Muscle contraction. Requires energy

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1 UNIT 1 - Information Muscle contraction Requires energy This is produced by chemical breakdown of ATP ATP ADP + P

2 UNIT 1 - Information There is a limited supply of ATP in muscle cells (it s usually used up after 3 5 seconds of exercise) For exercise to continue, ATP has to be re-generated from ADP using energy obtained from other sources. ADP + P ATP Note: ATP: Adenosine triphosphate ADP: Adenosine diphosphate P: Phosphate

3 UNIT 1 - Information There are 3 sources (energy systems) that the body can use: 1.ATP/ PC or CP System Anaerobic Pathway 2. Lactic Acid System Aerobic Pathway 3. Aerobic System

4 UNIT 1 - Information 1. The CP (Creatine Phosphate) System CP Stored in Muscles Combines with ADP to re-build ATP Immediate source of energy Limited source lasts up to 10/15 seconds Very important for bursts of explosive speed Suitable for short duration events: 100m, throwing/ jumping athletic events. Phases of team game play. Replenishing stores of CP takes up to 6 minutes of recovery after end of exercise CP: Creatine Phosphate C - Creatine ADP + CP = ATP + C

5 2. LACTIC ACID SYSTEM UNIT 1 - Information Glycogen made from glucose obtained from digested food present in all cells of the body muscles, liver When glycogen breaks down it releases pyruvic acid and energy. This energy is used to re-build ATP from ADP and P This system is anaerobic no O 2 Pyruvic acid is easily removed when O 2 is available Where there is little O 2 it is changed into lactic acid Muscles fail to contract fully - fatigue Energy from this source lasts longer up to three minutes before build up of lactic acid prevents further energy production Suitable for athletes 200m 800m. Games players who need to keep up continuous short bursts of activity Takes about minutes to remove accumulated lactic acid after maximal exercise ADP + glycogen = ATP + Pyruvic acid (or pyruvic acid without O 2 )

6 UNIT 1 - Information 3. AEROBIC SYSTEM For longer events muscles must work aerobically. O 2 present This system can take the pyruvic acid produced when glycogen breaks down and turns it into more energy rather than lactic acid Supplies energy to athletes who are working sub-maximally at 60 80% of maximum effort and can take in a constant supply of O 2 This system provides most of the energy required for physical activity lasting longer than about 3 minutes long distance activity runners/ cyclists Games Players ADP + Glycogen = ATP + Pyruvic acid

7 UNIT 1 - Information 3. AEROBIC SYSTEM Graph to Show Energy Released over Time % of maximum rate of energy production ATP Store ATP-PC System Lactic Acid System Aerobic System 2sec 10sec 1min 2hrs time

8 UNIT 1 - Information Characteristics of the 3 Energy System Aerobic/ Anaerobic Fuel/ Energy Source By-product Exercise intensity Duration Sporting Examples NOTES ATP/ PC Anaerobic ATP/ PC Creatine High (Flat Out) Seconds Sprinting, athletic field events, weight-lifting. Small muscular stores of ATP and PC are exhausted quickly leading to a rapid decline in immediate energy. Lactic Acid Anaerobic Glycogen Glucose Pyruvic Acid/ Lactic Acid High Intensity Up to 3 minutes 400m 800m Racket sports. Lactic acid is a by-product and can cause rapid fatigue. Aerobic Aerobic Fat/ glucose mixture Water/ Low 3 CO 2 minutes onwards Long distance running/ cycling. This system is limited by availability of O 2

9 UNIT 1 - Information Characteristics of the 3 The importance of each source of energy for physical activity depends on: 1. Type of physical activity. 2. Intensity of physical activity. 3. Duration of physical activity. In many aspects of physical activity the 3 energy systems work together at different times to supply the particular type of energy needed.

10 UNIT 1 - Information Oxygen Debt When all the ATP required for muscular contraction cannot be supplied AEROBICALLY, the lactic acid system takes over. The side-effect of the body using this system is that there is a build-up of lactic acid in the muscles and CP stores are depleted causing fatigue. After strenuous exercise the following have to be completed: 1.O 2 stores replaced. 2.ATP replenished. 3.Lactic acid removed. The need for extra O 2 after strenuous exercise is known as the O 2 DEBT. The body pays off this O 2 debt by gulping air into the lungs and panting. As a result, the lactic acid is turned into CO 2 and water.

