# Antennas 101 The Basics. Ward Silver NØAX

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Antennas 101 The Basics Ward Silver NØAX

2 The Basics - 1 Antennas radiate (or receive) because electrons are accelerated (or are caused to accelerate) in the antenna s elements Radio or electromagnetic waves are both an E- (electric) and H- (magnetic) field Electrons move parallel to E-fields Strongest radiation from accelerating electrons linearly (back and forth) Antennas 101 2

3 The Basics - 2 The orientation of the E-field determines the polarization of the wave because that s what makes the electrons move (current) Antennas transmit & receive radio waves in the same way The radiation pattern shows how antennas distribute energy in space Antennas 101 3

4 The Basics - 3 decibels (db) = 10 log (power ratio) Impedance = ratio of Voltage to Current Feed point - place where power is applied Antennas 101 4

5 The Basics db from the maximum gain reference value Azimuthal Pattern Antennas 101 5

6 The Basics - 5 Elevation Pattern Antennas 101 6

7 The Basics - 6 Front-to-Back, Front-to-Side, and Frontto-Rear ratios Front-to-Rear ratio based on an average across 90 or 180 degrees behind the antenna in the pattern s rear quadrant(s) Antennas 101 7

8 The Basics - 6 Rear Back Front Side Antennas 101 8

9 The Basics - 6 Beamwidth - angular width of main lobe Angle between the two points at which power is ½ that at the peak (-3 db points) Antennas 101 9

10 The Basics db Beamwidth 68 Antennas

11 The Basics - 7 Gain measures re-distribution of energy Gain is a comparison of antennas Gain is always with respect to a reference dbi (isotropic), dbd (free-space /2 dipole) /2 dipole has 2.15 dbi gain Ground-plane gain equivalent to /2 dipole 3-element Yagi may have up to 5 dbd gain Antennas

12 QUESTIONS?? Antennas

13 The Dipole - 1 Oldest and simplest form of antenna Di (two) Pole (voltage polarity) Usually 1/2-wavelength long Similar to a vibrating string s fundamental Current maximum in the middle Voltage maximum at the ends Pattern repeats every 1/2-wavelength Direction or amplitude is reversed Antennas

14 The Dipole - 2 Current maximum (I) feed point Voltage minimum (V) 1/2 wavelength IMPORTANT!!! V I A /2 B C /2 /2 Antennas

15 The Dipole - 3 Free-space wavelength ( ) = c / f or 300 / f in MHz (in meters) /2 = 492 / f in MHz (in feet) Length-to-diameter effect Makes the antenna a little longer electrically Thicker conductors are longer electrically Effect of height on electrical length 460/f to 490/f (rarely 468/f) Antennas

16 The Dipole - 4 Radiated energy is strongest perpendicular to an electron s motion electrons move along the length of a dipole radiation strongest broadside to the dipole Antennas

17 The Dipole - 4 Directions of Minimum Radiation Directions of Maximum Radiation Dipole Axis Radiation Pattern Antennas

18 The Dipole - 5 Feed point impedance varies with position High at the ends and low in the middle Resonance feed point impedance all resistive, no reactance Z = R + j 0 ohms Doesn t matter what R is (any value, not just 50 Ω) Antennas

19 The Dipole - 5 Current Maximum (I) feed point Voltage Minimum (V) 1/2 wavelength High Z Low Z H L H V L I H A /2 B C /2 /2 Antennas

20 The Dipole - 6 Inverted-Vee is a bent dipole Radiation pattern adds the effect of ground gain from reflections Can add as much as 6 db over free space Free-space gain best comparative measure Ground gain varies with height and with ground conductivity Antennas

21 The Dipole /2 ground Inverted-Vee Radiation Pattern /2 Antennas

22 QUESTIONS?? Antennas

23 The Ground Plane - 1 Start with a vertical dipole in free-space Cut off one half of the dipole Replace the missing half with a ground plane or counterpoise Omnidirectional if oriented vertically Also called a monopole Antennas

