Clinical Chemistry (CHE221) Professor Hicks Lecture 12. Chromatography. chromatography. normal phase chromatography like a tug of war

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Clinical Chemistry (CHE221) Professor Hicks Lecture 12. Chromatography. chromatography. normal phase chromatography like a tug of war"

Transcription

1 Clinical Chemistry (CHE221) Professor Hicks Lecture 12 Chromatography chromatography technique to separate mixtures each peak a different substance stationery phase = material mixtures comes in contact with that does not move mobile phase liquid or gas that washes mixture out of stationery phase Relative Response a chromatogram Retention Time (min) normal phase chromatography like a tug of war components of mixture stronger forces slower weaker forces faster mobile phase stationery phase components of mixture with stronger intermolecular forces stick better move slower raising temp (gas chromatography) moves all components faster 1

2 paper chromatography 1) mixture added to a solid material = stationary phase 2) washed out or eluted with a liquid solvent = mobile phase components elute (move up paper) at different rates paper chromatography movie keep a lid on it with no lid separation is poor with no lid the solvent evaporates fastest moving spots slow down towards top slower moving spots catch up elution takes much longer more left-right spreading out occurs eluted 90 minutes eluted 180 minutes 2

3 column chromatography larger amounts than paper chromatography mobile phase or eluting solvent mixture column of stationary phase separated components in eluting solvent width at half height describes how wide a peak is similar to standard deviation easy to measure graphically does not assume bell shaped curve ½ peak s height Resolution in order to identify peaks they must be resolved cannot overlap or almost overlap resolution = how close two peaks can be and still be distinguished 2 factors affect resolution 1) width at half height for the peaks involved 2) difference in retention time for the peaks involved both factors depend on experimental conditions column materials, temperature program, gas flow rates 3

4 Gas Chromatogram Relative Response Time (min) Gas Chromatogram Relative Response Time (min) Gas Chromatography numerous commercially available stationery phases (GC columns) many specialized for separating classes of compounds mobile phase inert gas often He stationery phase is liquid layer on surface of solid column material requires tiny amounts sample 4

5 separation in GC rate of movement depends on samples volatility (boiling point) typical starting temperature + 30 C of lowest bp components most volatile (lowest boiling compounds move fastest sometimes temperature is ramped to get lower components to come out in sequence Gas Chromatography area under a peak is proportional to the amount of compound present if a standard is run areas can be compared to calculate amount in unknown sample areas of different peaks are roughly quantitative % mass - depends on similarity of compounds and detectors type s Flame Ionization (FID) based on increase in conductivity from ions formed in flame more sensitive than TCD but destroys sample Thermal Conductivity (TCD) based on changes in thermal conductivity as the sample occupies space instead of reference gas - does not destroy samples so mass spec can be run in tandem with GC 5

6 Flame Ionization (FID) conduction of electricity requires charged particles charged particles formed when compound burned in a flame amount of compound proportional to conductivity of flame as sample is burned Best method for C,H compounds poor detection if halogens or O in compound H 2 and Air mixed with sample at detector Flame Ionization data output (chart recorder or digital data file) C urrent ( m illia m p s ) Current versus Time Time (s) GC column Flame Ionization Thermal Conductivity universal detector - it works on widest range of compounds every compound has a thermal conductivity different from He detector compares thermal conductivity of gas stream with sample to gas stream without sample changes in thermal conductivity changes in conductivity changes in current that flows while sample is in detector 6

7 Thermal Conductivity GC column Thermal Conductivity gas flow filament heat flows out sample conducts heat better than He cooling filament increase in conductivity increase in current flow more current flows through Current ( m illia m p s ) Current versus Time Time (s) Types of Columns Packed Columns coiled tube filled with solid wetted with a high boiling liquid - diatomaceous earth coated with phenyl methyl silicone polymer is common Capillary Columns narrow tubes ( 1 mm OD 0.25 mm ID) with walls coated with stationery phase m thick - higher resolution than packed columns Temperature Programming best separation often achieved by raising temperature after injection higher temperature gets the higher boiling components moving faster programs can be very detailed to squeeze out all the components with different retention times 7