11 UNIT 1 - Information Training Individuals, teachers, coaches need to have a knowledge of energy systems to: Identify needs / demands of the physical activity. Aerobic Anaerobic Act upon those needs train correctly Continuous training Interval training Different methods: Fartlek Weight training Circuit training Flexibility training Plyometrics To help in training effectively we should be able to use MHR (MAXIMUM HEART RATE) ) and VO 2 MAX to establish the identified Training Zones and Training Thresholds.

12 UNIT 1 - Information Training 1. To establish TRAINING ZONES the MHR has to be decided: MHR Males = 220 AGE 2. To gain AEROBIC fitness the exercise should be maintained between 60 and 80% of the established MHR. e.g. 20 year old man = 200 AEROBIC TRAINING THRESHOLD = 60% OF 200 = 120 HR ANAEROBIC TRAINING THRESHOLD = 80% OF 200 = 160 HR 3. AEROBIC THRESHOLD is the level of exercise where the intensity is sufficient to produce a training effect. 4. ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD is the point where the Aerobic Mechanisms become overloaded and anaerobic metabolism begins to play a major role. 5. The thresholds do vary (marginally). 6. The training zone between 60 and 80% MHR is known as the AEROBIC TRAINING ZONE. 7. Exercising in the zone above the Anaerobic Training Threshold 80% MHR, means you are in the ANAEROBIC TRAINING ZONE.

13 UNIT 1 - Information Graph to show how the heart rate can be used to establish training zones and thresholds (For a 16 year old boy) Anaerobic Training Zone MHR Maximum Heart Rate Heart Rate Beats per minute (BPM) Aerobic Training Zone Anaerobic Training Threshold Aerobic Training Threshold No Improvement Zone Resting Heart Rate 70 60

14 UNIT 1 The energy continuum: 1. Small group/ larger group activity likely to involve different energy systems e.g. a game situation. 2. Discussion in advance to consider different systems and their uses. 3. Recording of performances for analysis and discussion. 4. Partner and group recording of activity and uses being made of the energy systems during the game. 5. Data analysis of findings linked to training methods and sport specific demands. Heart Rate Monitoring: 1. Pupils lead a warm up for a specific activity. 2. Pupils introduce and develop a skill micro session. 3. Heart rate monitoring taking place during each phase of the session. 4. Observation, analysis and discussion of the visible effects/ changes taking place.

15 UNIT 1 Example of energy systems used in a team game: Netball : Consider the type of preparation required for netball. Pupil led warm up and pupil led skill micro session. Review of the energy systems and their effects on performance. Consider sport specific energy requirements linked to nutrition and hydration strategies. Record netball game and analyse in relation to quality of performances, positional responsibilities and the different energy demands being made. Consider the effects of intensity and duration of the activity e.g. sprinting, feint dodge, walking back to the restarting of play, and link to energy systems/ positional responsibilities. Any physical activity could be used.

16 Pupils establishing a training programme based on: Identified needs UNIT 1 Aerobic / anaerobic pathways Principles of training Monitoring the programme Using heart rate to establish training zones and thresholds Healthy lifestyles Performance Correct Training Methods

17 UNIT 1 How Heart Rate can Illustrate the Effect of Physical Heart Rate (beats per minute) 140 Recovery Period Normal heart rate mins Start of swim End of swim Study the graph and answer the questions that follow.

18 UNIT 1 How Heart Rate can Illustrate the Effect of Physical The graph above illustrates the hear rate of a swimmer during a 100 metre race at the following stages: (i) normal; (ii) start; (iii) halfway; (iv) end of swim; (v) recovery. Press to see graph again Use the graph to answer the following questions. i. By how many beats had the heart rate risen from normal to the end of the swim? ii. By how many beats had the heart rate increased from start to the halfway stage? iii. For how many minutes from the end of the swim did the heart rate iv. continue to rise? v. During which minute was the biggest rise in heart rate? vi. What was the heart rate at the end of the swim? vii. Explain why the heart rate increased before the start of the race. Select one test which measures a component of physical fitness. Explain its purpose and conclusions that can be drawn from the results.