24 The Ground Plane - 2 Antennas

25 The Ground Plane - 3 Antennas

26 The Ground Plane - 4 Equal radiation broadside Nulls along the axis Antennas

27 The Ground Plane - 5 Length (ft) 234 / f (MHz) 231 / f if #14 wire used, if 5/8 tubing Feed point impedance 35 Ω if radials used, sloping increases feed point impedance approximately 45 of droop gives best match halfway between dipole (72 Ω) and ground plane (35 Ω) Antennas

28 Useful References and Books ARRL Publications Antenna Book, Basic Antennas Compendium and Classics series RSGB Publications Practical Wire Antennas and HF Antennas for all Locations CQ Communications Sevick s and Maxwell s books on xmsn lines, baluns Vertical Handbook, All About Quads Antennas

29 Useful On-Line References ARRL Technical Information Service AC6V.com and Dxzone.com L.B. Cebik s web site - Part of the Antennex.com site (subscription) Antennas and TowerTalk reflectors at Antennas

30 Thank You! Antennas

### Basic Wire Antennas. Part II: Loops and Verticals

Basic Wire Antennas Part II: Loops and Verticals A loop antenna is composed of a single loop of wire, greater than a half wavelength long. The loop does not have to be any particular shape. RF power can

### Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking

Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking Larry B Kuechle, Advanced Telemetry Systems, Inc. Isanti, Minnesota 55040 lkuechle@atstrack.com The receiving antenna is an integral part of any radio location

### Antenna Glossary Before we talk about specific antennas, there are a few common terms that must be defined and explained:

Antenna Basics Introduction Antennas are a very important component of communication systems. By definition, an antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic

### Technician Licensing Class

Technician Licensing Class Antennas Presented by Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings) About Ham Radio Call Signs Control Mind the Rules Tech Frequencies

### Antenna Deployment Technical Brief

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

### Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning

Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning Much can be learned about how an antenna performs from its patterns. This paper describes many of the common antenna parameters that can be understood from the patterns.

### Just a Dipole. Gary Wescom N0GW July 16, 2007

Just a Dipole Gary Wescom N0GW July 16, 2007 Often we will hear people describing their antennas as just a dipole. After all, a coax cable fed, half wavelength dipole is one of the simplest antennas to

### EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas

EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas Loaded antennas /4 antennas are desirable because their impedance is purely resistive. At low frequencies, full /4 antennas are sometime impractical (especially in mobile applications).

### Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Phone (603) 627-7877 FAX: (603) 627-1764 Email: sbest@cushcraft.com

### 5. ANTENNA TYPES. Figure 5. The vertical dipole and its electromagnetic equivalent, the vertical monopole

Antennas can be classified in several ways. One way is the frequency band of operation. Others include physical structure and electrical/electromagnetic design. The antennas commonly used for LMR both

### Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Overview To optimize the overall performance of a WLAN in an outdoor deployment it is important to understand how to maximize coverage

### 40m-10m DELTA LOOP ANTENNA - GU3WHN

This simple broad band antenna is easy to build, has gain similar to that of a dipole and is tolerant of nearby objects. It can be erected in almost any configuration provided the wires are well separated

### Designing Log Periodic Antennas

Designing Log Periodic Antennas By Glen Dash, Ampyx LLC, GlenDash at alum.mit.edu Copyright 2000, 2005 Ampyx LLC Lightweight and precise, the log periodic has become a favorite among EMC engineers. In

### Antenna Basic Concepts

ANTENNA An antenna is a device to transmit and/or receive electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are often referred to as radio waves. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently

### Modeling an 80/40/20M Fan Dipole for DX

Modeling an 80/40/20M Fan Dipole for DX New Station New Antennas! Installation and SWR Response Where is the DX? How do these Dipoles Play? (EZNEC) What about Terrain? HFTA and Terrain The effect on these

### The spiderbeam was developed as a DXpeditioner's dream antenna. It is a full size lightweight tribander yagi made of fiberglass and wire.

