CS550. Distributed Operating Systems (Advanced Operating Systems) Instructor: Xian-He Sun

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1 CS550 Distributed Operating Systems (Advanced Operating Systems) Instructor: Xian-He Sun Phone: (312) Office hours: 2:10pm-3:10pm Tuesday, 3:30pm-4:30pm Thursday at SB229C, or by appointment TA: Mr. Cui, Zongjie Office hours: TBA Blackboard: Class Web site CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 1

2 Pre-record Today, 6:25-4:40pm, SB231 CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 2

3 Hardware Concepts Parallel and Distributed Systems tightly coupled loosely coupled Multiprocessors (fast hw network) Multicomputers (slow hw network) Shared-Memory Multiprocessors Distributed-Memory Multiprocessors Homogeneous Multicomputers Heterogeneous Multicomputers UMA NUMA Network of Workstation Workstation Cluster PC Cluster Distributed Systems CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 3

4 Software Concepts User applications Operating system Hardware Virtual machine interface Physical machine interface Operating system: Interface between users and hardware Implements a virtual machine that is easier to program than raw hardware Primary functions: Services: file system, virtual memory, networking, CPU scheduling, Coordination: concurrency, memory protection, security, networking, CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 4

5 Uniprocessor Operating Systems Microkernel architecture Small kernel user-level servers implement additional functionality CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 5

6 Multiprocessor Operating Systems Like a uniprocessor operating system Manage multiple CPUs transparently to the user Each processor has its own hardware cache Maintain consistency of cached data Shared variable versus message passing CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 6

7 Multicomputer Operating Systems More complex than multiprocessor OS Because communication has to be through explicit message passing 1.14 CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 7

8 Network Operating System 1-19 CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 8

9 Network Operating System Employs a client-server model Minimal OS kernel Additional functionality as user processes 1-20 CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 9

10 Network-Operating Systems Users are aware of multiplicity of machines. Access to resources of various machines is done explicitly by Remote logging into the appropriate remote machine. Transferring data from remote machines to local machines, via the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) mechanism. CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 10

11 Distributed Operating System Users not aware of multiplicity of machines. Manages resources in a distributed system Seamlessly and transparently to the user Looks to the user like a centralized OS But operates on multiple independent CPUs Provides transparency Location, migration, concurrency, replication, Presents users with a virtual uniprocessor CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 11

12 Middleware-based Systems General structure of a distributed system as middleware CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 12

13 What is Middleware Software above the operating system but below the application program Middleware refers to the software that is common to multiple applications and builds on the network transport services to enable ready development of new applications and network services CORBA, DCOM, Java RMI, Grid CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 13

14 Middleware Layer CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 14

15 Technical Challenges The changing environment Computing world has changed and middleware has to adapt to this ever changing environment Architecture New technological advances impose changes in established middleware architecture Dynamic configuration Dynamic changes in system configuration will be inherent characteristics of future computing environments. CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 15

16 CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 16

17 Any Questions? CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 17

18 Questions? What is the difference between operating system and (software) system? What is the difference between network OS and Distributed OS? What is the difference between Distributed OS and Distributed (software) system? What is middleware? What is the difference between middleware and Distributed (software) system? CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 18

19 Structure of OSs Five major intellectual achievements Processes Memory management Information protection and security Scheduling and resource management System structure CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 19

20 Process A process is an active entity and is realized by data structure Process space: each process is assigned a virtual address space Text region, the code being executed by the process Data region, holding global variables Stack region, holding execution context of the program Threat User-level threat, system-level threat CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 20

21 CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 21

22 Memory Management Main-memory management Second-storage management I/O system Virtual Memory: allows program to address memory without regard to the amount of main memory physically available CS550: Distributed OS Lecture 1 Page 22

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