virtual address is a page number and an offset within the page Each page may be located anywhere in main memory Dynamic mapping between the virtual address used in the program and the real address in main memory File system Implements long-term store Information stored in named objects called files 3.3. Information protection and security Controlling access to computer systems and the information stored in them Availability: Concerned with protecting the system against interruption. Confidentiality: Assures that users cannot read data for which access is unauthorized. Data integrity: Protection of data from unauthorized modification. Authenticity: Concerned with the proper verification of the identity of users Scheduling and resource management Factors to be considered: Fairness- give equal and fair access to all jobs of the same class Differential Responsiveness- discriminate between different classes of jobs. Efficiency- maximize throughput, minimize response time and accommodate as many users as possible. The major elements of the operating system involved in scheduling and resource management in a multiprogramming environment are depicted in Figure 2.11 I/O queues: processes waiting for I/O devices ( a queue is associated with each I/O device) Short-term queue: a list of processes whose execution has been started. They reside in main memory. Round-robin technique: give each process some time in turn. Long-term queue: a list of new jobs waiting to be started. How does it work? Assume that a process is running. The following events transfer the control from the process to the OS Service call from the process - the process explicitly invokes some of the OS services, e.g. I/O operations. Interrupt from the process, e.g. exception handling Timer interrupt - the time slice for the process is over 7

8 I/O interrupt - an I/O device reports its status to the OS. In each case the corresponding handler is invoked, and then the short-term scheduler picks up the next process to be run. 8

9 4. Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems Microkernel architecture-assigns only a few essential functions to the kernel, including address spaces, interprocess communication, and basic scheduling. Multithreading- the process is divided into threads that can run simultaneously Thread- dispatchable unit of work. It includes a processor context program counter and stack pointer and its own data storage for the stack. It executes sequentially and is interruptable Process- collection of one or more threads and associated system resources. Symmetric multiprocessing- stand-alone computer with multiple processors that share the same memory and I/O facilities connected by a communication bus. All processors can perform the same functions 9

10 Distributed operating systems - provide the illusion of a single main memory and single secondary memory space. Used for distributed file system Object-oriented design - used for adding modular extensions to a small kernel. Enables programmers to customize an operating system without disrupting system integrity 10

11 Exam-like questions: 1. Compare batch multiprogramming systems and time-sharing systems. Discuss their similarities and differences. 2. How is a process defined? 3. Discuss the difficulties in early OS that motivated the use of processes in OS design. 4. Describe briefly virtual memory and paging techniques for memory management. 5. Describe briefly how the resource scheduling works. 6. List and describe briefly four of the characteristics of modern operating systems 11

Chapter 2 Operating System Overview

Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E William Stallings Chapter 2 Operating System Overview Dave Bremer Otago Polytechnic, N.Z. 2008, Prentice Hall Roadmap Operating System Objectives/Functions

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System?

Chapter 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System? Chapter 1: Introduction What is an operating system? Simple Batch Systems Multiprogramming Batched Systems Time-Sharing Systems Personal-Computer Systems Parallel Systems Distributed Systems Real -Time

More information

Operating Systems 4 th Class

Operating Systems 4 th Class Operating Systems 4 th Class Lecture 1 Operating Systems Operating systems are essential part of any computer system. Therefore, a course in operating systems is an essential part of any computer science

More information

Page 1 of 5. IS 335: Information Technology in Business Lecture Outline Operating Systems

Page 1 of 5. IS 335: Information Technology in Business Lecture Outline Operating Systems Lecture Outline Operating Systems Objectives Describe the functions and layers of an operating system List the resources allocated by the operating system and describe the allocation process Explain how

More information

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW

OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW M02_STAL6329_06_SE_C02.QXD 2/28/08 3:33 AM Page 50 CHAPTER OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW 50 2.1 Operating System Objectives and Functions The Operating System as a User/Computer Interface The Operating System