The spiderbeam was developed as a DXpeditioner's dream antenna. It is a full size lightweight tribander yagi made of fiberglass and wire. The whole antenna weight is only kg (lbs), making it ideally suited

### Inverted L vs. Vertical T antennas At the search of the best Tx antenna for a low-latitude location

vs. Vertical T antennas At the search of the best Tx antenna for a lowlatitude location By Pierluigi Luis Mansutti IV3PRK After having learnt which are the effects of the Earth s magnetic field on 160

### HUMAN EXPOSURE TO EMR: ASSESSMENT OF AMATEUR RADIO STATIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ACA REQUIREMENTS

HUMAN EXPOSURE TO EMR: ASSESSMENT OF AMATEUR RADIO STATIONS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH ACA REQUIREMENTS May 2005 Version 2.0 PO Box 78 BELCONNEN ACT 2616 Telephone (02) 6219 5555 Facsimile (02) 6219 5353 www.aca.gov.au

### The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam

The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam This document contains every question from the Extra Class (Element 4) Question Pool* that requires one or more mathematical

### Antenna Trainer EAN. www.edibon.com. Technical Teaching Equipment INTRODUCTION

Antenna Trainer EAN Technical Teaching Equipment Products Products range Units 3.-Communications INTRODUCTION Antennas are the main element of aerial communications. They are the transition between a transmission

### Small HF Antennas - - -- - - - -- - - ! The Small Space and Big Antenna Dilemma! Constraints

Small HF Antennas! The Small Space and Big Antenna Dilemma! Constraints " Covenants " Restricted lot size " City Bylaws " Boards of Variance " Strata Rules " Neighbor complaints of unsightly structures

### Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits General radio services (operating above 0 MHz) (Edition May 0) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained

### 1 Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC)

Wire Antenna Modelling with NEC-2 1 Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) The software Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC-2) has been developed in the 1970s in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore,

### Applications in EMC testing. Outline. Antennas for EMC Testing. Terminology

Antennas for EMC Testing Zhong Chen ETS-Lindgren 1301 Arrow Point Drive Cedar Park, TX 78613 Zhong.Chen@ets-lindgren.com Outline EMC Terms and Definitions Typical EMC Antennas Calibration of EMC Antennas

### This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples.

Antenna Basics This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples. What Do Antennas Do? Antennas transmit radio

### Wire Antennas for Ham Radio

Wire Antennas for Ham Radio 70 Antenna Ideas Iulian Rosu YO3DAC / VA3IUL, http://www.qsl.net/va3iul 1 de 45 Summary 1. Tee Antenna 4 2. Half-Lamda Tee Antenna 4 3. Twin-Led Marconi Antenna 5 4. Swallow-Tail

### \$1 SRD Antennas. Keywords. Introduction. Overview. By P. M. Evjen. PCB antenna design Body-worn and handheld antennas. Antenna theory Small antennas

\$1 SRD Antennas By P. M. Evjen Keywords Antenna theory Small antennas PCB antenna design Body-worn and handheld antennas Introduction This application note addresses one of the most important issues faced

### Efficient 2 meter Disguise Antenna Made From a TV Satellite Dish

Efficient 2 meter Disguise Antenna Made From a TV Satellite Dish This horizontal slot antenna, cut into the reflector of a TV dish, is both the master of disguise and high in performance. By John Portune

### End Fed Antenna. Operating Manual. version 1.1

Cross Country Wireless (2009) Ltd, 7 Thirlmere Grove, BOLTON, BL4 0QB, UK Email chrism@crosscountrywireless.net Web page http://www.crosscountrywireless.net Telephone +44 (0) 1204 410626 Mobile GSM 900

### Coaxial Cable Feeder Influence on Yagi Antenna Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com

Coaxial Cable Feeder Influence on Yagi Antenna Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Introduction o far, in several previous articles [1, 2, 3], we investigated how boom radius and its S distance

### Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device. Application: Radiation

Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device Application: adiation Introduction An antenna is designed to radiate or receive electromagnetic

### RADIATION PATTERNS. The half-power (-3 db) beamwidth is a measure of the directivity of the antenna.

RADIATION PATTERNS The radiation pattern is a graphical depiction of the relative field strength transmitted from or received by the antenna. Antenna radiation patterns are taken at one frequency, one

### Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS. Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 ANTENNA BASICS

Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 Introduction Antenna gain is essential for microwave communication since it helps both transmitting and receiving, it is doubly

### Understanding SWR by Example

Understanding SWR by Example Take the mystery and mystique out of standing wave ratio. Darrin Walraven, K5DVW It sometimes seems that one of the most mysterious creatures in the world of Amateur Radio

### Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com

Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Introduction The pillbox or cheese antenna is made of two parallel plates which are connected to the narrow strip of parabolic

### 40 Meter Mini-MOXON Beam Antenna. Designed, built, and presented by: Al Koblinski W7XA

40 Meter Mini-MOXON Beam Antenna Designed, built, and presented by: Al Koblinski W7XA Design goals Some forward gain Good directivity (high F/B and F/S ratios) Relatively small size Good Bandwidth (min.

### EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.

EMC STANDARDS The EMC standards that a particular electronic product must meet depend on the product application (commercial or military) and the country in which the product is to be used. These EMC regulatory

### Modeling and Measuring the Creative Design CLP5130-2N Log Periodic Antenna

Modeling and Measuring the Creative Design CLP5130-2N Log Periodic Antenna Whitham D. Reeve 1. Introduction A log periodic antenna is an array of dipoles with mathematically related lengths and spacings.

### Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits Paging services (Edition May 2002) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained in these guidelines is intended

### Weekend Antennas No. 1 A Bobtail Curtain for 2m

Weekend Antennas No. 1 A Bobtail Curtain for 2m Welcome to the first installment of my new column, which I hope will become a regular feature in Radio ZS. Each installment will present a practical and

### STACKING, PHASING and MATCHING YAGIS

STACKING, PHASING and MATCHING YAGIS This is a synopsis of a talk presented to the Sydney VHF DX GROUP on Tuesday March 16th 1999 by Gordon McDonald VK2ZAB. QUESTIONS When the stacking of Yagis is being

### My Top Five Backyard Multi-Band Wire HF Antennas

My Top Five Backyard Multi-Band Wire HF Antennas L. B. Cebik, W4RNL 1434 High Mesa Drive Knoxville, TN 37938-4443 e-mail: cebik@cebik.com 2004 marks my fifth full decade as a licensed radio amateur. So

### Antenna Measurement 1 Antenna Ranges antenna range

Antenna Measurement 1 Antenna Ranges An antenna range is a facility where antenna radiation characteristics are measured. An antenna range includes the following typical components: 1. A substantial space

### Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications

Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications M. Dogan 1, 3,K. Özsoy 1, 2, and I.Tekin 1, 1 Electronics Engineering, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Vestek Electronic

### Design of a Planar Omnidirectional Antenna for Wireless Applications

Design of a Planar Omnidirectional Antenna for Wireless Applications Randy Bancroft and Blaine Bateman Centurion Wireless Technologies Westminster, Colorado Abstract Omnidirectional antennas are of great

INVESTIGATION, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING BROADBAND ANTENNA FOR RADIO TELESCOPE ARRAY RECEIVER PREPARED BY: ONKGOPOTSE ISAAC MADIKWANE UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

### HF OPERATORS SMALL HF ANTENNAS - - - - - - - - - - - Rev 1. John White VA7JW

HF OPERATORS SMALL HF ANTENNAS Rev 1 by John White VA7JW NSARC HF Operators 1 Antenna Problems Big or Small always problems. Affects all - Single family, apartments, condo s, high rises, etc The Small

### Part I: Wireless System Characteristics

Part I: Wireless System Characteristics Smart grid technology holds great promise of cleaner air, more efficient power, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. In a smart grid system, the system itself will

### Newcomers and Elmers Net: More Wire Antennas 02.14.16 Robert AK3Q

Newcomers and Elmers Net: More Wire Antennas 02.14.16 Robert AK3Q Antenna Construction Supplies Antenna Construction Tools (Harbor Freight can be a good place to go) Wire Cutters; Pliers (regular and needle