Gas Chromatography notes

Gas Chromatography notes Reminder: These notes are meant to supplement, not replace, the lab manual. Gas Chromatography notes Application: Gas Chromatography (GC) provides a quick, accurate and relatively inexpensive way to analyze

More information

Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography

Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Background Distillation The previous lab used distillation to separate a mixture of hexane and toluene based on a difference in boiling points. Hexane boils

More information

#13 Chromatography is a Gas: An Inquiry-Based Introduction to Gas Chromatography Cynthia N. Peck, Delta College, University Center, MI 48710

#13 Chromatography is a Gas: An Inquiry-Based Introduction to Gas Chromatography Cynthia N. Peck, Delta College, University Center, MI 48710 #13 Chromatography is a Gas: An Inquiry-Based Introduction to Gas Chromatography Cynthia N. Peck, Delta College, University Center, MI 48710 INTRODUCTION To close the yellow note, click once to select

More information

Theory of Chromatography

Theory of Chromatography Theory of Chromatography The Chromatogram A chromatogram is a graph showing the detector response as a function of elution time. The retention time, t R, for each component is the time needed after injection

More information

Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03

Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03 1. Scope Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrocarbon Waxes by Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 001/03 (Version 1 Reviewed 2015) 1. 1 This test method provides for the determination of the carbon number

More information

23 The Thermal Conductivity Detector

23 The Thermal Conductivity Detector 23 The Thermal Conductivity Detector General Information TCD pneumatics Conditions that prevent the detector from operating Filament passivation Carrier, reference, and makeup gas Negative polarity Analyzing

More information

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations

Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Paper Chromatography: Separation and Identification of Five Metal Cations Objectives Known and unknown solutions of the metal ions Ag +, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ will be analyzed using paper chromatography.

More information

The Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Gasolines Containing Ethanol Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology

The Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Gasolines Containing Ethanol Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology application Note Gas Chromatography Author A. Tipler PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA The Determination of and in Finished Gasolines Containing Using the PerkinElmer Clarus 680 GC with Swafer Technology

More information

Lecture Chromo-3: Gas Chromatography. CHEM 5181 Fall 2004 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography. Jessica Gilman and Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder

Lecture Chromo-3: Gas Chromatography. CHEM 5181 Fall 2004 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography. Jessica Gilman and Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder Lecture Chromo-3: Gas Chromatography CHEM 5181 Fall 2004 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography Jessica Gilman and Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez CU-Boulder Outline Introduction Instrument overview Carrier gas Sample

More information

Gas Chromatography. Let s begin with an example problem: SPME head space analysis of pesticides in tea and follow-up analysis by high speed GC.

Gas Chromatography. Let s begin with an example problem: SPME head space analysis of pesticides in tea and follow-up analysis by high speed GC. Gas Chromatography Let s begin with an example problem: SPME head space analysis of pesticides in tea and follow-up analysis by high speed GC. Samples in 10mL sealed glass vials were placed in the MPS-2

More information

1.1 This test method covers the qualitative and quantitative determination of the content of benzene and toluene in hydrocarbon wax.

1.1 This test method covers the qualitative and quantitative determination of the content of benzene and toluene in hydrocarbon wax. Standard Method for Analysis of Benzene and Toluene Content in Hydrocarbon Waxes by Headspace Gas Chromatography EWF METHOD 002/03 (Version 1 Reviewed 2015) 1 Scope 1.1 This test method covers the qualitative

More information

Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS. July 2014

Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS. July 2014 Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS July 2014 Samples Appropriate for GC-MS Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds Rule of thumb,

More information

Separation of Mixtures by Paper Chromatography

Separation of Mixtures by Paper Chromatography Exercise 14 Page 1 Illinois Central College CHEMISTRY 130 Laboratory Section: Name: Separation of Mixtures by Paper Chromatography Objectives In this experiment we will effect a separation of a mixture

More information

Chemistry 321, Experiment 8: Quantitation of caffeine from a beverage using gas chromatography

Chemistry 321, Experiment 8: Quantitation of caffeine from a beverage using gas chromatography Chemistry 321, Experiment 8: Quantitation of caffeine from a beverage using gas chromatography INTRODUCTION The analysis of soft drinks for caffeine was able to be performed using UV-Vis. The complex sample

More information

GC METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE IN GASOLINE

GC METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE IN GASOLINE ACTA CHROMATOGRAPHICA, NO. 13, 2003 GC METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE IN GASOLINE A. Pavlova and R. Ivanova Refining and Petrochemistry Institute, Analytical Department, Lukoil-Neftochim-Bourgas

More information

Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography

Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography Experiment 4 Analysis by Gas Chromatography In this experiment we will study the method of gas chromatography. Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most important analytical tools that the chemist has.