More information

Chapter 3. Operating Systems

Chapter 3. Operating Systems Christian Jacob Chapter 3 Operating Systems 3.1 Evolution of Operating Systems 3.2 Booting an Operating System 3.3 Operating System Architecture 3.4 References Chapter Overview Page 2 Chapter 3: Operating

More information

William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture

William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture Chapter 8 Operating System Support Rev. 3.2 (2009-10) by Enrico Nardelli 8-1 Objectives and Functions Convenience Making the computer easier to

More information

Process Description and Control. 2004-2008 william stallings, maurizio pizzonia - sistemi operativi

Process Description and Control. 2004-2008 william stallings, maurizio pizzonia - sistemi operativi Process Description and Control 1 Process A program in execution (running) on a computer The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor A unit of activity characterized by a at least one

More information

ELEC 377. Operating Systems. Week 1 Class 3

ELEC 377. Operating Systems. Week 1 Class 3 Operating Systems Week 1 Class 3 Last Class! Computer System Structure, Controllers! Interrupts & Traps! I/O structure and device queues.! Storage Structure & Caching! Hardware Protection! Dual Mode Operation

More information

Operating System Structures

Operating System Structures Operating System Structures Meelis ROOS mroos@ut.ee Institute of Computer Science Tartu University fall 2009 Literature A. S. Tanenbaum. Modern Operating Systems. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall. 2001. G. Nutt.

More information

Components of a Computer System

Components of a Computer System SFWR ENG 3B04 Software Design III 1.1 3 Hardware Processor(s) Memory I/O devices Operating system Kernel System programs Components of a Computer System Application programs Users SFWR ENG 3B04 Software

More information

Module 1: Introduction. Operating System Concepts. Terminology. What is an Operating System? Where are OSs found? Distributed Real-Time Systems

Module 1: Introduction. Operating System Concepts. Terminology. What is an Operating System? Where are OSs found? Distributed Real-Time Systems Operating System Concepts Module 1: INTRODUCTION Andrzej Bednarski, Ph.D. student Department of Computer and Information Science Linköping University, Sweden Module 1: Introduction What is an operating

More information

Operating Systems OBJECTIVES 7.1 DEFINITION. Chapter 7. Note:

Operating Systems OBJECTIVES 7.1 DEFINITION. Chapter 7. Note: Chapter 7 OBJECTIVES Operating Systems Define the purpose and functions of an operating system. Understand the components of an operating system. Understand the concept of virtual memory. Understand the

More information

Operating System Components

Operating System Components Lecture Overview Operating system software introduction OS components OS services OS structure Operating Systems - April 24, 2001 Operating System Components Process management Memory management Secondary

More information

Classification of Scheduling Activity Queuing Diagram for Scheduling

Classification of Scheduling Activity Queuing Diagram for Scheduling CPU Scheduling CPU Scheduling Chapter 6 We concentrate on the problem of scheduling the usage of a single processor among all the existing processes in the system The goal is to achieve High processor

More information

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines Operating System Concepts 3.1 Common System Components

More information

II. Operating Systems and Processes!

II. Operating Systems and Processes! II. Operating Systems and Processes! Computer Architecture & Operating Systems: 725G84 Ahmed Rezine What is an Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and

More information

OPERATING SYSTEM SERVICES

OPERATING SYSTEM SERVICES OPERATING SYSTEM SERVICES USER INTERFACE Command line interface(cli):uses text commands and a method for entering them Batch interface(bi):commands and directives to control those commands are entered

More information

System Structures. Services Interface Structure

System Structures. Services Interface Structure System Structures Services Interface Structure Operating system services (1) Operating system services (2) Functions that are helpful to the user User interface Command line interpreter Batch interface

More information

Introduction. What is an Operating System?