### Loop Skywire Mysteries Explained?

Introduction: Many antenna books dismiss the horizontal loop or loop skywire as a non performer. However user s of the loop will tell you that it does work; why? I used 80 & 40m loops in the past with

### Broadband Terminated Vee Beam Wire Antenna

Broadband Terminated Vee Beam Wire Antenna TEN-TEC Model 3402 and 3403 1.8-54 or 3.5-54 MHz. THROW AWAY YOUR ANTENNA TUNER! Models 3402 and 3403 are broadband terminated vee beam wire antennas. These broadband

### Measurement of Antenna Radiation Patterns Laboratory Manual

Measurement of Antenna Radiation Patterns Laboratory Manual Written by: Vishal Bhavsar Nicholas Blas Huy Nguyen Under the Guidance of: Professor Alexander Balandin Funding Provided By: TRW Corporation

### 2 Meter Half-Wave J-Pole Antenna From 450 Ohm Ladder Line

2 Meter Half-Wave J-Pole Antenna From 450 Ohm Ladder Line Photos: Copyright 2007 David Jordan WA3GIN. All rights reserved. This is a good rainy day antenna project for those of you who would like to home

### Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking. The Radio Physics of WiFi. By Ron Vigneri

Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking By Ron Vigneri The Radio Physics of WiFi The standard for wireless LANs (WLANs) was completed in 1997 with the release of the IEEE 802.11 specification

### Minimum requirements for DVB-T receiving antennas for portable indoor and portable outdoor reception

Deutsche TV Platform Minimum requirements for DVB-T receiving antennas for portable indoor and portable outdoor reception compiled by Working Group: DVB-T launch (a working group of the Deutsche TV Platform)

### VE3MLB Phased Double V Antenna for 75/80 Meter Band

Jan. 17, 2008 VE3MLB Phased Double V Antenna for 75/80 Meter Band This is a story of a double inverted V antenna that I built in January 2008. I already had a full 80 meter Delta loop suspended from my

### Compact Integrated Antennas

Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Application Note Document Number: AN2731 Rev. 3, 09/2015 Compact Integrated Antennas Designs and Applications for the MC1321x, MC1322x, MC1323x, and MKW40/30/20 1 Introduction

### Understanding Range for RF Devices

Understanding Range for RF Devices October 2012 White Paper Understanding how environmental factors can affect range is one of the key aspects to deploying a radio frequency (RF) solution. This paper will

### A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies. Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz

A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz Topics General introduction to radiolocation Manual DF techniques Doppler DF Time difference

### Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits

Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper and turn them in before the lab 1. RLC Circuits Consider the circuit at left, consisting of an AC function

### The Gamma Match. 1 Equal Size Elements

The Gamma Match The gamma match was originally invented as a means of feeding vertical monopole antennas for medium wave broadcasts, which were earthed at the base for lightning protection (see Figure

### ProCurve External Access Point Antennas

Certified for use with ProCurve Wireless Access Point 420, the ProCurve family of access point antennas is specifically designed to meet the needs of today's most demanding wireless LAN deployments. ProCurve

### ISS Minimalist Antenna

ISS Minimalist Antenna The purpose of this project was to develop an antenna suggestion that would allow for a simple to duplicate, affordable antenna solution for reasonable access to signals transmitted

### Sensor and Simulation Notes. Note 479. October 2003. A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna

Sensor and Simulation Notes Note 479 October 2003 A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna Leland H. Bowen and Everett G. Farr Farr Research, Inc. Dean I. Lawry Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed

### A Broadband Hexbeam. Steve Hunt, G3TXQ

A Broadband Hexbeam Steve Hunt, G3TXQ Introduction Ilike the Hexbeam. Anyone who wants an HF antenna that can be multi-banded, exhibits useful gain and directivity, is lightweight, has a small turning

### '' EGGBEATER '' ANTENNA VHF/UHF ~ PART 2

'' EGGBEATER '' ANTENNA VHF/UHF ~ PART 2 ON6WG / F5VIF Summary Note : In Part 1, Fig 1 shows a maximum gain of 6.45 dbi. Several design attempts were made using slightly different configurations ( i.e.

