Radio-Tracking of Birds: Regulation and Ruling of Radio Frequencies

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1 Radio-Tracking of Birds: Regulation and Ruling of Radio Frequencies Animal Tracking Hula Valley 7-9 Nov 1 Dr. Haim Mazar; Israeli Ministry of Communications Vice Chairman ITU-R Study Group 1 (Spectrum Management ) Animal Tracking Hula Valley

2 Assisting Ohad Hatzofe (Israel Nature and arks Auth.) to ring a elican in Kibbutz Hazorea near Megiddo; 30 Nov 10 Animal Tracking Hula Valley

3 Gilad Friedman, Or Mazar & Omer Mazar w. Guilad Fiedmann Getting telemetry GS position from long legged buzzard Lachish 6 May11 3 Animal Tracking Hula Valley

4 Telemetry on Short-toed eagle 4 4

5 Max range is about 15km free line of sight or 300m in a dense forest Radio dataloggers specs output power: 10dBm RF: MHz Occupied bandwidth :390kHz e-obs Animal Dataloggers 5 Radio Basestation specs way (local) output power: 17dBm RF: MHz Occupied radio-tracking bandwidth of birds: RF regulation :118kHz and ruling

6 TT g Argos/GS Specifications GS location, also TOA RF: MHz ± 36 khz emitting 1 direction to Argos non-geo satellites; worldwide acquisition including doppler shift for small birds ower output: 00mW Output impedance: 50 ohms Modulation Tri hase SK: ± 1.1 Rad ± 0.1 Rad Transmission interval: 45 to 10 sec 6

7 Microwave Telemetry GSM Transmitter s is GSM0-70; version sent 70g solar Argos/GS TT: The maximum power output is W. It is quad band at 850/900/1800/1900 MHz FCC ID: QIBGS Industry Canada #: 7830A-BGS IMEI:

8 ITU 3 Regions 8 8

9 ERC Rec Relating to the use of Short Range Devices (SRD): annex 1: non-specific SRD 9 October 01 f f1 f Frequency Band ower / Magnetic Field Spectrum access and mitigation requirements MHz 10 mw e.r.p. < 10 % duty cycle (note 1) MHz 1 mw e.r.p. -13 dbm/10 khz No requirement except for (note 4bis) MHz 10 mw e.r.p. No requirement except for (note 4bis) MHz (note 3 and 4) 5 mw e.r.p. 0.1% duty cycle or LBT (note 1 and 5) g 5 mw e.r.p. ower density : dbm/100 khz (note 7) 0.1% duty cycle or LBT+AFA (note 1, 5 and 6) 5 mw e.r.p. 0.1% duty cycle or LBT+AFA (note 1 and 5) g MHz (note 4) 5 mw e.r.p. 1% duty cycle or LBT+AFA (note 1) g MHz (note 4) 5 mw e.r.p. 0.1% duty cycle or LBT+AFA (note 1) g MHz 500 mw e.r.p. 10% duty cycle or LBT+AFA (note 1) g MHz (note 4bis) 5 mw e.r.p. 5 mw e.r.p. No requirement up to 1% duty cycle or LBT+AFA (note 1) h MHz 10 mw e.i.r.p. No requirement i MHz 5 mw e.i.r.p. No requirement 9 9

10 Rec annex : Tracking, Tracing & Data Acquisition Frequency Band ower / Magnetic Field Spectrum access and mitigation requirements Channel spacing Notes c MHz 500 mw e.r.p. < 1% duty cycle Max 50 khz Asset Tracking and Tracing ann. 11: Radio Frequency Identification Applications, inc. tracking Frequency Band ower / Magnetic Field Spectrum access and mitigation requirements Channel spacing a MHz 500 mw e.i.r.p. No requirement No spacing a MHz >500 mw-4 W e.i.r.p 15% duty cycle FHSS techniques should be used No spacing Notes ower levels above 500 mw are restricted to be used inside the boundaries of a building and the duty cycle of all transmissions shall in this case be 15 % in any 00 ms period (30 ms on /170 ms off). b MHz 100 mw e.r.p. No requirement 00 khz b MHz W e.r.p. No requirement 00 khz b MHz 500 mw e.r.p. No requirement 00 khz 10 10

11 Amos-3 Global Ku & Ka footprints; 1 Sat. covers 40 % of earth 11 11

12 ropagation loss: rofile Maccabim-Jerusalem 1

13 Free Space loss, power L=ropagationLoss; t =T x ower, r =R x ower; d=distance, λ=wavelength, A e =Effective ant. area Assuming g r & g t = 1, at d, power density = A e L( db) 4 gr 10log km 4d m MHz L t r 4d 0log ( t 4d t t 4π d L( db) 0 log( d km / ) log d 0 log km ) 4 L( db) 0 log d f log d 0 log km m f MHz 4d g E 0 d t 30 EiR d

14 14 Radar free-space basic transmission loss d G G d d G d G A FD Transmit T T T received T T e TARGET L = log f + 40 log d 10 log σ (db) σ: radar target cross-section d: distance from the radar to the target λ: wave length d: distance (km) f :frequency (MHz) 4 3 ) 4 ( d G Transmit received

15 Doppler Shift Signal scattered from target differs from the transmitter s frequency; Doppler shift depends on the range rate toward emitter 1 way Doppler shift way Doppler shift f f doppler doppler v v close close f f tr tr v v v v close signal close signal 15

16 Ranging, Doppler Shift; Ambiguity balance d=v x Δt Δt=d/v Ambiguity when Δt=d/v=1/prf f doppler v close f tr v v close signal Ambiguity f doppler =prf 16

17 Caesar Vespasianus,Flavius Josephus, Yodfat Siege Regulation, ruling and fees of RF in Israel Licenses, type-approval, acceptance & temporarily approvals Like Europe in Region 1, but American land mobiles 17

18 Fresnel zone The Fresnel zone is the ellipsoid that stretches between the two antennas; locus of points such that the difference between the direct path AB and the indirect path ACB is half the wavelength. λ = The wavelength of the transmitted signal F n is the n th Fresnel zone radius d ( AB )= d 1 ( A )+ d ( B ), F gets the same unit as λ, d 1 and d (e.g. meter). Units: d 1, d, λ in metres F n = nd1d d d 1 For f : frequency (GHz); d, d 1, d : path lengths (km) F 1 is the radius of the first Fresnel ellipsoid, in metres F 3 is the radius of the third Fresnel ellipsoid, in metres d1 d fd F = F n F 1 n d d 1 F 3 30 fd The First Fresnel zone The Fresnel Ellipsoid 18

19 University of Washington (John Burt, thru Sivan Toledo) RF 433 MHz to MHz BW up to 1 MHz Modulation: FSK, MSK (similar Gaussian minimum shift keying; continuous phase frequency shift keyed (CFSK), OOK (On-off keying) ower output 10 mw (10 dbm) 19

20 תודה על ההקשבה 0 0

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