Introduction. What is an Operating System? Introduction What is an Operating System? 1 What is an Operating System? 2 Why is an Operating System Needed? 3 How Did They Develop? Historical Approach Affect of Architecture 4 Efficient Utilization

More information

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. Common System Components

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. Common System Components Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines System Design and Implementation System Generation 3.1

More information

Objectives and Functions

Objectives and Functions Objectives and Functions William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 6 th Edition Week 10 Operating System Support Convenience Making the computer easier to use Efficiency Allowing better

More information

CHAPTER 15: Operating Systems: An Overview

CHAPTER 15: Operating Systems: An Overview CHAPTER 15: Operating Systems: An Overview The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software & Networking: An Information Technology Approach 4th Edition, Irv Englander John Wiley and Sons 2010 PowerPoint

More information

Types Of Operating Systems

Types Of Operating Systems Types Of Operating Systems Date 10/01/2004 1/24/2004 Operating Systems 1 Brief history of OS design In the beginning OSes were runtime libraries The OS was just code you linked with your program and loaded

More information

Introduction to Operating Systems. Perspective of the Computer. System Software. Indiana University Chen Yu

Introduction to Operating Systems. Perspective of the Computer. System Software. Indiana University Chen Yu Introduction to Operating Systems Indiana University Chen Yu Perspective of the Computer System Software A general piece of software with common functionalities that support many applications. Example:

More information

Embedded Systems. Chapter 6. Real-Time Operating System

Embedded Systems. Chapter 6. Real-Time Operating System Embedded Systems Chapter 6 Real-Time Operating System 6. Real-Time Operating System [8 Hrs.] 6.1 Operating System Basics 6.2 Task, Process, and Threads 6.3 Multiprocessing and Multitasking 6.4 Task Scheduling

More information

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Feature Migration

More information

5) One class of services provided by an operating system is to provide new functionality that is not supported directly by the underlying hardware.

5) One class of services provided by an operating system is to provide new functionality that is not supported directly by the underlying hardware. Benha University 2 nd Term (May 2014) Final Exam Class: 3 rd Year Students Subject: Operating Systems Faculty of Computers & Informatics Date: 17/5/2014 Time: 3 hours Answer the following questions:- Question

More information

Deciding which process to run. (Deciding which thread to run) Deciding how long the chosen process can run

Deciding which process to run. (Deciding which thread to run) Deciding how long the chosen process can run SFWR ENG 3BB4 Software Design 3 Concurrent System Design 2 SFWR ENG 3BB4 Software Design 3 Concurrent System Design 11.8 10 CPU Scheduling Chapter 11 CPU Scheduling Policies Deciding which process to run

More information

Multiprogramming. IT 3123 Hardware and Software Concepts. Program Dispatching. Multiprogramming. Program Dispatching. Program Dispatching

Multiprogramming. IT 3123 Hardware and Software Concepts. Program Dispatching. Multiprogramming. Program Dispatching. Program Dispatching IT 3123 Hardware and Software Concepts Operating Systems II October 26 Multiprogramming Two or more application programs in memory. Consider one CPU and more than one program. This can be generalized to

More information

Last Class: OS and Computer Architecture. Last Class: OS and Computer Architecture

Last Class: OS and Computer Architecture. Last Class: OS and Computer Architecture Last Class: OS and Computer Architecture System bus Network card CPU, memory, I/O devices, network card, system bus Lecture 3, page 1 Last Class: OS and Computer Architecture OS Service Protection Interrupts

More information

Kernel comparison of OpenSolaris, Windows Vista and. Linux 2.6

Kernel comparison of OpenSolaris, Windows Vista and. Linux 2.6 Kernel comparison of OpenSolaris, Windows Vista and Linux 2.6 The idea of writing this paper is evoked by Max Bruning's view on Solaris, BSD and Linux. The comparison of advantages and disadvantages among

More information

Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. The purpose of an operating system is to

More information

Objectives. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Services (Cont.) Operating System Services. Operating System Services (Cont.