### Rec. ITU-R F.699-5 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R F.699-5 *

Rec. ITU-R F.699-5 1 RECOMMENATION ITU-R F.699-5 * REFERENCE RAIATION PATTERNS FOR LINE-OF-SIGHT RAIO-RELAY SYSTEM ANTENNAS FOR USE IN COORINATION STUIES AN INTERFERENCE ASSESSMENT IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE

### Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think

Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think Training and design help in most areas of Electrical Engineering Copyright 1998 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted from the IEEE 1998

### Portable HF Antennas. Presented to the Stamford Amateur Radio Association. by Jon Perelstein. Copyright 2010 Jon Perelstein 1

Portable HF Antennas Presented to the Stamford Amateur Radio Association by Jon Perelstein Copyright 2010 Jon Perelstein 1 For purposes of this presentation, a portable HF antenna is An antenna that doesn't

### ElectroMagnetic Induction. AP Physics B

ElectroMagnetic Induction AP Physics B What is E/M Induction? Electromagnetic Induction is the process of using magnetic fields to produce voltage, and in a complete circuit, a current. Michael Faraday

### ZS6BKW vs G5RV. Antenna Patterns/SWR at 40 ft Center height, 27 ft end height ~148 Degree Included Angle

ZS6BKW vs G5RV Antenna Patterns/SWR at 40 ft Center height, 27 ft end height ~148 Degree Included Angle Compiled By: Larry James LeBlanc 2010 For the AARA Ham Radio Club Note: All graphs computed using

### Broadband Single and Dual Band iret Remote Electrical Tilt (RET) Indoor Clean Site Solutions Mounting Solutions

Broadband Single and Dual Band iret Remote Electrical Tilt (RET) Indoor Clean Site Solutions Solutions A Tradition of Quality Since 1946 Powerwave delivers antennas to customers around the world, offering

With a mobile installation and most base locations, the HF seems to pose problems especially using the top band. 160 meters is also known as the top band. It is the only frequency group in the MF band

### An equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.

3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally

### An octave bandwidth dipole antenna

An octave bandwidth dipole antenna Abstract: Achieving wideband performance from resonant structures is challenging because their radiation properties and impedance characteristics are usually sensitive

### Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Document ID: 82068 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions Basic Definitions and Antenna Concepts Indoor Effects Omni Antenna Pros

### The VHF / UHF «Eggbeater» Antenna ~ Revisited ~

The VHF / UHF «Eggbeater» Antenna ~ Revisited ~ ON6WG / F5VIF A new simple way to build the Eggbeater Antenna Introduction Previous designs described in «VHF / UHF «Eggbeater» Antenna ~ Part 1» and «VHF

### NVIS ANTENNA THEORY AND DESIGN

NVIS ANTENNA THEORY AND DESIGN Introduction A properly designed Near Vertical Incident Skywave (NVIS) antenna will have a directivity pattern that will maximize transmission and reception at high angles

### We ve Bent The Rules. AR s Bent-Element Approach Provides A Size Reduction Of Up To 75%, Along With Great Performance.

Antennas 76 We ve Bent The Rules. AR s Bent-Element Approach Provides A Size Reduction Of Up To 75%, Along With Great Performance. AR is doing incredible things with antennas. For starters, we ve advanced

### Cheap Antennas for the AMSAT LEO's Kent Britain -- WA5VJB

Cheap Antennas for the AMSAT LEO's Kent Britain -- WA5VJB Cheap LEO Antenna Drew, KO4MA, using the Cheap LEO antenna during a Dayton AMSAT LEO Demonstration Hand held dual band antennas are popular for

### Small Antennas for High Frequencies

Small Antennas for High Frequencies Iulian Rosu, YO3DAC / VA3IUL, http://www.qsl.net/va3iul/ This is about Small Antenna types and their properties which can help choosing proper antenna for high-frequency

