Name period date assigned date due date returned. Chains, Webs, and Pyramids Assessment. EXAMPLE : sun grass deer human

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1 Name period date assigned date due date returned Assessment Living organisms from bacterial decomposers to plants, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers can be arranged in food chains, webs, and pyramids. You will use the energy transfer cards to arrange the living organisms into various levels. food chain A food chain shows a single path as animals eat each other. The organisms are linked in the order they need to feed upon each other. The flow of energy begins with the sun and transfers through the chain as matter is consumed. EXAMPLE : sun grass deer human Using the energy transfer cards, create an example food chain for each color. red card food chain blue card food chain yellow card food chain 1

2 food web A food web shows how many animals are interconnected by different paths. Many animals belong to several different food chains. These chains form a network for energy transfer to occur. The flow of energy begins with the sun and can follow different paths through the web rather than a straight line like a chain. EXAMPLE : bobcat grass deer sun mountain lion tree rabbit Using the energy transfer cards, create an example food web for each color. red card food web blue card food web yellow card food web 2

3 trophic level A trophic level indicates an organism s position in a food chain. Plants are on the first level because they produce their own food. Usually, plant eaters will go on the second level. The number of consumers in each level will decrease as the trophic level gets higher because the amount of energy available is getting smaller. EXAMPLE : bobcat quail, coyote snail, rabbit grass, shrubs, weeds Using the energy transfer cards, create an example trophic level for each color. red card trophic level blue card trophic level yellow card trophic level 3

4 energy pyramid An energy pyramid shows energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose a food chain. The bottom level indicates plants and the other levels are consumers. At each level, 90% of the energy is used by the organism and only 10% transfers to the next level when it is eaten or dies. EXAMPLE : man, bear deer, elk acorns, grass Using the energy transfer cards, create an example energy pyramid for each color. red card energy pyramid blue card energy pyramid yellow card energy pyramid 4

5 Answer the following questions. Please use complete sentences. 13. Where does all of the energy on Earth originally come from? 14. What process do plants use to turn that radiant energy into food (glucose) that can be used? 15. Why are decomposers important to some cycles on Earth? 16. How is energy transferred in the environment? 17. What is the 10% Rule? 18 When energy is passing through a food web, some of the energy is lost. How much of the energy is passed from one level to the next? A 1% B 10% C 50% 19 Which of the following is an example of a producer? F G H J oak tree song bird polar bear mushroom D 90% 5

6 20 How do organisms get the energy they need? A B C D Plants get energy from fertilizers, and animals get energy from drinking water. Plants get energy from glucose produced in the soil, and animals get energy directly from sunlight. Plants do not require energy because they do not move, and animals get energy by performing exercise. Plants break down the glucose they produced during photosynthesis, and animals get energy from eating other organisms. 21 SUN STRANGLER FIG CATERPILLAR LIZARD HARPY EAGLE What would happen if pesticides drastically reduced the number of caterpillars in this food chain. F G H J The lizard population would adapt to eating the strangler fig. The strangler fig population would increase; the lizard population would decrease. The lizard population would remain the same; the strangler fig population would decrease. The strangler fig population would be unaffected; the lizard population would increase. 6

7 22 What kind of organism is NOT shown in the diagram? A B C D producer consumer herbivore decomposer 23 How many producers are in the diagram? F 1 G 2 H 3 J 4 7

8 24 Mario diagrammed a food web of algae, snails, ducks, frogs, and snakes that he observed during a summer trip to his grandparents farm. What is the correct arrangement of these organisms on a trophic level pyramid. A B C D 8

9 25 Mushrooms and bacteria serve an important role in an ecosystem, that of decomposer. Decomposers break down the organic material of once living organisms such as carbon and nitrogen. Why are decomposers important to the ecosystem? F G H J They release stored energy and nutrients from dead organisms into the ecosystem. They eat only primary consumers. They provide a direct food source for producers and consumers in the ecosystem. They are not an important component in the ecosystem. 26 Describe how a secondary consumer is dependent on the sun for energy. 27 How many organisms in this food web eat only producers? 9

10 28 Which organisms in the food web shown above compete for the same food source in this environment? A B C D grasshoppers and snakes hawks and frogs frogs and snakes decomposers and grass 29 While exploring a lake, scientists found rocks covered with mats made of photosynthetic microbes. Flamingos in the area filter the nutrient rich microbes by pumping lake water through their bill. What is the relationship between the photosynthetic microbes and the flamingos? F G H J The microbes are parasites, and the flamingos are hosts. The microbes are carnivores, and the flamingos are predators. The microbes are herbivores, and the flamingos are carnivores. The microbes are producers, and the flamingos are consumers. 10

11 Extension: Use the food web below to answer the questions: 30. In detail, explain what would happen to the organisms in this food web if the berries, fruits and nuts are removed. 31. In detail, explain what would happen to the organisms in this food web if the coyote is removed. 32. Where could a decomposer fit into this ecosystem? 11

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