Programming for GCSE Topic H: Operating Systems

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1 Programming for GCSE Topic H: Operating Systems William Marsh School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science Queen Mary University of London

2 Aims Introduce Operating Systems Core concepts Processes Memory management Files I/O Creating illusions

3 Teaching Issue Operating Systems are COMPLEX What are the big issues? It's just a PROGRAM It creates ILLUSIONS

4 Syllabus Operating Systems GCSE (OCR) Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the need for the following functions of an operating system: user interface, memory management, peripheral management, multi-tasking and security

5 From AQA A-Level Unit 3 Role of an Operating System Provision of a virtual machine Resource management Understand that the role of the operating system is to hide the complexities of the hardware from the user. In addition, it manages the hardware resources in order to provide for an orderly and controlled allocation of the processors, memories and I/O devices among the various processes competing for them.

6 HISTORY & VARIETY

7 History Mainframes Multi-programming Time sharing Personal computer Now with Mainframe OS

8 Variety of Operating Systems Mainframes IBM z/os, also Linux, Solaris Servers Linux (2/3) and Windows (1/3) Supercomputers PC (desktop, laptop) Phones and PDAs Real-time embedded systems Versions of Linux used from supercomputers to mobiles

9

10

11 Smart Phone OS (from 2011)

12 What's in an OS? United States v Microsoft: Microsoft accused of monopoly behaviour Can IE be bundled with Windows? MS argued that IE part of Windows See:

13 INTERFACE TO THE OPERATING SYSTEM Shell System calls

14 Command Line Command line interface to Operating System Unix shell Windows command prompt Windows Powershell

15 Unix Shell Program that provides simple commands Files: ls, rm, mkdir, rmdir Programming language-like capability Many shells: sh, csh My Mac uses bash : Scripting languages: perl, php, python

16 System Calls The OS is a program Other programs use OS functions Some examples using Python import os, sys!! print("os name:", os.name)! print("platform:", sys.platform)! print("process id:", os.getpid())! print("user id:", os.getuid())! print("file meta data:", os.stat("os1.py"))! print("current directory", os.getcwd())! os.chdir("..")! print("current directory", os.getcwd())!! for root, dirs, files in os.walk('.'):! if len(dirs) > 0 :! print(root, "contains directories:", dirs)!

17 CORE CONCEPTS Processes Managing memory File systems I/O OS structure

18 Processes An instance of a program running A process has Memory Use of resources (I/O) Process can exchange data Processes are created by other processes

19 Why Processes? 1. Multi-tasking A single program must wait for the disk Several programs improves throughput 2. Multi-users Different users share computer One user has multiple programs

20 How Many Programs Run at Once? Uniprocessor only one really Illusion of multiple processes Multiple processes increase throughput Multiple processes allow timesharing Multiprocessors several programs at once Concurrency v parallelism Parallelism: use multiple processors to go faster Concurrency: play music while editing

21 Memory Who? Lots of process sharing memory Who get the memory? Virtual memory Memory as it appears to the program Illusion: your program can use all the memory Physical memory What is really happening underneath

22 Memory Where? Is your data in cache or main memory? What happens when the programs overfill memory? The OS hides these issues from the programmer

23 File Systems Files organised into directories Hierarchy Ownership and protection Attributes Size Dates Illusion: disk is organised into file

24 Unix Command for Files ls list the directory mkdir make a new directory cd change current directory pwd show current directory rm delete a file rmdir delete a directory cp copy a file mv cat move / rename a file look at a file

25 I/O e.g. Disk Disk spins Latency Each rotation ~10ms ~10 7 instructions Operating system functions Throughput: keeps busy while waiting Scheduling File formats: arranges information on disk

26 I/O Buses and Drivers

27 I/O Interrupts Interrupt Avoid waiting for response Process requests OS interfaces to device DRIVER WAIT Device interrupts OS

28 Operating System Structure Principles Operating system calls user programs Kernel: control what runs Library of system calls Services Kernel Able to use all processor instruction & registers

29 EXPLORING OPERATING SYSTEMS Linux in a VM Raspberry Pi

30 Install Linux on a Virtual Machine Host v. guest Virtual machine Oracle virtual box Vmware player Run linux without reboot Memory

31 Virtual Machine How it works

32 SUMMARY

33 What Is An Operating System? Kernel Control of processes Hardware I/O drivers Memory management Services and utilities File systems Network interface System call: programmers interface Shell: simple interface to the OS NO clear division: application or OS?

34 OS is about Illusions Several programs are running simultaneously The computer switches from one to another My program has all the memory The memory is shared between programs Disk is organised in files The disk has blocks; the OS maps file names to blocks Storage devices work the same Files may be arranged differently on magnetic, flash and optical drives OS creates an ideal computer from a real one

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