A Study on the Willingness to Use Information System of Sport Event Based on Information System Success Model

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1 A Study on the Willingness to Use Information System of Sport Event Based on Information System Success Model Mu-Cheng Wu, Assistant Professor, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taiwan Yong Tang, Assistant Professor, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taiwan Hung-Jen Lo, Corresponding author, National Taiwan University of Physical Education and Sport, Taiwan ABSTRACT This study examines the influence of information quality, system quality and service quality on the willingness to use the information system for the National Games in Changhua, based on the theoretical foundation of the Information System Success Model. 330 users of the information system of the National Games in Changhua were surveyed with a questionnaire conducted through convenience sampling. Research results reveal that: (1) there is no significant positive effect of the information quality of information system of the National Games in Changhua on the willingness to use; (2) there is no significant positive effect of the system quality of the information system of the National Games in Changhua on the willingness to use; and (3) there is no significant positive effect of the service quality of the information system of the National Games in Changhua on the willingness to use. In the end, these research results provide future organizers of sports events with practical suggestions regarding information systems related to Information System Success modeling and the willingness to use. Keywords: information system of sports events, Information System Success Model, willingness to use INTRODUCTION Sports are often organized as events, and sports events are a multiple assembly of diversified goals presented as a multiple event of contest, entertainment, and performance (Yeh, 1990). Globalization has emerged as an important trend in the worldwide sports movement, and the organization of sports events demonstrates the significance of sports globalization (Kao, 2005). Kao (2005) further point out the sports industry is one of ten leading industries in the US, generating revenue exceeding US $100.9 billion. In 2011, the sports industry in Taiwan contributed revenue totaling NT $281,227,532,000 (Chen, 2006), indicating the increasing prosperity of the sports industry and large sporting events. The National Games, held every two years, is the most important sporting event in Taiwan, and between 1946 and 1973 there were 28 National Games of the Republic of China held. In 1999, the event was renamed as the National Games and is organized semi-annually, the most recent being the 2011 National Games in Changhua. In addition to the sporting event, the organizer, the Changhua County Government, included tourism and cultural promotion that allowed speculators attending the event to simultaneously participate in tourism and recreational activities. In recent years, due to the rapid advancement of information systems, businesses have applied information system to their management operations with the aim to create advantages for organizations and, without exception, this also applies to sporting events management. In order to smoothly enable The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue 31

2 athletes and spectators to participate in and attend contests, information technology is used to assist with professionalism, efficiency, and overall service provision for sporting events. Kung (2007) suggests five points of effectiveness provided by integrated sports events information technology: (1) the provision of useful sporting event information to add value; (2) simplification of manual operational procedures with on-line registration mechanisms; (3) safe and convenient payment systems with the adoption of on-line banking payment mechanisms; (4) increased handling efficiency of sports events with the design of integrated systems for contest information; and (5) convenient inquiry of contest results with real-time announcement interfaces. As information systems have become widely utilized, the assessment of information system has likewise become an important research topic. DeLone and McLean (1992), after compiling more than 180 relevant studies, propose the Information System Success Model consisting of six dimensions: System Quality, Information Quality, Use, User Satisfaction, Individual Impact, and Organizational Impact. They argue these six dimensions are not independent indicators for measurement but influential factors toward use, user satisfaction, individual impact, and organizational impact. It is not until 2003 when DeLone and McLean again refer to relevant studies on the Information System Success Model, as well as those of Pitt, Watson and Kavan (1995), that Service Quality was included as an additional test dimension, resulting in a new version of the Information System Success Model including System Quality, Information Quality, Service Quality, Use, User Satisfaction, and Net Benefits (Tseng & Li, 2008). Among these dimensions, System Quality refers to the assessment of accessibility, function, operation, responsiveness, and reliability of the system. Information Quality refers to integrity, strictness, accuracy, precision, relativeness, facilitation, and timeliness of any reports generated. Service Quality is defined as the use frequency, interval, and willingness to use. User Satisfaction is the perception or attitude of the user. Net Benefits is an evaluation of service efficiency, the improvement of service quality, and the enhancement of overall image after use (Tsai & Liang, 2009). DeLone and McLean also attempt to measure the relationship between the willingness to use, use, user satisfaction and net benefits and contest these are important indicators for the success of information system (Liu, Huang & Liao, 2010). The above discussion of the Information System Success Model shows that information quality, system quality, and service quality can be used to assess information systems (Wixom 2001; DeLone & McLean 2004) to enable the quality of an information system to meet the expectation of customers, increase customer satisfaction, and increase profitability for businesses. Combining sports events with event information technology provides both athletes and spectators with event information for their benefit. Thus, this study uses the Information System Success Model as a theoretical foundation to examine the influence of information quality, system quality, and service quality of the information system of National Games in Changhua on the willingness to use. RESEARCH METHOD Research Subjects The subjects of this study are users of the information system of National Games in Changhua surveyed using a questionnaire given by convenience sampling between October 22 and October 27, The questionnaire was distributed by the researcher to the testers onsite at the event venues. In total, 340 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and collected, with a 100% response rate. After removing invalid questionnaires, there remained 330 effective copies with an effective response rate of 97.1%. 32 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol.9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue

3 Research Tools The research tool consistss of three parts. First is the users personal information. Second, the Scale of the Information System Success Model referred to in the Willingness to Use Scale of the Library Information System of National Pingtung University of Education as developed by Liu (2008), consisting of 20 questionss on system quality, information quality, and service quality. Third, an additional Willingness to Use Scale as developed by Lin (2011) for the Digital Experiential Area of National Taichung Library, consisting of four questions with response options gradatedd along Likert s seven-point scale including very much disagree, disagree, somehow disagree, fair, somehow agree, agree, and very much agree corresponding with 1 to 7 points, respectively. Research Structure In accordance with the research goal and literature review, this study develops a structure (shown in Dig. 1) based on the Information System Success Model to examine the influence of system information, system quality, and service quality of the Changhua National Games on the willingness to use. Diag. 1: Research Structure Research Hypothesis This study utilizes the Information System Success Model proposed by DeLone and McLean (1992) as the theoretical basis. As noted by DeLone and McLean, information quality, system quality, and service quality are the most important factors underlying the willingness to use and for the measurement of information system quality, and, as such, these three factors shall be separately discussed. Swan and Trawick (1981) also contest that during the formation process of satisfaction, the satisfaction level determines the intention of customers to return. Van Riel et al. (2001) find satisfaction has a positive influence on the return use of portable websites, while Saeedet al. (2003) argue that information quality is an important influential factor in determining the willingness to repurchase and the satisfaction of customers. Accordingly, this study proposes three hypotheses as follows: 1. The information quality of the information system of the Changhua National Games has a significant influence on the willingness to use of information system users. 2. The system quality of the information system of the Changhua National Games has a significant influence on the willingness to use of information system users. The Journal of Human Resourcee and Adult Learning, Vol. 9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue 33

4 3. The service quality of the information system of the Changhua National Games has a significant influence on the willingness to use of information system users. Data Analysis This study uses two sets of software, SPSS 12.0 for Windows and Amos 16.0, for data analysis. The statistical methods adopted by this study are described below: 1. Descriptive statistics are used to understand demographic variables of information system users of the Changhua National Games. 2.A structural equation model is estimated to analyze the influence of system quality, information quality, and service quality of the information system of the Changhua National Games on the willingness to use of information system users. RESULTS Sample Characteristics This study utilizes descriptive statistics to analyze the distribution of basic information (see Table 1). The effective sample size is 330 respondents, 162 of whom are male (49.1%) and 168 of whom are female (50.9%), indicating there are more female subjects than males. In terms of age, the largest age bracket is the under 20 (including 20) group (66.7%), followed by the between bracket (29.1%), while about 0.3%, the fewest number of subjects in any age range, are categorized as older than 41. In terms of educational background, most subjects reported receiving a university education (44.2%) followed by (Vocational) Senior High School (37.3%), and the lowest percentage for highest education level attained by subjects is Less than Junior High School (0%). Subjects were also asked how frequently they participate in sports training, with most reporting participating more than five days per week (60.9%), while 15.5% report participating 1-2 days per week. Table 1: Summary of Background Variables of Research Subjects Background Variable Name of Group Frequency(times) % Accumulated % Gender Male Female Les than 20 (including 20) Age 21~ ~ Elder than days Days to Participate in 3-4 days Sports Training per Week More than 5 days Junior High School (Vocational) Senior High School Education College University Graduate Institute (including) and up The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol.9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue

5 Testing for Offending Estimates This study uses (1) the negative error variance and (2) the closeness of standardized regression coefficients to 1 as the basis to testing for offending estimates (Hair, Anderson, Tatham and Black, 1998). As shown in Table 2, there is no negative error variance, and the standardized coefficients fall between.68 and.86, all lower than.95, indicating there are no offending estimates in the model, and the overall model fit can be conducted. Table 2: Test of Offending Estimates Questions Standardized Regression Coefficient Error Variance A1 I am satisfied with functions provided by the National Games Information System A2 I am satisfied with the friendliness of operating interface of the National Games Information System A3 I am satisfied with system stability when operating the National Games Information System A4 I am satisfied with the response time of the National Games Information System A5 I am satisfied with information accuracy indicated by the National Games Information System A6 I feel easy when operating the National Games Information System A7 I am satisfied with information timeliness provided by the National Games Information System B1 The National Games Information System is able to accurately provide information that I need B2 The National Games Information System is able to provide information that is exactly what I need B3 The National Games Information System is able to provide accurate information B4 The National Games Information System is able to accurately provide information related to my questions B5 I am satisfied with information format provided by the National Games Information System B6 I am satisfied with the diversified contents of information provided by the National Games Information System B7 I am satisfied with information timeliness provided by the National Games Information System C1 Personnel of the National Games Information System provided me with real-time services C2 Personnel of the National Games Information System provided quality services C3 Personnel of the National Games Information System did not ignore the needs of users due to busy engagement C4 I am satisfied with the ability of the personnel of the National Games Information System for solving problems C5 Personnel of the National Games Information System have sufficient knowledge to answer the questions of users C6 I am satisfied with the handling of complaints or comments by personnel of the National Games Information System D1 I am willing to use the National Games Information System D2 In the future, I would like to use the National Games Information System D3 In general, I am very willing to use the National Games Information System D4 I will recommend this system to others The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue 35

6 Diag 2: Structure of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Informationn System Success Model Analysis of Measurement Model 1. Test for convergent validity This study conducts confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the Scale of Information System Success Model and finds four dimensions of the Model ( system quality, information quality, service quality and willingness to use) have a loading between 0.65~0.86, component reliability between 0.89~0.90, and average variance extracted (AV E) between 0.58~0.66, all meeting the standards, as shown in Table 3. As a result, each dimension of the Information System Successs Model reaches convergent validity. Table 3: Reliability and AVE Constructed by Observable Variable and Latent Variable Latent Variable Observable Variable A1 Factor Loading.85 Component Reliability.90 AVE.58 A2.85 A3.79 Information Quality A4.75 A5.70 A6.65 A The Journal of Human Resourcee and Adult Learning, Vol.9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue

7 System Quality Service Quality Willingness to Use B B2.80 B3.80 B4.76 B5.76 B6.76 B7.73 C C2.77 C3.78 C4.80 C5.74 C6.68 D D2.86 D3.83 D Testing discriminant validity This study adopts the Bootstrap Distribution of Effects proposed by Torkzadeh, Koufteros and Pflughoeft (2003) to test for disciminant validity by constructing confidence intervals for the correlation coefficients of each dimension. If the confidence interval of correlation coefficient does not include 1, then it is in complete correlation, indicating the existence of discriminant validity between dimensions. The discriminant validity test for the Information System Success Model is shown in Table 4, indicating that within four dimensions, all standardized correlation coefficients have 95% confidence intervals that do not include 1. Thus, the Information System Success Model has discriminant validity between dimensions. Table 4: 95% of Confidence Intervals of Bootstrap Correlation Coefficient Parameter Estimate Lower Upper P Information Quality <--> System Quality Information Quality <--> Service Quality System Quality <--> Service Quality Service Quality <--> Willingness to Use System Quality <--> Willingness to Use Information System <--> Willingness to Use Structural Model Analysis This study uses seven indices for the evaluation of overall model fit including a χ2 test of absolute fit index, relative fit index, and parsimonious fix index, the ratio of χ2 and the degrees of freedom, goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted 3 goodness of fit index (AGFI), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), and parsimony-adjusted comparative fit index (PCFI) (Wu, 2009; Bentler, 1995). The results of these analyses are reproduced in Table 5, and indicate the overall fit is standard and acceptable for the model used in this study. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue 37

8 Fit Indices χ 2 (Chi-square) χ 2 and Degrees of Freedom GFI AGFI RMSEA CFI PCFI Table 5: Fit Analysis of Research Mode Range of Research Structural Model Allowance Minimized Values < >.8.84 >.8.81 < >.9.92 >.5.82 Determination of Model Fit Test Results of Research Hypothesis As shown in Table 6, information quality is shown to have no significant positive influence on the willingness to use, failing to support Hypothesis 1. System quality has a significant and positive influence on the willingness to use, supporting Hypothesis 2. Finally, service quality has no significantly positive influence on the willingness to use, failing to support Hypothesis 3. Table 6: Empirical Results of Research Hypothesis Hypothesis Path Relationship Path Value 1 Information Quality Willingness to Use.12 2 System Quality Willingness to Use.60* 3 Service Quality Willingness to Use.16 *pp <.05 Support of Hypothesis No Yes No Diag. 2: Overalll Model Relationship of Parameter Evaluation of System Success Model of Sports Event Information System 38 The Journal of Human Resourcee and Adult Learning, Vol.9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue

9 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion This study uses the Information System Success Model as the theoretical basis, for examining three dimensions of the Model (system quality, information quality, and service quality) as independent variables to explain the willingness to use the Changhua National Games Information System. The research results are described below: 1. No significant positive influence of information quality and service quality of National Games Information System on the willingness to use was found. As indicated by this study, information quality and service quality have no significant positive influence on the willingness to use. This result corresponds to the findings of Chen, Li, Yen, and Chiang (2008). It is assumed that the original purpose of the Information System Success Model aims at evaluating the functionality and success of the traditional information system, and that system users willingness to use is subsequently dependent on the demands for information quality and service quality. However, the users of the National Games Information System received supplementary information from the system, and their willingness to use was measured from their internal perception, value judgments and evaluation instead of the information and service quality. Detaching the willingness to use from the information and service quality of the system in this manner results in a certain variance between the willingness to use for sports events information systems and traditional information systems. 2. There is a significant and positive influence of the system quality of the National Games Information System on the willingness to use. After empirical research, this study finds a significant positive influence of system quality on the willingness to use, echoing the findings of DeLone and McLean (1992). It is assumed that users of the National Games Information System rely on a stable system to support the acquisition of relevant information regarding the National Games. Good system quality enables users to easily use or browse the interface, and to have quick operation responses. Users easily and quickly obtained information related to National Games, therefore increasing their willingness to use the system again. Suggestion 1. Practical Suggestion The research results prove system quality has a positive influence on the willingness to use, and it indicates that users of National Games Information System hold a positive perception towards system quality. Therefore, organizers of the National Games should improve the reliability, responsiveness, flexibility and adaptability of information system to create a positive user perception toward use to increase the willingness to use the information system. 2. Suggestions for future research (1) This study only investigates users of the National Games Information System, and there are limitations to the research results. As a result, future studies should widen their scope to investigate users of other sports events information systems and to make the studies more conclusive. (2) The research method relies on a questionnaire to survey the influence of the information quality, service quality, and system quality of the National Games Information System on the willingness to use, which may not be able to completely present the results. It is thus suggested that future studies should conduct in-depth interviews of users of the National Games Information System to construct a more complete interpretation and to enhance the value of the research. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue 39

10 REFERENCES Chen, Y. Y. (2006). A study on revenue and development trend of Taiwan s sports recreation industry. Unpublished MA Thesis. Graduate Institute of Sports and Recreation, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi County. DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (1992). Information system success: the quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3(1), DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2004). Measuring e-commerce success: applying the DeLone & McLean Information Systems Success Model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 9(1), Kun. L. W. (2007). Discussion on integrated services design of marathon contest information technology. Chinese Sports Quarterly, 21(1), Liu, N. C., Huang, H. C., & Liao, C. C. (2010). An empirical study on the use effectiveness of decision-making supportive system: combining task-technology fit and information success model. Journal of E-Business, 12(3), Pitt, L. F., Watson, R. T., & Kavan C. B. (1995). Service quality: a measure of information systems effectiveness. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), Saeed, K. A., Hwang, Y., & Yi, M. Y. (2003). Toward an integrative framework for online consumer behavior research: a meta-analysis approach. Journal of End User Computing, 15(4), Swan, J. E., & Trawick, I. F. (1981). Disconfirmation of expectations and satisfaction with a retail service. Journal of Retailing, 57, Translated by Kao, C. H. (2005). Sports facility management: sports event organization and risk management. Taipei City: EC Link Co., Ltd. Tseng, F. C. & Li, T. H. (2008). A study on evaluation of library E-Information integrated search system. Journal of Library and Information Studies, 6(2), Tsai, Y. C. & Lian, C. M. (2009).A study on health information management system of elementary school students with information success model and technology acceptance model. Kaohsiung Normal University Journal, 27, Van Riel, A.C. R., Liljander, V., and Jurriens,P. (2001). Exploring consumer evaluations of e-services: a portal site. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(4), Wixom, B. H. (2001). An empirical investigation of the factors affecting data warehousing success, MIS Quarterly 25(1), Yeh, H. C. (1990). Management of school sports event. National Sports Quarterly, 19(1), The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol.9, Num. 2, December 2013 issue

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