# WF101: RF Essentials. Jared Hofhiens RF Embedded Product Manager

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1 WF101: RF Essentials Jared Hofhiens RF Embedded Product Manager

2 RF Essentials Basic communication system Transmitter & receiver Transmitter Receiver

3 RF Essentials Basic communication system Transmitter & receiver Transmitting antenna Receiving antenna Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Transmitter Receiver

4 RF Essentials Basic communication system Transmitter & receiver Transmitting antenna Receiving antenna Environment Environment Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Transmitter Receiver

5 How low can you go? RX Sensitivity Receiver sensitivity is a measure of how well the receiver performs and is defined as the power of the weakest signal the receiver can detect

6 TX Power Total net output power of transmitter Typically measured in dbm or mw mw: milliwatts are a measurement of power (1000 mw = 1 Watt). db: decibel is a unit for expressing the ratio of two amounts of signal power equal to 10 times the common logarithm of this ratio. So, a power measurement in db has to be relative to something. dbm: db(mw) is power relative to 1 milliwatt (mw to dbm = 10Log 10 (mw/1000) + 30). dbi: db(isotropic) is the forward gain of an antenna compared to the hypothetical isotropic antenna, which uniformly distributes energy in all directions. dbd: db(dipole) is the forward gain of an antenna compared to a half-wave dipole antenna.

7 dbm to mw Conversion

8 Pop Quiz 0 dbm =?

9 Pop Quiz 30 dbm =?

10 Pop Quiz -10 dbm =?

11 Maximizing range RF Essentials Increase TX (transmit) power Government regulated Low-powered applications Environment Increase Power Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Receiver

12 Maximizing range RF Essentials Increase TX (transmit) power Improve RX (receive) sensitivity Specified in dbm Every 6 db doubles RF link s range (line-of-sight) Every 12 db doubles RF link s range in indoor/urban environments Environment Antenna 1 Increase Antenna 2 Improve Power RX Sensitivity

13 Maximizing range RF Essentials Increase TX (transmit) power Improve RX (receive) sensitivity Increase antenna gain More gain means more directionality (good and bad) Antenna cables should be as short as possible Government regulated EIRP (TX pwr + antenna gain) Environment Increase Power Increase Gain Increase Gain Improve RX Sensitivity

14 Maximizing range RF Essentials Increase TX (transmit) power Improve RX (receive) sensitivity Increase antenna gain Clear environment of obstructions Visual (linear) line-of-sight vs. RF (radio) line-of-sight Environment Increase Power Increase Gain Increase Gain Improve RX Sensitivity

15 Fresnel Zone Football-shaped path RF Essentials Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Transmitter Receiver

16 Fresnel Zone RF Essentials Football-shaped path Acceptable = 60% of Zone meters A B

17 RF Essentials Fresnel Zone Football-shaped path Acceptable = 60% of Zone meters Raise antennas to help clear the zone

18 Fresnel Zone RF Essentials Football-shaped path Acceptable = 60% of Zone meters Raise antennas to help clear the zone Formula - use an online Fresnel Zone calculator

19 RF Essentials Fresnel Zone diameters Range Distance 900 MHz Modems Required Fresnel Zone Diameter 2.4 GHz Modems Required Fresnel Zone Diameter 1000 ft. (300 m) 16 ft. (5 m) 11 ft. (3.4 m) 1 Mile (1.6 km) 32 ft. (10 m) 21 ft. (6.4 m) 5 Miles (8 km) 68 ft. (21 m) 43 ft. (13 m) 10 Miles (16 km) 95 ft. (29 m) 59 ft. (18 m)

20 Antenna gain Antennas Directional antennas FOCUS energy: they DO NOT ADD energy

21 Antenna Gain Antennas Omni-directional antennas FOCUS energy: they DO NOT ADD energy

22 Antenna Gain Antennas Omni-directional antennas FOCUS energy: they DO NOT ADD energy

23 Conducted Power vs. EIRP Conducted: the TX Power of the RF module EIRP: EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) is the effective power of radio + antenna +

24 The Datasheet War TX Power: Is this conducted or EIRP? RX Sensitivity: db for db, RX Sensitivity increases range as much as TX Power Add TX Power + (-RX Sensitivity) for full link budget Current Draw: Is this the full TX current draw?

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