More information

Chemical Composition of Instead Electronic Cigarette Smoke Juice and Vapor

Chemical Composition of Instead Electronic Cigarette Smoke Juice and Vapor Chemical Composition of Instead Electronic Cigarette Smoke Juice and Vapor Alliance Technologies, LLC 2009 info@alliancetechgroup.com 732.355.1234 (ph) 9 December 2009 Study: Chemical Composition of Instead

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

Series. Gas Chromatographs

Series. Gas Chromatographs Series 4060 Gas Chromatographs Series 4060 Overview The Teledyne Analytical Instruments (TAI) Series 4060 speciates gases of interest by combining well-accepted gas chromatography techniques with TAI s

More information

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to introduce concepts of mass spectrometry (MS) as they pertain to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organochlorine

More information

Development of Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Residual Monomer in Polymer Latex

Development of Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Residual Monomer in Polymer Latex Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, Vol.20 No.3 pp.145-149, 2010 Development of Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Residual Monomer in Polymer Latex Nopparat THAWEEWATTHANANON

More information

THERMAL DESORPTION. Introduction and Principles. Focusing on Volatiles

THERMAL DESORPTION. Introduction and Principles. Focusing on Volatiles THERMAL DESORPTION Introduction and Principles Thermal Desorption Thermal desorption is a simple extension of the technique of gas chromatography (GC) It involves the use of heat and a flow of inert gas

More information

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. DETERMINING THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE OF VOLATILE LIQUIDS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH. (Revised: 1-12-93)

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. DETERMINING THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE OF VOLATILE LIQUIDS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH. (Revised: 1-12-93) DETERMINING THE PERCENT COMPOSITION OF A MIXTURE OF VOLATILE LIQUIDS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH. (Revised: 1-12-93) INTRODUCTION Gas chromatography is a technique used to analyze mixtures. The instrument

More information

Gas Chromatography Liner Selection Guide

Gas Chromatography Liner Selection Guide Gas Chromatography Liner Selection Guide Peter Morgan, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Runcorn, Cheshire, UK Technical Note 20551 Key Words Liner, focus Abstract The liner serves an important function in allowing

More information

DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT DRINKS (Revised: )

DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT DRINKS (Revised: ) INTRODUCTION DETERMINING CAFFEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT DRINKS (Revised: 5-18-93) Chromatography is a separation technique that was first used by the Russian botanist Mikhal Tsvet. Around the turn of

More information

Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount

Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 Surface Tension surface tension is a property of liquids that results from the tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area in order to minimize their surface

More information

An Advanced Base Deactivated Capillary Column for analysis of Volatile amines Ammonia and Alcohols.

An Advanced Base Deactivated Capillary Column for analysis of Volatile amines Ammonia and Alcohols. An Advanced Base Deactivated Capillary Column for analysis of Volatile amines Ammonia and Alcohols. Jaap de Zeeuw, Ron Stricek and Gary Stidsen Restek Corp Bellefonte, USA To analyze basic compounds at

More information

Whiskey Analysis with Gas Chromatography

Whiskey Analysis with Gas Chromatography UC Berkeley College of Chemistry Chemistry 105 Instrumental Methods in Analytical Chemistry Whiskey Analysis with Gas Chromatography Author: Jonathan Melville Graduate Student Instructor: Daniel Mortensen

More information

Colligative Properties. Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure

Colligative Properties. Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure Colligative Properties Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure Learning objectives Describe meaning of colligative property Use Raoult s law to determine vapor pressure of solutions

More information

Diffusion and Fluid Flow

Diffusion and Fluid Flow Diffusion and Fluid Flow What determines the diffusion coefficient? What determines fluid flow? 1. Diffusion: Diffusion refers to the transport of substance against a concentration gradient. ΔS>0 Mass

