Hello. Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle

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1 Hello Here are the instructions to complete your second blizzard bag lesson: 1. Read the nonfiction text on the rock cycle 2. Watch the two videos listed here (just click on the link): Answer the comprehension questions. If you do not have access to a printer, please write your answers on notebook paper. This lesson will be a good review of what you already know about the three types of rocks and will help prepare you for our rocks and mineral unit in 6 th grade! You have 2 weeks from the day this lesson is assigned to return it to me. If you have any questions make sure to ask for clarification on a day when class is in session or by or Work hard, have fun, and STAY WARM!!! ;) See you Soon- Mrs. Adcock & Mrs. Hawk

2 The Rock Cycle There are three major classifications of rock: Igneous rock, metamorphic rock and sedimentary rock. The rock cycle is the series of processes by which rocks are transformed from one type to another and continually renewed. The origin of all rock can be ultimately traced back to the solidification of molten magma. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals and compounds commonly found in rocks.

3 Igneous Rock Igneous rock forms when magma and lava cool and make mineral crystals. The texture and appearance of igneous rock depends greatly on how it was formed. Examples of igneous rock include granite, basalt, pumice, and obsidian. Intrusive Igneous Intrusive igneous rock forms underground, within the Earth s crust or mantle, where magma cools slowly. Because it cools slowly, intrusive igneous rock typically has large mineral crystals. Granite is a common type of intrusive igneous rock. The relatively large mineral crystals are easy to see with the naked eye. Extrusive Igneous Extrusive igneous rock forms above ground, as lava and other materials that erupt from volcanoes cool quickly. Because they cool quickly, extrusive igneous rocks have small mineral crystals. Basalt is a common type of extrusive igneous rock. Individual mineral crystals in basalt are small and difficult to see. This image shows fresh basalt as it forms from cooling lava.

4 . Sedimentary Rock Weathering is the breakdown of rock by agents such as wind and water. Erosion is the transportion of the broken rock material, or sediments, to a new location, where it is deposited. Sediments may also contain plant and animal matter. As more sediment is deposited, it stacks up in layers. Eventually, the upper layers put pressure on the lower layers. This causes sediments to pack closer together in a process called compaction. Through the process of cementation, minerals from groundwater form between sediment grains, connecting the grains together to form rock. The rocks formed from deposition, compaction, and cementation of sediment are sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks commonly form as a layers. These rock layers in the Grand Canyon represent a variety of sedimentary rock types, including sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite. Sedimentary rocks often occur in distinct layers and sometimes contain fossils. Sedimentary rocks that are well-cemented hold together well, while poorly cemented rocks tend to crumble more easily. Some common sedimentary rock types include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. Sedimentary rocks that form mainly from chemical processes include limestone and dolomite. Evaporites, such as rock salt, are sedimentary rocks that form when minerals are left behind by evaporating water.

5 Metamorphic Rock The third major classification of rock is appropriately named metamorphic rock. The word metamorphic comes from metamorphosis, which means "transformation" or "change." Tectonic forces can push all types of rocks deeper into the Earth. These rocks are then subjected to extreme heat and pressure. If the rocks do not become hot enough to melt, these conditions can cause the crystal structure and texture of the rocks to change, forming a new kind of rock. Metamorphic rocks are formed from pre-existing rocks which have been changed by the exposure to extreme heat and pressure. Some rocks have certain mineral grains that become flattened and line up in parallel planes or that separate into light and dark compositional bands when exposed to heat and pressure. These scenarios result in foliated metamorphic rocks, such as slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss. Metamorphic rocks without these planes or bands are nonfoliated. Marble is a nonfoliated metamorphic rock that forms from the sedimentary rock limestone. Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that forms from quartz sandstone. Phyllite, pictured above, is an example of a foliated metamorphic rock. Phyllite forms under moderate temperature and pressure conditions relative to other types of metamorphic rocks. **Information obtained from Study Island

6 Study Island Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Generation Date: 01/30/2014 Generated By: Trisha Adcock 1. Which of the following is true about the formation of sedimentary rocks? Sedimentary rocks form in the same manner as igneous rocks. A. Sedimentary rocks form in the same manner as metamorphic rocks. B. Most types of sedimentary rock form from nonliving processes. C. D. all of these 2. The process of sediments being compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rocks is called A. deposition. B. lithification. C. metamorphism.

7 D. crystallization. 3. Which choice below shows the steps of the formation of sedimentary rock in the correct order? A. weathering erosion deposition compaction/cementation B. erosion weathering deposition compaction/cementation C. compaction/cementation erosion weathering deposition D. weathering erosion compaction/cementation deposition 4. Which of the following are most important for the formation of sedimentary rock? A. wind and crystallization B. compaction and cementation C. high temperatures D. eruption and fossilization 5. Rocks are made of minerals, and they are formed in different ways.

8 According to the diagram above, how are igneous rocks formed? Other rocks experience intense heat and pressure. A. Molten rock cools and turns solid. B. Sand and other particles are buried, compacted, and cemented together. C. Wastes deposited by plants and animals decompose and weather. D. 6. Metamorphic rocks are formed when sedimentary or igneous rocks are subjected to heat or pressure and recrystallize without melting. Which of the following rocks results from the metamorphism of limestone? A. sandstone B. marble C. slate D. granite

9 7. Igneous rocks are made of a mixture of materials made from both living and nonliving processes. A. fossil fuels and other materials that came from once-living things. B. materials that came from living things and that accumulated on the seafloor. C. materials that crystallized from magma or lava, not from once-living things. D. 8. Which type of rock is formed as a result of lava cooling quickly? A. extrusive igneous rock B. shale C. intrusive igneous rock D. marble 9. Metamorphic rock forms from the nonliving process of melting. A. nonliving processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition. B. living process of shell formation. C. nonliving processes of heating and pressurization. D.

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