Objectives. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Services (Cont.) Operating System Services. Operating System Services (Cont. Objectives To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures

More information

Topic 6 (M 18) RTOS & Inter-process Communication

Topic 6 (M 18) RTOS & Inter-process Communication Topic 6 (M 18) RTOS & Inter-process Communication 6.1 Concepts of RTOS, Need of RTOS in Embedded systems 6.2 Multitasking 6.3 Task synchronization & Mutual Exclusion 6.4 Starvation, Deadlock, Multiple

More information

CS0206 OPERATING SYSTEMS Prerequisite CS0201, CS0203

CS0206 OPERATING SYSTEMS Prerequisite CS0201, CS0203 CS0206 OPERATING SYSTEMS Prerequisite CS0201, CS0203 L T P C 3 0 0 3 PURPOSE Every computer professional should have a basic understanding of how an operating system controls the computing resources and

More information

Review from last time. CS 537 Lecture 3 OS Structure. OS structure. What you should learn from this lecture

Review from last time. CS 537 Lecture 3 OS Structure. OS structure. What you should learn from this lecture Review from last time CS 537 Lecture 3 OS Structure What HW structures are used by the OS? What is a system call? Michael Swift Remzi Arpaci-Dussea, Michael Swift 1 Remzi Arpaci-Dussea, Michael Swift 2

More information

Technical Properties. Mobile Operating Systems. Overview Concepts of Mobile. Functions Processes. Lecture 11. Memory Management.

Technical Properties. Mobile Operating Systems. Overview Concepts of Mobile. Functions Processes. Lecture 11. Memory Management. Overview Concepts of Mobile Operating Systems Lecture 11 Concepts of Mobile Operating Systems Mobile Business I (WS 2007/08) Prof Dr Kai Rannenberg Chair of Mobile Business and Multilateral Security Johann

More information

Operating Systems, 6 th ed. Test Bank Chapter 7

Operating Systems, 6 th ed. Test Bank Chapter 7 True / False Questions: Chapter 7 Memory Management 1. T / F In a multiprogramming system, main memory is divided into multiple sections: one for the operating system (resident monitor, kernel) and one

More information

Chapter 6, The Operating System Machine Level

Chapter 6, The Operating System Machine Level Chapter 6, The Operating System Machine Level 6.1 Virtual Memory 6.2 Virtual I/O Instructions 6.3 Virtual Instructions For Parallel Processing 6.4 Example Operating Systems 6.5 Summary Virtual Memory General

More information

Operating System Tutorial

Operating System Tutorial Operating System Tutorial OPERATING SYSTEM TUTORIAL Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint.com tutorialspoint.com i ABOUT THE TUTORIAL Operating System Tutorial An operating system (OS) is a collection

More information

Last Class: Introduction to Operating Systems. Today: OS and Computer Architecture

Last Class: Introduction to Operating Systems. Today: OS and Computer Architecture Last Class: Introduction to Operating Systems User apps OS Virtual machine interface hardware physical machine interface An operating system is the interface between the user and the architecture. History

More information

PES Institute Of Technology Bangalore South Campus

PES Institute Of Technology Bangalore South Campus PES Institute Of Technology Bangalore South Campus (Hosur Road, 1KM before Electronic City, Bangalore-560 102) Sem: V A and B Date: 27/8/1 Subject & Code: Operating Systems Marks: 50 Name of faculty: Y.

More information

Process Management. Processes. CS 502 Spring 99 WPI MetroWest/Southboro Campus

Process Management. Processes. CS 502 Spring 99 WPI MetroWest/Southboro Campus Process Management CS 502 Spring 99 WPI MetroWest/Southboro Campus Processes Process Concept Process Scheduling Operations on Processes Cooperating Processes Threads Interprocess Communication 1 1 Process

More information

Chapter 3: Operating Systems

Chapter 3: Operating Systems Chapter 3: Operating Systems Computer Science: An Overview Eleventh Edition by J. Glenn Brookshear Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3: Operating Systems 3.1 The History of Operating Systems

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling 1 Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation 6.1 2 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization

More information

CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling

CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Basic Concepts An OS must allocate resources amongst competing processes The resource

More information

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J.

