Questions Q1. Bonding and separation techniques. (a) The diagram shows the structure of diamond. represents. (i) Describe what each (2)

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4 Questions Q1. Bonding and separation techniques (a) The diagram shows the structure of diamond. (i) Describe what each represents. (ii) State the type of bonding in the diamond structure. (b) Give the name of the process used to obtain oxygen from liquid air. (c) A colouring in some sweets was analysed using paper chromatography. One of the dyes in the colouring moved 2 cm up the paper while the solvent moved 8 cm. What is the R f value of this dye? Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer.

5 A 0.25 B 2 C 4 D 6 *(d) Here is some information about magnesium, oxygen and magnesium oxide. The electronic configuration of magnesium atoms is The electronic configuration of oxygen atoms is 2.6 Magnesium oxide is an ionic compound. When magnesium ribbon is heated, it reacts with oxygen from the air to form magnesium oxide, MgO. Describe how the reaction can be carried out, including an explanation of what happens to the magnesium and oxygen atoms when they form magnesium oxide. (6) (Total for question = 12 marks) Q2.

6 (a) Calcium oxide is manufactured by heating calcium carbonate. The waste product of this process is carbon dioxide. (i) Calculate the relative formula mass of carbon dioxide, CO 2. (Relative atomic masses: C = 12, O = 16) (ii) The equation for the reaction is relative formula mass = CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) Calculate the maximum mass of calcium oxide that can be obtained by heating 25 tonnes of calcium carbonate. (Relative atomic masses: C = 12, O = 16, Ca = 40) (b) (i) State what is meant by theoretical yield. (3) mass calcium oxide = tonnes (ii) Explain why the actual yield for a reaction is usually less than the theoretical yield for the reaction

7 (c) Many industrial processes produce waste products. Suggest reasons why manufacturers try to find uses for these waste products (Total for Question is 9 marks) Q3. Compounds (a) (i) Balance the equation for the reaction between sodium and chlorine to produce sodium chloride by putting numbers in the spaces provided.... Na + Cl 2... NaCl (ii) In an experiment to make sodium chloride, the yield is 2.5 g. The theoretical yield of sodium chloride for this experiment is 4.0 g. Calculate the percentage yield of sodium chloride in this experiment.

8 percentage yield =... % (iii) Sodium chloride has a high melting point. Sodium chloride does not conduct electricity when solid but does conduct electricity when molten. Complete the sentence by putting a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. These properties show that the structure of sodium chloride is A B C D ionic giant molecular, covalent simple molecular, covalent metallic (iv) Calculate the relative formula mass of sodium chloride, NaCl. (relative atomic masses: Na = 23, Cl = 35.5) relative formula mass =... (b) Calculate the percentage by mass of magnesium in magnesium sulfate, MgSO 4. (relative atomic masses: O = 16, Mg = 24, S = 32 relative formula mass: MgSO 4 = 120) (c) The formula of a molecule of ethane is C 2 H 6. (i) Give the empirical formula of ethane. (ii) Ethane is a simple molecular, covalent compound. percentage of magnesium =... %...

9 Ethane has a low boiling point. Explain, in terms of particles it contains, why ethane has a low boiling point. (Total for question = 11 marks) Q4. Copper and its compounds (a) Copper is a transition metal. Which of these is a property of copper? Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. A it is a poor conductor of electricity B it is brittle C it has a low melting point D it forms coloured compounds (b) Jasmine reacted an oxide of copper with carbon. copper oxide + carbon copper + carbon dioxide She reacted 5.0 g of copper oxide. In her reaction, 2.8 g of copper was formed. The theoretical yield for this reaction is 4.0 g. (i) State what is meant by the term theoretical yield....

