Metamorphic rocks. The term metamorphic is derived from the Latin term meaning, "change of form".

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1 Metamorphic rocks The term metamorphic is derived from the Latin term meaning, "change of form". These rocks have been altered while in their solid state as a response to the environment. 1 Extreme circumstances of pressure and temperature, or an introduction of certain chemicals, can cause the existing rocks minerals to recrystallize, and they may even become different minerals all together. 2 1

2 Metamorphic rocks The metamorphics get their name from "meta" (change) and "morph" (form). Any rock can become a metamorphic rock

3 Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed" into another kindof rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. 5 How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change? The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which h fosters heat tbuild up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you'll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock are. 6 3

4 7 Classification of Metamorphic Rocks As with igneous and sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks are classified according to their texture and mineral composition, with texture being the predominant characteristic. Metamorphic rocks can be subdivided id d into: Foliated (or layered), and Nonfoliated (those that are not layered). 8 4

5 Foliation 9 Foliated Metamorphic Rocks Foliation: alignment of mineral from directed stress. Foliated Metamorphic Rocks: Slate Schist Gneiss 10 5

6 Slate Slate is a metamorphic rock that is formed when shales and clays are put under great pressure and heated inside the earth for millions of years. Like shale, it splits apart into sheets, which means that it has good cleavage. Slate is usually gray or black and is used to make blackboards and roofing tiles. It is also used to make the table tops for the best pool tables. 11 Slate 12 6

7 A small slate sample showing slaty cleavage. 13 The differences between slate and shale. 14 7

8 Schist Schists are usually named by the main mineral from which they are formed. Bitotite mica schist, hornblende schist, garnet mica schist, and talc schist are some examples of this. Because it has been squeezed harder than slate it is often found folded and crumpled. 15 Schist Rocks 16 8

9 Biotite schist 17 Gneiss These rocks may have been granite, which is an igneous rock, but heat and pressure changed it. 18 9

10 Gneiss You can see how the mineral grains in the rock were flattened through tremendous heat and pressure and are arranged in alternating patterns. 19 GNEISS 20 10

11 Nonfoliated texture Metamorphic rocks with no visible preferred orientation ti of mineral grains have a nonfoliated texture. 21 Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocks As opposed to the foliated metamorphic rocks, the nonfoliated rocks are not distinctly layered

12 Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocks QUARTZITE The parent rock for quartzite is quartz rich sandstone. As sandstone becomes deeply buried, rising temperature will fuse the quartz grains together forming the extremely hard and weather resistant rock quartzite. Quartzite comes in many colors, but when pure it is light colored. Quartzite tends to have a sugary appearance. 23 QUARTZITE 24 12

13 A comparison of quartzite to quartzsandstone. Note that individual sand grains are readily visible on the surface of the sandstone, but not on the quartzite. 25 Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rocks MARBLE The parent rock for marble is limestone. As temperature and pressure increaseon a body of limestone underground, calcite crystals begin to fuse together and recrystallize. Marble is an excellent building stone due to its uniform texture, softness (calcite is a 3.5 on Mohs hardness scale), and inherent beauty

14 Marble Marble is strong and can be polished to a beautiful luster. It is widely used for buildings and statues. As you can see from the picture, marble has a very sparkly luster. Marble can be any color (such as white, pink, gray, red, yellow or black) based on the impurities that may have existed in the original limestone rock. 27 Marble 28 14

15 Anthracite It forms during mountain building when compaction and friction are extremely high. This form of coal burns very hot and almost smokeless. It is used in the production of high grade steel

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