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J. 3 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURES An operating system provides the environment within which programs are executed. The design of a new operating system is a major task. The goals of the system must be well

More information

OPERATING SYSTEMS. IIIT-Hyderabad

OPERATING SYSTEMS. IIIT-Hyderabad OPERATING SYSTEMS IIIT-Hyderabad OVERVIEW Introduction What is an OS/Kernel? Bootstrap program Interrupts and exceptions Volatile and Non volatile storage!!! Process Management What is a process/system

More information

Operating Systems Lecture #6: Process Management

Operating Systems Lecture #6: Process Management Lecture #6: Process Written by based on the lecture series of Dr. Dayou Li and the book Understanding 4th ed. by I.M.Flynn and A.McIver McHoes (2006) Department of Computer Science and Technology,., 2013

More information

III. Process Scheduling

III. Process Scheduling Intended Schedule III. Process Scheduling Date Lecture Hand out Submission 0 20.04. Introduction to Operating Systems Course registration 1 27.04. Systems Programming using C (File Subsystem) 1. Assignment

More information

III. Process Scheduling

III. Process Scheduling III. Process Scheduling 1 Intended Schedule Date Lecture Hand out Submission 0 20.04. Introduction to Operating Systems Course registration 1 27.04. Systems Programming using C (File Subsystem) 1. Assignment

More information

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J. CPU SCHEDULING

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J. CPU SCHEDULING CPU SCHEDULING CPU scheduling is the basis of multiprogrammed operating systems. By switching the CPU among processes, the operating system can make the computer more productive. 6.1 Basic Concepts The

More information

Origins of Operating Systems OS/360. Martin Grund HPI

Origins of Operating Systems OS/360. Martin Grund HPI Origins of Operating Systems OS/360 HPI Table of Contents IBM System 360 Functional Structure of OS/360 Virtual Machine Time Sharing 2 Welcome to Big Blue 3 IBM System 360 In 1964 IBM announced the IBM-360

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Basic Concepts 1 Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling Real-Time Scheduling Algorithm Evaluation 6.1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained

More information

Memory Management. In most schemes, the kernel occupies some fixed portion of main memory and the rest is shared by multiple processes

Memory Management. In most schemes, the kernel occupies some fixed portion of main memory and the rest is shared by multiple processes Memory Management Is the task carried out by the OS and hardware to accommodate multiple processes in main memory If only a few processes can be kept in main memory, then much of the time all processes

More information

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls Types of System Calls System Programs Operating System

More information

Overview Motivating Examples Interleaving Model Semantics of Correctness Testing, Debugging, and Verification

Overview Motivating Examples Interleaving Model Semantics of Correctness Testing, Debugging, and Verification Introduction Overview Motivating Examples Interleaving Model Semantics of Correctness Testing, Debugging, and Verification Advanced Topics in Software Engineering 1 Concurrent Programs Characterized by

More information

Overview and History of Operating Systems

Overview and History of Operating Systems Overview and History of Operating Systems These are the notes for lecture 1. Please review the Syllabus notes before these. Overview / Historical Developments An Operating System... Sits between hardware

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Thread Scheduling Multiple-Processor Scheduling 1.1 Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPU I/O Burst

More information

Introduction to process scheduling. Process scheduling and schedulers Process scheduling criteria Process scheduling algorithms

Introduction to process scheduling. Process scheduling and schedulers Process scheduling criteria Process scheduling algorithms Lecture Overview Introduction to process scheduling Process scheduling and schedulers Process scheduling criteria Process scheduling algorithms First-come, first-serve Shortest-job-first Priority Round-robin

More information

Chapter 3 Operating-System Structures

Chapter 3 Operating-System Structures Contents 1. Introduction 2. Computer-System Structures 3. Operating-System Structures 4. Processes 5. Threads 6. CPU Scheduling 7. Process Synchronization 8. Deadlocks 9. Memory Management 10. Virtual

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System?