10 ... (ii) The percentage yield of Jasmine s experiment was 70%. Explain how this value was calculated (iii) State two reasons why the yield of Jasmine s experiment was not 100% (c) Calculate the relative formula mass of copper chloride, CuCl 2. (Relative atomic masses: Cu = 63.5, Cl = 35.5) answer =... (d) 14.3 g of an oxide of copper contained 12.7 g of copper. Calculate the empirical formula of this oxide. Show your working. (Relative atomic masses: Cu = 63.5, O = 16)

11 (3) answer =... Q5. Group 7 elements (a) A compound of iron and chlorine was formed by reacting 2.80 g of iron with 3.55 g of chlorine. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound. (relative atomic masses: Cl = 35.5, Fe = 56.0) (b) Sodium reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride. (3) empirical formula... 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl Calculate the maximum mass of sodium chloride that could be formed by reacting 9.20 g of sodium with excess chlorine. (relative atomic masses: Na = 23.0, Cl = 35.5) (3)

12 mass of sodium chloride... g *(c) Chlorine, bromine and iodine are in group 7 of the periodic table. The order of reactivity of these three elements can be shown by carrying out displacement experiments. You are provided with potassium bromide solution potassium chloride solution potassium iodide solution bromine solution chlorine solution iodine solution Describe how these solutions could be used to carry out experiments to show the order of reactivity of bromine, chlorine and iodine, explaining how the results would show the order of reactivity. You may use equations if you wish. (6)

13 (Total for question = 12 marks) Q6. The diagram shows a piece of magnesium ribbon being heated. During the heating, the magnesium reacts with oxygen from the air. The lid of the crucible was raised slightly from time to time. Magnesium oxide was formed as a white powder. The experiment was repeated with different masses of magnesium. The table shows the mass of magnesium used and the mass of the magnesium oxide formed in each experiment. experiment mass of magnesium used /g mass of magnesium oxide formed mass of oxygen in magnesium

14 /g oxide /g (a) Suggest why the lid had to be raised from time to time during the experiment. (b) (i) On the grid provided, draw a graph of the mass of oxygen in magnesium oxide against the mass of magnesium used. (3) (ii) The result of experiment 5 is anomalous. The masses were all measured accurately. Suggest what might have caused this anomalous result. (c) Write the balanced equation for the reaction of magnesium with oxygen to form magnesium oxide. (d) An oxide of lead was analysed g of lead was combined with g of oxygen in this oxide. Calculate the empirical formula of this lead oxide. (relative atomic masses: O = 16, Pb = 207) (3)

15 (3) empirical formula (Total for Question is 11 marks) Q7. (a) Calcium chloride solution reacts with silver nitrate solution. Solid silver chloride and calcium nitrate solution are formed. (i) Complete the sentence by putting a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. The formula of a salt is Ca(NO 3 ) 2. The name of this salt is A calcium nitride B calcium nitrate C calcium chloride D silver nitrate (ii) The mixture produced in the reaction is filtered to obtain the silver chloride. The solid silver chloride is washed with water and left to dry. The yield of dry silver chloride was 3.0 g. The theoretical yield of dry silver chloride in this experiment was 4.0 g. 1. Suggest why the yield was less than 4.0 g.

16 Calculate the percentage yield of this experiment (b) (i) Calculate the relative formula mass of silver chloride, AgCl. (relative atomic masses: Cl = 35.5, Ag = 108) percentage yield = % relative formula mass = (ii) Calculate the percentage by mass of silver, Ag, in silver chloride, AgCl. (relative atomic masses: Cl = 35.5, Ag = 108) percentage of silver = % (Total for Question is 8 marks)

17 Q8. (a) A separating funnel is shown. The separating funnel can be used to separate two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water. Describe how you would use a separating funnel to separate two immiscible liquids. (b) Paper chromatography can be used to separate coloured substances. A student carried out a chromatography experiment on four food colourings. The four food colourings were brown, green, yellow and red. The diagram shows the results.

18 Use the results of the chromatography experiment to describe the colours present in the brown food colouring. (c) An experiment is carried out on two solutions to see if they conduct electricity. The apparatus used is shown. The two solutions used are sodium chloride solution and sucrose solution. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound. Sucrose is a simple molecular, covalent compound. Explain what happens when each solution is tested in the circuit shown.

