Drivers of Change in 1400s

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2 Drivers of Change in 1400s Trade quest for wealth in gold and spice trade Religion Islam and Christianity Urbanization rise of cities in Europe Technology Caravel and Galleon Ships, Navigation Devices, Printing press Politics Fall of Mogul Empire, Strengthening of unitary European monarchies,

3 Trade: Asia and Africa 1400s While Europe was in the Middle Ages, peoples of Africa, Asia and the Middle East were connected by land and sea trade routes. Arab merchants played a large role in the growing trade = Middle East was crossroads Sailed along Indian Ocean Traveled along the SILK ROAD = overland routes that linked China to the Middle East

4 Trade: Silk Road

5 Trade: African Trading States West Africa - Long trade routes crossed the Sahara desert in Africa linking West Africa to North Africa Mali and Songhai most powerful kingdoms East Coast of Africa was trading center also Gold from Zimbabwe (inland) was carried to the coast and carried by ship to India and China

6 Mansa Musa on Throne in Mali Mansa Musa Muslim Ruler of Mali Immense Wealth caused stir in Europe where did his gold come from? So abundant is the gold in his country that this lord is the richest and most noble king in all the land Spanish Atlas 1375

7 Trade: Europe in 1300s Marco Polo traveled throughout Asia from 1271 to Recorded his travels and journey in The Travels of Marco Polo which was widely read by Europeans thanks to the invention of the printing press. Polo s book described the exotic foods, spices and other merchandise of Asia. Adventurers and businessmen wanted to share in the wealth.

8 Trade: Europe and the Mongol Empire Marco Polo befriended Kublai Khan ruler of the Mongol Empire. (Mongolia and Siberia) Europeans given free pass to travel and trade along overland routes between Europe, the Middle East and Asia

9 Trade: Europe and the Fall of the Mongol Empire End of the 14 th century, the Mongol Empire collapsed. Persian and Muslim rulers blocked European merchants from using overland routes to Asia history of conflict and animosity between European Christians and Muslims (Crusades) Europeans need a NEW route to Asia = water!!

10 Trade: Portugal s rise to fame Early leader in search for Water Route to Asia and the source of Africa s gold. Prince Henry the Navigator sent captains exploring the West Coast of Africa 1497 Vasco da Gama rounded southern tip of Africa and sailed to India.

11 Trade: Other NaDons Join Race Portugal controlled trade with African coastal nations.italy commanded trade in Mediterranean soooooo Spain looks West Across Atlantic for trade route. Dominates Central and South America thanks to Columbus Voyages By the end of the 1500s, England, France and Holland must focus on finding a Northwest Passage a water route THROUGH North America to the Pacific Ocean

12 Religion: Spread of Islam Islam- founded in the 600 s by Muhammad. After his death in 632, Islam spread across North Africa, into Spain, from Persia to India and beyond.

13 Religion: ChrisDan Crusades Crusades holy wars fought by European Christians against Muslims to control Holy Land Helped bring Europe out of Middle Ages and into the Renaissance ( s) Introduced Europeans to food, spices, silks, and luxuries from Asia.

14

15 UrbanizaDon Europe moved from Feudal society where life revolved around the Manor to a more urban landscape Kings built strong nation- states and brought feudal lords under their control which opened opportunities for businessmen Cities began to grow

16 Technology 1430s Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press Books were previously copies by hand illuminated text Large numbers of books could now be produced at a l0w cost = more people reading and learning spreads

17 Technology - NavigaDon Navigation tools including the magnetic compass, astrolabe developed to help captains Portugal invented the Caravel ship triangular sails and steering rudder allowed captains to steer into the wind Galleon large multi- deck sailing vessel

18 PoliDcs Monarchs in England and France bring feudal lords under control bringing law and order to society England and France, Spain and Portugal Portugal and Spain drive out Muslim rulers

19 PoliDcs Spain expels Moors In the 8 th century, North African Muslim Moors conquered Spain Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain finally managed to drive last of the Moors out of last Muslim stronghold of Grenada Able to start investing in overseas exploration Alhambra Palace

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