Chapter 1: Introduction. What is an Operating System? Chapter 1: Introduction What is an Operating System? Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Computing Environments

More information

Operating System Components and Services

Operating System Components and Services Operating System Components and Services Tom Kelliher, CS 311 Feb. 6, 2012 Announcements: From last time: 1. System architecture issues. 2. I/O programming. 3. Memory hierarchy. 4. Hardware protection.

More information

7 Operating Systems. Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to:

7 Operating Systems. Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning. After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: 7 Operating Systems 7.1 Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: 7.2 Understand the role of the operating system.

More information

Operating System Organization. Purpose of an OS

Operating System Organization. Purpose of an OS Slide 3-1 Operating System Organization Purpose of an OS Slide 3-2 es Coordinate Use of the Abstractions he Abstractions Create the Abstractions 1 OS Requirements Slide 3-3 Provide resource abstractions

More information

Lesson Objectives. To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization

Lesson Objectives. To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization Lesson Objectives To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization AE3B33OSD Lesson 1 / Page 2 What is an Operating System? A

More information

theguard! ApplicationManager System Windows Data Collector

theguard! ApplicationManager System Windows Data Collector theguard! ApplicationManager System Windows Data Collector Status: 10/9/2008 Introduction... 3 The Performance Features of the ApplicationManager Data Collector for Microsoft Windows Server... 3 Overview

More information

Memory Management and Processor Management

Memory Management and Processor Management C H A P T E R 6 Memory Management and Processor Management WHEN YOU FINISH READING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Distinguish between resident and transient routines. Briefly explain concurrency.

More information

Lesson 3: Processes, Threads & CPU Scheduling

Lesson 3: Processes, Threads & CPU Scheduling Lesson 3: Processes, Threads & CPU Scheduling Contents The concept of computing Process Process states and life-cycle CPU Scheduling considerations Processes hierarchy Process creation and termination

More information

CS420: Operating Systems

CS420: Operating Systems CPU Scheduling James Moscola Department of Engineering & Computer Science York College of Pennsylvania Based on Operating System Concepts, 9th Edition by Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne Scheduling Concepts

More information

COSC Operating Systems Design, Fall 2001, Byunggu Yu. Chapter 3 Operating System Structures. 1. OS Components

COSC Operating Systems Design, Fall 2001, Byunggu Yu. Chapter 3 Operating System Structures. 1. OS Components COSC4740-01 Operating Systems Design, Fall 2001, Byunggu Yu Chapter 3 Operating System Structures Process management I/O management Main Memory management File & Storage Management Protection Networking

More information

Announcement. HW#3 will be posted today. Exercise # 4 will be posted on Piazza today.

Announcement. HW#3 will be posted today. Exercise # 4 will be posted on Piazza today. Announcement HW#3 will be posted today. Exercise # 4 will be posted on Piazza today. Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Chapter 7 Memory Management Seventh Edition William Stallings Modified

More information

OPERATING SYSTEMS (OPS)

OPERATING SYSTEMS (OPS) Computing Curricula - Computer Engineering Body of Knowledge 1 OPERATING SYSTEMS (OPS) OPS0. History and overview of operating systems [core] OPS1. Operating system function and design [core] OPS2. Operating

More information

Embedded Systems. Real Time Systems (Part I) Real Time Operating System (RTOS) Definition and Characteristics

Embedded Systems. Real Time Systems (Part I) Real Time Operating System (RTOS) Definition and Characteristics Embedded Systems Real Time Systems (Part I) Dr. Jeff Jackson Lecture 12-1 Real Time Operating System (RTOS) Definition and Characteristics A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS)

