# Redes de Telecomunicações (11382)

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1 Redes de Telecomunicações (11382) Ano Lectivo 2014/2015 * 1º Semestre! Pós Graduação em Information and Communication Technologies for Cloud and Datacenter! UNIVERSIDADE DA BEIRA INTERIOR Faculdade de Engenharia Departamento de Informática! Aula 9 1! Nuno M. Garcia,

2 Redes de Telecomunicações Agenda Routing e Static Routing (adaptado do capítulo 1 e capítulo 2 do curso CCNA2 da Academia Cisco da UBI) outros assuntos?! UNIVERSIDADE DA BEIRA INTERIOR Faculdade de Engenharia Departamento de Informática 2! Nuno M. Garcia,

3 Chapter 8: IP Addressing Introduction to Networks

4 Chapter Introduction 8.1 IPv4 Network Addresses 8.2 IPv6 Network Addresses 8.3 Connectivity Verification 8.4 Summary

7 IPv4 Address Structure Binary Notation Binary notation refers to the fact that computers communicate in 1s and 0s Positional notation - converting binary to decimal requires an understanding of the mathematical basis of a numbering system

8 IPv4 Address Structure Binary Number System

12 IPv4 Address Structure Converting from Decimal to Binary 168 =? binary

13 IPv4 Address Structure Converting from Decimal to Binary (Cont.)

14 IPv4 Subnet Mask Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address To define the network and host portions of an address, a devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask! The subnet mask does not actually contain the network or host portion of an IPv4 address, it just says where to look for these portions in a given IPv4 address

15 IPv4 Subnet Mask Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address (cont. Valid Subnet Masks

16 IPv4 Subnet Mask Examining the Prefix Length

17 IPv4 Subnet Mask Examining the Prefix Length (cont.)

20 IPv4 Subnet Mask Bitwise AND Operation 1 AND 1 = 1 1 AND 0 = 0 0 AND 1 = 0 0 AND 0 = 0

21 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host LAN Interface Properties Configuring a Static IPv4 Address

22 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host Verification DHCP The preferred method of assigning IPv4 addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors.

23 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Unicast Transmission In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways: Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast #1 Unicast the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host.

24 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Broadcast Transmission In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways: Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast. #2 Broadcast the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network. NOTE: Routers do not forward a limited broadcast! Directed broadcast Destination Hosts within the /24 network Directed broadcast Destination Hosts within the /24 network

25 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Multicast Transmission In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways: Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast. #3 Multicast The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts, possibly in different networks. Reduces traffic Reserved for addressing multicast groups to Link local to (Example: routing information exchanged by routing protocols) Globally scoped addresses to (Example: has been reserved for Network Time Protocol)

26 Types of IPv4 Address Public and Private IPv4 Addresses Private address blocks are: Hosts that do not require access to the Internet can use private addresses to ( /8) to ( /12) to ( /16)! Shared address space addresses: Not globally routable Intended only for use in service provider networks Address block is /10

29 Types of IPv4 Address Legacy Classful Addressing (cont.) Classless Addressing Formal name is Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR, pronounced cider Created a new set of standards that allowed service providers to allocate IPv4 addresses on any address bit boundary (prefix length) instead of only by a class A, B, or C address

30 Types of IPv4 Address Assignment of IP Addresses Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)

31 Types of IPv4 Address Assignment of IP Addresses (Cont.) ISPs are large national or international ISPs that are directly connected to the Internet backbone. Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. Tier 3 ISPs often bundle Internet connectivity as a part of network and computer service contracts for their customers. Tier 3 ISPs purchase their Internet service from Tier 2 ISPs.

33 IPv4 Issues The Need for IPv6 IPv6 is designed to be the successor to IPv4. Depletion of IPv4 address space has been the motivating factor for moving to IPv6. Projections show that all five RIRs will run out of IPv4 addresses between 2015 and With an increasing Internet population, a limited IPv4 address space, issues with NAT and an Internet of things, the time has come to begin the transition to IPv6! IPv4 has a theoretical maximum of 4.3 billion addresses, plus private addresses in combination with NAT. IPv6 larger 128-bit address space provides for 340 undecillion addresses. IPv6 fixes the limitations of IPv4 and includes additional enhancements, such as ICMPv6.

34 IPv4 Issues IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence The migration techniques can be divided into three categories: Dual-stack, Tunnelling, and Translation. Dual-stack Dual-stack: Allows IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist on the same network. Devices run both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks simultaneously.

35 IPv4 Issues IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence (cont.) Tunnelling Tunnelling: A method of transporting an IPv6 packet over an IPv4 network. The IPv6 packet is encapsulated inside an IPv4 packet.