19 (3) (d) Calculate the relative formula mass of water, H 2 O. (Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16) relative formula mass =... (Total for Question = 8 marks) Mark Scheme Q1.

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21 Q2. Answer Acceptable answers Mark (a)(i) (= 44) 44 with no working (a)(ii) (3 16)/(CaCO 3 )100 gives /(CaO) 56 (b(i) 25 (tonnes) gives (tonnes) 100 theoretical yield is calculated yield/ value calculated from balanced equation/maximum yield possible/maximum amount of product when reactants have fully reacted. allow ecf 14 (tonnes) correct answer no working (3) (b)(ii) An explanation linking two of the (3)

22 following reaction may be incomplete impure reactants unwanted reactions product/reactant lost other (side-)reactions may occur (c) A suggestion including two of the following save money/improve profit/disposal of waste costs money waste product may be harmful to the environment/cause pollution/damage the environment any specific examples ignore references to landfill (Total for question = 9 marks) Q3.

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24 Q4. Question Answer Acceptable answers Mark Number (a) D Question Number (b)(i) Answer Acceptable answers Mark the mass (of product) is calculated (from the balanced equation)

25 Question Number (b)(ii) Answer Acceptable answers Mark allow formula described in words 100 Question Number (b)(iii) Answer Acceptable answers Mark Any two from the following points loss of product during experiment reaction does not complete not enough carbon in mixture other (unwanted) reactions occur Question Answer Acceptable answers Mark Number (c) (2 35.5) / Question Answer Acceptable answers Mark Number (d) mass of oxygen = (3) =1.6 copper atoms: oxygen atoms = 12.7/63.5 : 1.6/ : 0.1 Cu 2 O

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29 Answer Acceptable answers Mark (a) to allow air/oxygen in to ensure magnesium reacts/burns / combusts (b)(i) all points correctly plotted to half Allow one mark for four or five (3) a small square line of best fit correctly plotted points ecf their points (b)(ii) Any one from not all magnesium {burned / reacted} / some left / incomplete reaction not enough air/oxygen some magnesium oxide / smoke lost (c) 2Mg + O 2 2MgO left hand formulae right hand formula balancing correct formulae (d) / 207 or / 16 lid not lifted / not enough times lid left off too long (so loses MgO) correct multiples (3)

30 0.002 : or 1 : 2 empirical formula PbO 2 if 207 / and 16 / ratio 500 : 250 or 2 : 1 empirical formula Pb 2 O allow 3 marks for / 207 or / 32 ratio 1 : 1 empirical formula PbO 2 allow 2 marks for if / 207 and / 32 ratio 1 : 1 empirical formula PbO (3) Answer Acceptable answers Mark (a)(i) B calcium nitrate (a)(ii)1 A suggestion to include two from: the reaction was incomplete ignore some of reactant solutions lost unwanted reaction(s) / side reactions took place some was lost (in transfer) / left in the beaker spillage washed away lost in filtering some of the solid remained on the filter paper (a)(ii)2 3.0/4.0 ¾ (any fraction) &times 100 (= 75 %) 75(%) only scores 2 marks (b)(i) (= 143.5) with no working scores the mark (ii) 108/answer to (b)(i) If no working allow 2 marks for 75 (any fraction) 100 (= %) or 75.3 or 75.2 or or (%) 100 (a) Answer A description to include two from Acceptable answers Mark allow layers to {form / ignore inverted

31 Powered by TCPDF ( (b) (c) separate} / liquids to separate operate tap / OWTTE run out one layer / OWTTE pour remaining upper layer from top / run out second layer A description to include green (and) red An explanation to include three from {sodium chloride / ionic compound} bulb lights / {sucrose / covalent compound} bulb does not light up sodium chloride (solution) {conducts / ions present} sucrose (solution) {does not conduct / no ions present oil/water layers discard interface {combination of / mixture of / two} colours note: if all three colours mentioned (3) ignore references to electrolytic processes circuit will work (in place of bulb lights) / ORA (d) 2x (=18)

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