19 UNIT 1 Training Zones / Thresholds Pulse Rate (beats per minute) 200 Exercise Heart Rate Upper and Lower Limits Of Training Heart Rate Target Look at this graph of the recommended minimum and maximum training heart rates in beats per minute and answer the questions which follow Age in years

20 UNIT 1 Training Zones / Thresholds Press to see graph again i. What is the safe maximum training heart rate for a 20-year old? ii. What is the difference between maximum training and minimum training heart rate for a 35 year old? iii. What is the difference between the maximum training heart rate for a 50 year old and a 30 year old? iv. What is the difference between the maximum training heart rate for a 60 year old and a 25 year old? v. What is the minimum training heart rate for a 40 year old? vi. Why is it important to work within the training zone for a given group? By working on this graph, pupils can use their own MHR to understand the importance of training correctly.

21 Effects of Lactic Acid Concentration in the Blood UNIT The effects of strenuous exercise on Lactic Acid concentration lactic acid concentration in the blood (per mg per 100cm 3 blood) Look at this graph and answer the questions which follow. 60 Time (min) i. How much did the lactic acid concentration increase during the period of exercise? ii. iii. iv. What was the level of concentration of lactic acid at the 30 minute point? What time after the start of the exercise did the level of concentration of lactic acid read 44 mg per 100cm 3? Was the concentration of lactic acid cleared at the 60 minute point? v. What was the level of concentration of lactic acid at the15 minute point? vi. What causes the increase of concentration of lactic acid in the blood?

22 UNIT 1 - Cardiovascular system Cardio-respiratory system Intensity/ duration of exercise Short term effects of exercise on the systems of the body Long term effects of exercise on the systems if the body Principles of training Methods of training Heart rate/ VO 2

23 UNIT 1-1. During the course of a team game, players would use all three energy systems. Name a game and describe specific situations in which each of the energy systems would be used. 2. Below is a table showing some characteristics of three energy systems used in sporting activity. Tick ( ) the energy system which is appropriate for each characteristic. Characteristics of energy systems ATP-PC Lactic Acid Aerobic Used mainly in very high intensity, short duration activities of up to 10 seconds and in the very early stages of exercise. Used mainly in very high intensity exercise of between 10 seconds and 3 minutes in duration. Used mainly during prolonged, low intensity of exercise.

24 UNIT 1-3. Identify one factor which can determine the main energy system used in any sporting activity. 4. Complete the table summarising the energy systems below: Energy system Aerobic or Anaerobic Write the chemical equation summarising this process Any byproducts How long can we use it for? Creatine Phosphate (CP) Lactic Acid Aerobic

25 UNIT 1-5. Study the images below. Suggest which energy system each athlete would predominantly use during performance and why. A B C Long Jumper Marathon Runner 400m Sprinter Diagram Energy system Reason A B C 6. Select one energy system and explain how ATP is recreated using this system. You may choose to use a diagram to assist your explanation.

26 UNIT 1-7. The table below shows a number of activities that are common to many games. For each activity identify the main energy system that would be used. ACTIVITY MAIN ENERGY SYSTEM Jogging Kicking Sprinting Counter attacking 8. The energy system used for any sporting activity depends on which two factors? 9. How could an understanding of the energy systems help a teacher/ coach of a sports team train his/ her players?

27 UNIT During maximum effort, such as sprinting, muscles need a lot of energy quickly but oxygen (O 2 ) cannot reach the muscles fast enough. Which energy system is best used to provide the necessary fuel for such an activity? 11. Explain the term oxygen debt? 12. The following table lists a number of activities that a hockey player may perform in a game. Decide which energy system would be used to provide energy for them. Energy System used Taking on a defender over 10 metres. Jogging back after an attack. Counter attacking immediately after sprinting back 60m to defend. A keeper diving for the ball then returning to their feet. An attacker waiting on the half way line while his team defends a short corner. A defender holding a defensive position when his team are attacking. Closing down an attacker and tackling. Losing a defender with a change of pace.