36 IPv4 Issues IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence (cont.) Translation Translation: The Network Address Translation 64 (NAT64) allows IPv6- enabled devices to communicate with IPv4-enabled devices using a translation technique similar to NAT for IPv4. An IPv6 packet is translated to an IPv4 packet, and vice versa.

37 IPv6 Addressing Hexadecimal Number System Hexadecimal is a base sixteen system. Base 16 numbering system uses the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F. Four bits (half of a byte) can be represented with a single hexadecimal value.

38 IPv6 Addressing Hexadecimal Number System (cont.) Look at the binary bit patterns that match the decimal and hexadecimal values

39 IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Address Representation 128 bits in length and written as a string of hexadecimal values In IPv6, 4 bits represents a single hexadecimal digit, 32 hexadecimal value = IPv6 address!! 2001:0DB8:0000:1111:0000:0000:0000:0200 FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF Hextet used to refer to a segment of 16 bits or four hexadecimals Can be written in either lowercase or uppercase

41 IPv6 Addressing Rule 1- Omitting Leading 0s The first rule to help reduce the notation of IPv6 addresses is any leading 0s (zeros) in any 16-bit section or hextet can be omitted. 01AB can be represented as 1AB. 09F0 can be represented as 9F0. 0A00 can be represented as A00. 00AB can be represented as AB.

42 IPv6 Addressing Rule 2 - Omitting All 0 Segments A double colon (::) can replace any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments (hextets) consisting of all 0 s. Double colon (::) can only be used once within an address otherwise the address will be ambiguous. Known as the compressed format. Incorrect address :0DB8::ABCD::1234.

43 IPv6 Addressing Rule 2 - Omitting All 0 Segments (cont.) Example #1!!!!! Example #2

44 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Prefix Length IPv6 does not use the dotted-decimal subnet mask notation Prefix length indicates the network portion of an IPv6 address using the following format: IPv6 address/prefix length Prefix length can range from 0 to 128 Typical prefix length is /64

46 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Unicast Addresses Unicast Uniquely identifies an interface on an IPv6-enabled device. A packet sent to a unicast address is received by the interface that is assigned that address.

48 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Unicast Addresses (cont.) Global Unicast Similar to a public IPv4 address Globally unique Internet routable addresses Can be configured statically or assigned dynamically Link-local Used to communicate with other devices on the same local link Confined to a single link; not routable beyond the link

49 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Unicast Addresses (cont.) Loopback Used by a host to send a packet to itself and cannot be assigned to a physical interface. Ping an IPv6 loopback address to test the configuration of TCP/IP on the local host. All-0s except for the last bit, represented as ::1/128 or just ::1. Unspecified Address All-0 s address represented as ::/128 or just :: Cannot be assigned to an interface and is only used as a source address. An unspecified address is used as a source address when the device does not yet have a permanent IPv6 address or when the source of the packet is irrelevant to the destination.

50 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Unicast Addresses (cont.) Unique Local Similar to private addresses for IPv4. Used for local addressing within a site or between a limited number of sites. In the range of FC00::/7 to FDFF::/7. IPv4 Embedded (not covered in this course) Used to help transition from IPv4 to IPv6.

51 Types of IPv6 Addresses IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses Every IPv6-enabled network interface is REQUIRED to have a linklocal address Enables a device to communicate with other IPv6-enabled devices on the same link and only on that link (subnet) FE80::/10 range, first 10 bits are xx xxxx (FE80) (FEBF)

53 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address IPv6 global unicast addresses are globally unique and routable on the IPv6 Internet Equivalent to public IPv4 addresses ICANN allocates IPv6 address blocks to the five RIRs

54 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (cont.) Currently, only global unicast addresses with the first three bits of 001 or 2000::/3 are being assigned

55 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (cont.) A global unicast address has three parts: Global Routing Prefix, Subnet ID, and Interface ID. Global Routing Prefix is the prefix or network portion of the address assigned by the provider, such as an ISP, to a customer or site, currently, RIR s assign a /48 global routing prefix to customers. 2001:0DB8:ACAD::/48 has a prefix that indicates that the first 48 bits (2001:0DB8:ACAD) is the prefix or network portion.

56 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (cont.) Subnet ID is used by an organization to identify subnets within its site Interface ID Equivalent to the host portion of an IPv4 address. Used because a single host may have multiple interfaces, each having one or more IPv6 addresses.