More information

ß-CYCLODEXTRIN SYNONYMS

ß-CYCLODEXTRIN SYNONYMS ß-CYCLODEXTRIN Prepared at the 44th JECFA (1995), published in FNP 52 Add 3 (1995) superseding specifications prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications

More information

Expectations for GC-MS Lab

Expectations for GC-MS Lab Expectations for GC-MS Lab Since this is the first year for GC-MS to be used in Dr. Lamp s CHEM 322, the lab experiment is somewhat unstructured. As you move through the two weeks, I expect that you will

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction

Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction Theory and Instrumentation of GC Introduction i Wherever you see this symbol, it is important to access the on-line course as there is interactive material that cannot be fully shown in this reference

More information

Ferda ORHUN Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey

Ferda ORHUN Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE FLOW RATE EFFECTS OF CARRIER GAS AND APPLICATION OF THE METHOD TO HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SOME NATURAL GASES IN TURKEY Ferda ORHUN Mineral Research and Exploration

More information

Thermal Conductivity Detector

Thermal Conductivity Detector Thermal Conductivity Detector Troubleshooting Tips The thermal conductivity detector (TCD) detects the difference in thermal conductivity between column effluent flow (carrier gas + sample components)

More information

An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages

An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Version 1.1 An HPLC Analysis of Sweeteners in Beverages In this laboratory exercise we will perform a separation of the components of diet soft drinks using reversed-phase

More information

Lab 6: Paper Chromatography. Pages145-154 Pre-lab page 151 No Post lab Chromatogram must be turned in attached to lab report

Lab 6: Paper Chromatography. Pages145-154 Pre-lab page 151 No Post lab Chromatogram must be turned in attached to lab report Lab 6: Paper Chromatography Pages145-154 Pre-lab page 151 No Post lab Chromatogram must be turned in attached to lab report Chromatography Chromatography is an analytical technique used to separate the

More information

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY HOW MUCH ASPIRIN, ACETAMINOPHEN, AND CAFFEINE ARE IN YOUR PAIN RELIEVER? USING HPLC TO QUANTITATE SUBSTANCES (Revised: 1-13-93)

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY HOW MUCH ASPIRIN, ACETAMINOPHEN, AND CAFFEINE ARE IN YOUR PAIN RELIEVER? USING HPLC TO QUANTITATE SUBSTANCES (Revised: 1-13-93) INTRODUCTION HOW MUCH ASPIRIN, ACETAMINOPHEN, AND CAFFEINE ARE IN YOUR PAIN RELIEVER? USING HPLC TO QUANTITATE SUBSTANCES (Revised: 1-13-93) Headache, sore muscles, arthritis pain... How do you spell relief?

More information

Chapter 21 Principles of Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Problems 1,2,3,4,8,9,11,13

Chapter 21 Principles of Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Problems 1,2,3,4,8,9,11,13 Chapter 21 Principles of Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Problems 1,2,3,4,8,9,11,13 21-1 What is Chromatography Process to separate and purify compounds in a mixture by passing them trough a material

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY Have your lab textbook available for quick reference to specific pages, indicated in red. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Chromatography

More information

Name Matter Questions Date:

Name Matter Questions Date: Name Matter Questions Date: 1. Which substance has a definite shape and a definite volume at STP? 1) NaCl(aq) 2) Cl2(g) 3) CCl4( ) 4) AlCl3(s) 2. Which two particle diagrams represent mixtures of diatornic

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information

BTU ANALYSIS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

BTU ANALYSIS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH BTU ANALYSIS USING A GAS CHROMATOGRAPH By Joseph E. Landes Southern Petroleum Laboratories, Inc. Technical Director Hydrocarbon and Field Services 8820 Interchange Drive Houston, Texas 77054 Introduction

More information

Identification of Arson Accelerants by Gas Chromatography

Identification of Arson Accelerants by Gas Chromatography Identification of Arson Accelerants by Gas Chromatography Purpose Arson is an insidious crime that annually claims the lives of hundreds of Americans and costs billions of dollars. 1 Scientists and criminal

More information

CRYOCOOLER CONTAMINATION STUDY. S.W.K. Yuan, D.T.Kuo, and A.S. Loc. BEI Technologies, Cryocooler Group Sylmar, CA 91342 ABSTRACT