### Analysis of the G3LTF Dual Band Feed for 23cm and 13cm Paul Wade W1GHZ 2004 w1ghz@arrl.net

Analysis of the G3LTF Dual Band Feed for 23cm and 13cm Paul Wade W1GHZ 2004 w1ghz@arrl.net In the March 2004 edition of the RSGB Microwave Newsletter, G3LTF described 1 a dual band feed for the 23 cm and

### My Loop Antenna. Stephen E. Sussman-Fort, Ph.D. AB2EW. stevesf@optonline.net

Stephen E. Sussman-Fort, Ph.D. AB2EW stevesf@optonline.net Outline Brief History Characteristics of Small Loop Antennas for HF My Loop for 40m 15m Receive/Transmit Properties of Elect.-Small Loops Loop

### Cellular Wireless Antennas

Cellular Wireless Antennas A Technical Brief GarrettCom Inc., November 2010 Overview The Cellular Wireless Antenna Technical brief is provided to assist with the design and deployment of the DX940 Cellular

### Boom Influence on Yagi Antenna Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW (Serbia) dragan@antennex.com

Boom Influence on Yagi Antenna Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW (Serbia) dragan@antennex.com Introduction T he boom of the Yagi antenna is an inevitable part of its construction. Theoretically, Yagi antennas

### Flexible PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2

Flexible PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2 CONTENTS 1. BASICS 2. APPLICATIONS 3. SIZE 4. SHAPE 5. GROUND PLANE SIZE 6. IMPEDANCE 7. BANDWIDTH 8. VSWR 9. GAIN 10. EFFICIENCY

### Helical Feed Antennas Paul Wade W1GHZ 2002 w1ghz@arrl.net

Helical Feed Antennas Paul Wade W1GHZ 22 w1ghz@arrl.net Helical antennas have long been popular in applications from VHF to microwaves requiring circular polarization, since they have the unique property

### BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. December 2011

AM 5-202 BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS December 2011 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Pubic Release. Distribution is unlimited. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY AUXILIARY RADIO SYSTEM FORT

### A Tutorial on the Decibel

A Tutorial on the Decibel This tutorial combines information from several authors, including Bob DeVarney, W1ICW; Walter Bahnzaf, WB1ANE; and Ward Silver, NØAX Decibels are part of many questions in the

### Antennas & Transmission Lines

4 Antennas & Transmission Lines The transmitter that generates the RF 1 power to drive the antenna is usually located at some distance from the antenna terminals. The connecting link between the two is

### 700 and 800 MHz Band Slot Antennas

Low Group Delay, Wide Bandwidth UHF Slot Antennas Omni-directional and Directional Patterns Available Low RFR Models Available Top or Side Mount Models Horizontal, Elliptical, or Circular Polarization

### TEST REPORT INVESTIGATION OF THE FAR-FIELD RADIATION GAIN PATTERN OF THE 20-METER BACKPACKER EH ANTENNA. 23 March 2003

TEST REPORT INVESTIGATION OF THE FAR-FIELD RADIATION GAIN PATTERN OF THE 20-METER BACKPACKER EH ANTENNA 23 March 2003 Introduction Significant claims have been made by the inventor and producers of a novel

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### Laboratory #6: Dipole and Monopole Antenna Design

EEE 171 Lab #6 1 Laboratory #6: Dipole and Monopole Antenna Design I. OBJECTIVES Design several lengths of dipole antennas. Design appropriate impedance matching networks for those antennas. The antennas

### 1. The diagram below represents magnetic lines of force within a region of space.

1. The diagram below represents magnetic lines of force within a region of space. 4. In which diagram below is the magnetic flux density at point P greatest? (1) (3) (2) (4) The magnetic field is strongest

### Keysight Technologies Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis. Application Note

Keysight Technologies Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis Application Note Introduction Network analysis is the process by which designers and manufacturers measure the

### 102 26-m Antenna Subnet Telecommunications Interfaces

DSMS Telecommunications Link Design Handbook 26-m Antenna Subnet Telecommunications Interfaces Effective November 30, 2000 Document Owner: Approved by: Released by: [Signature on file in TMOD Library]