More information

AC : TEACHING AN OPERATING SYSTEM COURSE TO CET/EET STUDENTS

AC : TEACHING AN OPERATING SYSTEM COURSE TO CET/EET STUDENTS AC 2009-854: TEACHING AN OPERATING SYSTEM COURSE TO CET/EET STUDENTS Xuefu Zhou, University of Cincinnati American Society for Engineering Education, 2009 Page 14.1124.1 Teaching an Operating System Course

More information

Operating Systems: Basic Concepts and History

Operating Systems: Basic Concepts and History Introduction to Operating Systems Operating Systems: Basic Concepts and History An operating system is the interface between the user and the architecture. User Applications Operating System Hardware Virtual

More information

Chapter 7 Memory Management

Chapter 7 Memory Management Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles Chapter 7 Memory Management Eighth Edition William Stallings Frame Page Segment A fixed-length block of main memory. A fixed-length block of data that

More information

Threads & Introduction to CPU Scheduling

Threads & Introduction to CPU Scheduling Threads & Introduction to CPU Scheduling Mohammad S. Hasan Staffordshire University, UK Threads & Introduction to CPU Scheduling Slide 1 Lecture Outline Definition of a thread and types CPU -I/O burst

More information

GOJAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CS2411-OPERATING SYSTEM QUESTION BANK UNIT-I (PROCESSES AND THREADS)

GOJAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CS2411-OPERATING SYSTEM QUESTION BANK UNIT-I (PROCESSES AND THREADS) GOJAN SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CS2411-OPERATING SYSTEM QUESTION BANK UNIT-I (PROCESSES AND THREADS) 1. What is an Operating system? What are the various OS

More information

Outline: Operating Systems

Outline: Operating Systems Outline: Operating Systems What is an OS OS Functions Multitasking Virtual Memory File Systems Window systems PC Operating System Wars: Windows vs. Linux 1 Operating System provides a way to boot (start)

More information

Lecture Overview. Multiple Processors. Multiple processors. Continuous need for faster computers

Lecture Overview. Multiple Processors. Multiple processors. Continuous need for faster computers Lecture Overview Multiple processors Multiprocessors UMA versus NUMA Hardware configurations OS configurations Process scheduling Multicomputers Interconnection configurations Network interface User-level

More information

Module 8. Industrial Embedded and Communication Systems. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1

Module 8. Industrial Embedded and Communication Systems. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1 Module 8 Industrial Embedded and Communication Systems Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1 Lesson 37 Real-Time Operating Systems: Introduction and Process Management Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 Instructional

More information

CS161: Operating Systems

CS161: Operating Systems CS161: Operating Systems Matt Welsh mdw@eecs.harvard.edu Lecture 2: OS Structure and System Calls February 6, 2007 1 Lecture Overview Protection Boundaries and Privilege Levels What makes the kernel different

More information

spends most its time performing I/O How is thread scheduling different from process scheduling? What are the issues in multiple-processor scheduling?

spends most its time performing I/O How is thread scheduling different from process scheduling? What are the issues in multiple-processor scheduling? CPU Scheduling Outline What is scheduling in the OS? What are common scheduling criteria? How to evaluate scheduling algorithms? What are common scheduling algorithms? How is thread scheduling different

More information

OPERATING SYSTEMS SCHEDULING

OPERATING SYSTEMS SCHEDULING OPERATING SYSTEMS SCHEDULING Jerry Breecher 5: CPU- 1 CPU What Is In This Chapter? This chapter is about how to get a process attached to a processor. It centers around efficient algorithms that perform

More information

2. An Operating System, What For?

2. An Operating System, What For? 2. An Operating System, What For? 2. An Operating System, What For? Operating System Tasks Survey of Operating System Principles 14 / 352 2. An Operating System, What For? Batch Processing Punched Cards

More information

Operating Systems. Rafael Ramirez (T, S) rafael.ramirez@upf.edu 55.316

Operating Systems. Rafael Ramirez (T, S) rafael.ramirez@upf.edu 55.316 Operating Systems Rafael Ramirez (T, S) rafael.ramirez@upf.edu 55.316 Sergio Giraldo(P, S) sergio.giraldo@upf.edu Matteo Segnorini (P, S) matteo.segnorini@upf.edu T=Teoria; S=Seminarios; P=Prácticas Operating

More information

This tutorial will take you through step by step approach while learning Operating System concepts.