CRYOCOOLER CONTAMINATION STUDY. S.W.K. Yuan, D.T.Kuo, and A.S. Loc. BEI Technologies, Cryocooler Group Sylmar, CA 91342 ABSTRACT CRYOCOOLER CONTAMINATION STUDY S.W.K. Yuan, D.T.Kuo, and A.S. Loc EI Technologies, Cryocooler Group Sylmar, CA 91342 ASTRACT Eliminating or reduction of contamination is essential for the success of cryocoolers

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

Background Information

Background Information 1 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS/MS) Background Information Instructions for the Operation of the Varian CP-3800 Gas Chromatograph/ Varian Saturn 2200 GC/MS/MS See the Cary Eclipse Software

More information

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Chromatography is a common technique for separating chemical substances. The prefix chroma, which suggests color, comes from the fact that some of the

More information

Setting up a Quantitative Analysis MS ChemStation

Setting up a Quantitative Analysis MS ChemStation Setting up a Quantitative Analysis MS ChemStation Getting Ready 1. Use the tutorial section "Quant Reports" on the MSD Reference Collection CD-ROM that came with your ChemStation software. 2. Know what

More information

Experiment 5: Column Chromatography

Experiment 5: Column Chromatography Experiment 5: Column Chromatography Separation of Ferrocene & Acetylferrocene by Column Chromatography Reading: Mohrig, Hammond & Schatz Ch. 18 pgs 235-253 watch the technique video on the course website!

More information

Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams

Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams We are now ready to begin talking about phase diagrams involving two components. Our first few phase diagrams will involve only the liquid and gas (or vapor)

More information

UHPLC/MS: An Efficient Tool for Determination of Illicit Drugs

UHPLC/MS: An Efficient Tool for Determination of Illicit Drugs Application Note: 439 UHPLC/MS: An Efficient Tool for Determination of Illicit Drugs Guifeng Jiang, Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA Key Words Accela UHPLC System MSQ Plus MS Detector Drugs

More information

Guide to Reverse Phase SpinColumns Chromatography for Sample Prep

Guide to Reverse Phase SpinColumns Chromatography for Sample Prep Guide to Reverse Phase SpinColumns Chromatography for Sample Prep www.harvardapparatus.com Contents Introduction...2-3 Modes of Separation...4-6 Spin Column Efficiency...7-8 Fast Protein Analysis...9 Specifications...10

More information

Quantitative Evaluation of Perfume Fleuressence Samples using the znose

Quantitative Evaluation of Perfume Fleuressence Samples using the znose Quantitative Evaluation of Perfume Fleuressence Samples using the znose Edward J. Staples, Electronic Sensor Technology Electronic Noses Conventional electronic noses (enoses) produce a recognizable response

More information

The Theory of HPLC. Gradient HPLC

The Theory of HPLC. Gradient HPLC The Theory of HPLC Gradient HPLC i Wherever you see this symbol, it is important to access the on-line course as there is interactive material that cannot be fully shown in this reference manual. Aims

More information

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Gases are composed of atoms or molecules. These atoms or molecules do not really interact with each other except through collisions. In many cases, we may think of a

More information

On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis

On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis accord. to IEC 567/ASTM 3612 Online-Monitoring of transformers Automatic on-line analysis of 11 gases The analysis is done in 2 steps with high selectivity and accuracy fully

More information

LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Docetaxel in Human Serum for Clinical Research

LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Docetaxel in Human Serum for Clinical Research LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Docetaxel in Human Serum for Clinical Research J. Jones, J. Denbigh, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Runcorn, Cheshire, UK Application Note 20581 Key Words SPE, SOLA,

More information

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer. Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules. UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion

More information

Intelligent use of Relative Response Factors in Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection

Intelligent use of Relative Response Factors in Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection 52 May/June 2012 Intelligent use of Relative Response Factors in Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection by Karen Rome and Allyson McIntyre, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, SK10 2NA, UK Quantitative analysis

More information

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter is a concept that basically states that matter is composed

More information

Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam

Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Page 1 Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Multiple Choice. Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Two gases with unequal masses are injected into opposite

More information

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory The first scheduled quiz will be given next Tuesday during Lecture. It will last 5 minutes. Bring pencil, calculator, and your book. The coverage will be pp 364-44, i.e. Sections 0.0 through.4. 0.7 Theory

More information

13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

More information

HEXANES. Insoluble in water, soluble in ether, alcohol, and acetone. Neutral to methyl orange (ph indicator) Not more than 0.