58 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Static Configuration of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (cont.) Windows IPv6 Setup

59 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using SLAAC Stateless Address Autoconfiguraton (SLAAC) A method that allows a device to obtain its prefix, prefix length and default gateway from an IPv6 router No DHCPv6 server needed Rely on ICMPv6 Router Advertisement (RA) messages! IPv6 routers Forwards IPv6 packets between networks Can be configured with static routes or a dynamic IPv6 routing protocol Sends ICMPv6 RA messages

60 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using SLAAC (cont.) The IPv6 unicast-routing command enables IPv6 routing. RA message can contain one of the following three options: SLAAC Only Uses the information contained in the RA message. SLAAC and DHCPv6 Uses the information contained in the RA message and get other information from the DHCPv6 server, stateless DHCPv6 (for example, DNS). DHCPv6 only The device should not use the information in the RA, stateful DHCPv6. Routers send ICMPv6 RA messages using the link-local address as the source IPv6 address

61 IPv6 Unicast Addresses Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using SLAAC (cont.)

62 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Similar to IPv4 Automatically receives addressing information, including a global unicast address, prefix length, default gateway address and the addresses of DNS servers using the services of a DHCPv6 server. Device may receive all or some of its IPv6 addressing information from a DHCPv6 server depending upon whether option 2 (SLAAC and DHCPv6) or option 3 (DHCPv6 only) is specified in the ICMPv6 RA message. Host may choose to ignore whatever is in the router s RA message and obtain its IPv6 address and other information directly from a DHCPv6 server.

63

64 EUI-64 Process Uses a client s 48-bit Ethernet MAC address and inserts another 16 bits in the middle of the 46-bit MAC address to create a 64-bit Interface ID. Advantage is that the Ethernet MAC address can be used to determine the interface; is easily tracked.! EUI-64 Interface ID is represented in binary and comprises three parts: 24-bit OUI from the client MAC address, but the 7 th bit (the Universally/ Locally bit) is reversed (0 becomes a 1). Inserted as a 16-bit value FFFE. 24-bit device identifier from the client MAC address.

65

66

67 Randomly Generated Interface IDs Depending upon the operating system, a device can use a randomly generated Interface ID instead of using the MAC address and the EUI-64 process. Beginning with Windows Vista, Windows uses a randomly generated Interface ID instead of one created with EUI-64. Windows XP (and previous Windows operating systems) used EUI-64.

74 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses IPv6 multicast addresses have the prefix FF00::/8 There are two types of IPv6 multicast addresses: Assigned multicast Solicited node multicast

75 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses (cont.) Two common IPv6 assigned multicast groups include: FF02::1 All-nodes multicast group All IPv6-enabled devices join Same effect as an IPv4 broadcast address FF02::2 All-routers multicast group All IPv6 routers join A router becomes a member of this group when it is enabled as an IPv6 router with the ipv6 unicast-routing global configuration mode command. A packet sent to this group is received and processed by all IPv6 routers on the link or network.

77 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Solicited Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses Similar to the all-nodes multicast address, matches only the last 24 bits of the IPv6 global unicast address of a device Automatically created when the global unicast or linklocal unicast addresses are assigned Created by combining a special FF02:0:0:0:0:0:FF00::/104 prefix with the right-most 24 bits of its unicast address

78 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Solicited Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses (cont.) The solicited node multicast address consists of two parts: FF02:0:0:0:0:0:FF00::/104 multicast prefix First 104 bits of the all solicited node multicast address Least significant 24-bits Copied from the right-most 24 bits of the global unicast or link-local unicast address of the device

79 8.3 Connectivity Verification

80 ICMP ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages ICMP messages common to both ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 include: Host confirmation Destination or Service Unreachable Time exceeded Route redirection Although IP is not a reliable protocol, the TCP/IP suite does provide for messages to be sent in the event of certain errors, sent using the services of ICMP.

85 Testing and Verification Ping Testing the Local Stack

86 Testing and Verification Ping Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN

87 Testing and Verification Ping Testing Connectivity to Remote

88 Testing and Verification Traceroute Testing the Path Traceroute Generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path. Provides important verification and troubleshooting information. If the data reaches the destination, then the trace lists the interface of every router in the path between the hosts. If the data fails at some hop along the way, the address of the last router that responded to the trace can provide an indication of where the problem or security restrictions are found. Provides round-trip time for each hop along the path and indicates if a hop fails to respond.

89 IP Addressing Summary IP addresses are hierarchical with network, subnetwork, and host portions. An IP address can represent a complete network, a specific host, or the broadcast address of the network. The subnet mask or prefix is used to determine the network portion of an IP address. Once implemented, an IP network needs to be tested to verify its connectivity and operational performance. DHCP enables the automatic assignment of addressing information such as IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and other configuration information.

90 IP Addressing Summary (cont.) IPv4 hosts can communicate one of three different ways: unicast, broadcast, and multicast. The private IPv4 address blocks are: /8, /12, and /16. The depletion of IPv4 address space is the motivating factor for moving to IPv6. Each IPv6 address has 128 bits verses the 32 bits in an IPv4 address. The prefix length is used to indicate the network portion of an IPv6 address using the following format: IPv6 address/prefix length.

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