28 UNIT During maximum effort, such as sprinting, muscles need a lot of energy quickly but oxygen (O 2 ) cannot reach the muscles fast enough. Which energy system is best used to provide the necessary fuel for such an activity? Aerobic / Anaerobic Long distance running Marathon running Long jump A gymnastics vault A 50m sprint swim Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Click box once for Anaerobic, twice for Aerobic Javelin throw Anaerobic Aerobic 14. Explain why many sporting activities can be described as both Aerobic and Anaerobic. 15. What is the advantage to a team game player of having a high VO 2 Max?

29 UNIT Explain what is meant by anaerobic threshold. 17. Which energy systems would be the main provider of energy in a: smash in Tennis, 60 second rally in Tennis. 18. (i) Explain the meaning of the term VO 2 Max. (ii) Give two benefits for a sportsperson of having a high VO 2 max. 19. (i) Give a sporting example of anaerobic activity. (ii) Why is lactic acid produced during anaerobic activity? 20. What happens to an athlete s performance as lactic acid builds up?

30 % Blood Lactic Acid Removed UNIT The graph shows the rate of lactic acid removal after exercise A B Recovery Time (minutes) (i) Which athlete recovered first? (ii) How long did it take the other athlete to remove all lactic acid from his body? (iii) How much lactic acid had been removed by A after 1 hour s recovery? (iv) How much lactic acid had been removed by B after 1 hour s recovery? (v) What is the difference in full recovery time between the two athletes? (vi) There is evidence on the graph to suggest why one athlete recovered quicker than the other during recovery time. Explain the evidence.

31 UNIT The graph below shows the heart rate of a 15 year old athlete during a training session. 205 X Heart rate (bpm) A Y Z Warm up Exercise 30 minutes Cool down 5 minutes 5 minutes i. What heart rate is indicated at 205 bpm? ii. What threshold is identified at Z? iii. What is the name given to training zone A? iv. What type of sporting activity could the athlete be training for? v. What physical fitness component is being developed in this session?

32 UNIT The graph below shows the heart rates (X,Y and Z) for three different performers. 250 Heart rate (bpm) X Y Z 50 Time Which heart rate would be appropriate for (i) a 100 metre sprinter and (ii) a games player? Give reasons for your answers.

33 UNIT The graph below shows the heart rate of two 16 year old athletes when training at the same intensity. 180 Athlete A Heart rate (bpm) Athlete B 60 0 Time (minutes) 30 i. Which athlete is the fitter, A or B? ii. Using information from the graph to help you, give two reasons for your answer.

34 25. The graph below shows the heart rate of a sportsperson recorded during a training session. UNIT 1 - MHR Heart rate Heart rate Training Session i. What happens to the sportsperson s heart rate during the training session? ii. What causes the heart rate to change in this way? iii. What type of sporting activity do you think the sportsperson is training for? Explain your answer.

35 26. The graph below shows the heart rate of an eighteen-year-old badminton player during a game. UNIT Heart Rate Beats per minute (BPM) Time (min) i. Give two pieces if evidence to suggest that this player is a fit competitor. ii. Calculate the player s maximum heart rate (MHR). iii. What evidence is there to suggest that this player worked both aerobically and anaerobically during the game?

36 UNIT The graph below shows how a sixteen-year-old sportsperson can use heart rate to work out how hard to train. Heart rate and training of a sixteen-year-old sportsperson: i. What heart rate is indicated at 204 bpm (A)? ii. What threshold is indicated at 163 bpm (C)? iii. What threshold is indicated at 122 bpm (E)? iv.in which training zone does lactic acid build up quickly? Is it B, D or F? v.how does lactic acid build up affect training time and recovery time? vi.which training zone is important for improving aerobic fitness? Is it B, D or F? vii.explain why training zone F has little effect on aerobic fitness?

37 UNIT 1 Key Facts/Glossary Muscle contraction ATP Energy Needed (CP System Lactic Acid System) Aerobic System Anaerobic Pathway Aerobic Pathway Needs of individual physical activity health/ competitive? Intensity/ duration of physical activity Oxygen debt lactic acid fatigue performance Training correctly to meet identified needs/ demands Heart rate links with VO 2 establishing training zones and thresholds

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