HEXANES. Insoluble in water, soluble in ether, alcohol, and acetone. Neutral to methyl orange (ph indicator) Not more than 0. HEXANES Prepared at the 51st JECFA (1998), published in FNP 52 Add 6 (1998) superseding specifications prepared at the 14th JECFA (1970), published in NMRS 48B (1971) and in FNP 52 (1992). ADI "limited

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory (con t) Kinetic Molecular Theory Gas Liquid Solid 1. Slightly 2. High 3. Does not expand to

Kinetic Molecular Theory (con t) Kinetic Molecular Theory Gas Liquid Solid 1. Slightly 2. High 3. Does not expand to Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature Temperature is a Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature(2) The Kelvin temperature scale is called the Absolute Zero - Zero degrees on the 1. Highly 2. Low 3. Fills

More information

Fast, Reproducible LC-MS/MS Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan

Fast, Reproducible LC-MS/MS Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan Fast, Reproducible LC-MS/MS Analysis of and Kimberly Phipps, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Runcorn, Cheshire, UK Application Note 685 Key Words Accucore C18, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, SOLA CX Abstract

More information

Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography.

Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography. Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography. This technical note details the use of ISOLUTE Flash chromatography columns for the purification of reaction mixtures. What is flash chromatography?

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

Gas Chromatography. Gas Chromatograph

Gas Chromatography. Gas Chromatograph Gas Chromatography Gas Chromatograph Chromatography: Separate analytes in a mixture with a resolution 1.5 in the shortest amount of time and detection of separated components. 1 = m.p. 6 2 4 5 3 Gas supplies

More information

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons, neutrons and electrons Nuclear Structure particle relative charge relative mass proton 1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons and neutrons make up

More information

Chapter 5 Student Reading

Chapter 5 Student Reading Chapter 5 Student Reading THE POLARITY OF THE WATER MOLECULE Wonderful water Water is an amazing substance. We drink it, cook and wash with it, swim and play in it, and use it for lots of other purposes.

More information

LUMEFANTRINE Draft proposal for The International Pharmacopoeia (October 2006)

LUMEFANTRINE Draft proposal for The International Pharmacopoeia (October 2006) October 2006 RESTRICTED LUMEFANTRINE Draft proposal for The International Pharmacopoeia (October 2006) DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION World Health Organization 2006 All rights reserved. This draft is intended for

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Overview

Mass Spectrometry. Overview Mass Spectrometry Overview Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of molecular ions and fragments.2

More information

Analytical Testing Methods

Analytical Testing Methods Analytical Testing Methods Updated: February 2005 Background The Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs require a laboratory to conduct two analytical tests before a urine specimen

More information

R = J/mol K R = L atm/mol K

R = J/mol K R = L atm/mol K version: master Exam 1 - VDB/LaB/Spk This MC portion of the exam should have 19 questions. The point values are given with each question. Bubble in your answer choices on the bubblehseet provided. Your

More information

OSHA Health Response Team

OSHA Health Response Team Analytical Methods OSHA Health Response Team 12 IHs, chemical engineers, and civil engineers -Substantial field experience -Unique individual skills -Suite of specialized equipment Generic NIOSH Method

More information

Colligative Properties of Solutions

Colligative Properties of Solutions Experiment 2 Colligative Properties of Solutions Introduction: Consider a hypothetical cooling curve which describes the changes in phase of a pure substance in which heat is lost at a steady rate at constant

More information

MINERAL OIL (MEDIUM VISCOSITY)

MINERAL OIL (MEDIUM VISCOSITY) MINERAL OIL (MEDIUM VISCOSITY) Prepared at the 76 th JECFA, published in FAO JECFA Monographs 13 (2012), superseding specifications for Mineral oil (Medium and low viscosity), class I prepared at the 59th

More information

The particulate nature of matter

The particulate nature of matter The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and

More information

Distillation Experiment

Distillation Experiment Distillation Experiment CHM226 Background The distillation process is a very important technique used to separate compounds based on their boiling points. A substance will boil only when the vapor pressure