This tutorial will take you through step by step approach while learning Operating System concepts. About the Tutorial An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component

More information

Contents. Chapter 1. Introduction

Contents. Chapter 1. Introduction Contents 1. Introduction 2. Computer-System Structures 3. Operating-System Structures 4. Processes 5. Threads 6. CPU Scheduling 7. Process Synchronization 8. Deadlocks 9. Memory Management 10. Virtual

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 7 th Edition, Jan 14, 2005

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling. Operating System Concepts 7 th Edition, Jan 14, 2005 Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Operating System Concepts 7 th Edition, Jan 14, 2005 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2005 Outline Basic Concepts Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms Multiple-Processor Scheduling

More information

Operating Systems PART -A

Operating Systems PART -A Subject Code: Hours/Week : 04 Total Hours : 52 I.A. Marks : 25 Exam Hours: 03 Exam Marks: 100 PART -A UNIT -1 INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEMS, SYSTEM STRUCTURES: What operating systems do; Computer System

More information

University of Waterloo Midterm Examination

University of Waterloo Midterm Examination University of Waterloo Midterm Examination Spring, 2006 Student Name: Student ID Number: Section: Course Abbreviation and Number Course Title CS350 Operating Systems Sections 01 (14:30), 02 (11:30) Instructor

More information

CPU Scheduling Outline

CPU Scheduling Outline CPU Scheduling Outline What is scheduling in the OS? What are common scheduling criteria? How to evaluate scheduling algorithms? What are common scheduling algorithms? How is thread scheduling different

More information

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling

Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling COP 4610: Introduction to Operating Systems (Spring 2016) Chapter 5: CPU Scheduling Zhi Wang Florida State University Contents Basic concepts Scheduling criteria Scheduling algorithms Thread scheduling

More information

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Previous Lectures. Basic Concepts. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts

Chapter 6: CPU Scheduling. Previous Lectures. Basic Concepts. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts Previous Lectures Multithreading Memory Layout Kernel vs User threads Representation in OS Difference between thread and process Thread scheduling Mapping between user and kernel threads Multithreading

More information

Operating System. Lecture Slides By Silberschatz, Galvin & Gagne (8 th Edition) Modified By: Prof. Mitul K. Patel

Operating System. Lecture Slides By Silberschatz, Galvin & Gagne (8 th Edition) Modified By: Prof. Mitul K. Patel Operating System Lecture Slides By Silberschatz, Galvin & Gagne (8 th Edition) Modified By: Prof. Mitul K. Patel Shree Swami Atmanand Saraswati Institute of Technology, Surat January 2012 Outline 1 Chapter

More information

Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu

Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu Overview of Operating Systems Instructor: Dr. Tongping Liu Thank Dr. Dakai Zhu and Dr. Palden Lama for providing their slides. 1 Lecture Outline Operating System: what is it? Evolution of Computer Systems

More information

5.1 Basic Concepts. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts. 5.1 Basic Concepts

5.1 Basic Concepts. Chapter 5: Process Scheduling. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts. 5.1 Basic Concepts 5.1 Basic Concepts Maximum CPU utilization obtained with multiprogramming CPU I/O Burst Cycle Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait CPU burst distribution Chapter 5: Process

More information

CPU Scheduling. CS439: Principles of Computer Systems September 7, 2016

CPU Scheduling. CS439: Principles of Computer Systems September 7, 2016 CPU Scheduling CS439: Principles of Computer Systems September 7, 2016 Last Time A process is a unit of execution Defines an address space An abstraction for protection Processes are represented as Process

More information