More information

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction

PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES. Introduction PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Lab #2 Introduction When two or more substances, that do not react chemically, are blended together, the result is a mixture in which each component retains its individual

More information

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids

Project 5: Scoville Heat Value of Foods HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids Willamette University Chemistry Department 2013 Project 5: HPLC Analysis of Capsaicinoids LABORATORY REPORT: Formal Writing Exercises PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT Read the entire laboratory project and section 28C

More information

PLOT Columns. Top: Bob Langford, GC Column Manufacturing Technician Bottom: Stephanie Sunner, Customer Service Representative

PLOT Columns. Top: Bob Langford, GC Column Manufacturing Technician Bottom: Stephanie Sunner, Customer Service Representative PLOT Columns Top: Bob Langford, GC Column Manufacturing Technician Bottom: Stephanie Sunner, Customer Service Representative PLOT Column Selection 93 Features & Benefits of Restek PLOT Columns Features

More information

For Chromatography, you must remember Polar Dissolves More, not like dissolves like.

For Chromatography, you must remember Polar Dissolves More, not like dissolves like. Chromatography In General Separation of compounds based on the polarity of the compounds being separated Two potential phases for a compound to eist in: mobile (liquid or gas) and stationary Partitioning

More information

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically

More information

Heterogeneous Homogenous. Mixtures; Solutions. Phases of matter: Solid. Phases of Matter: Liquid. Phases of Matter: Gas. Solid, Liquid, Gas

Heterogeneous Homogenous. Mixtures; Solutions. Phases of matter: Solid. Phases of Matter: Liquid. Phases of Matter: Gas. Solid, Liquid, Gas Phases of matter: Solid Heterogeneous Homogenous Mixtures Solutions Phases of Matter: Liquid Atoms and molecules are more spaced out and now can move. The material can be slightly compressed into a smaller

More information

CONFIRMATION OF ZOLPIDEM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY

CONFIRMATION OF ZOLPIDEM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY CONFIRMATION OF ZOLPIDEM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY 9.1 POLICY This test method may be used to confirm the presence of zolpidem (ZOL), with diazepam-d 5 (DZP-d 5 ) internal standard, in

More information

Unsteady State Relief Valve Evaluation. External Pool Fire Scenario

Unsteady State Relief Valve Evaluation. External Pool Fire Scenario Unsteady State Relief Valve Evaluation External Pool Fire Scenario By Rame Sulaiman Process Engineer Process Engineering Associates, LLC Copyright 2009 Process Engineering Associates, LLC. All rights reserved.

More information

Chemical Analysis. Natural Gas Analyzer. A Family of optimized GC Solutions. Gas Chromatography. think forward

Chemical Analysis. Natural Gas Analyzer. A Family of optimized GC Solutions. Gas Chromatography. think forward Chemical Analysis Natural Gas Analyzer A Family of optimized GC Solutions think forward Gas Chromatography Bruker Natural Gas Analyzers Natural gas is bought and sold as a bulk commodity with price based

More information

PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Chromatography is a technique that is used to separate and to identify components of a mixture. This analytical technique has a wide range of applications in the real

More information

Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Milk Using SPME and GC-MS/MS. No. GCMS-1603. No. SSI-GCMS-1603. Shilpi Chopra, Ph.D.

Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Milk Using SPME and GC-MS/MS. No. GCMS-1603. No. SSI-GCMS-1603. Shilpi Chopra, Ph.D. Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer No. GCMS-1603 Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Milk Using SPME and GC-MS/MS Shilpi Chopra, Ph.D. Introduction Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are a class

More information

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate.

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate. Q. This question is about salts of ammonia and salts of lead. (a) Ammonia dissolves in water to make an alkaline solution. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. The ph of a solution

More information

Shimadzu Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph System C184-E030

Shimadzu Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph System C184-E030 Shimadzu Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph System C184-E030 Meets All Simulated Distillation Gas Chromatograph Standards - Provides Highly Accurate Analysis Results with Excellent Reproducibility-

More information

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study Describing Matter This section describes the kinds of properties used to describe matter. It also defines elements and contrasts compounds and mixtures. Use Target Reading Skills Write a definition of

More information

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

More information

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

More information