E-Commerce Digital Learning by Commercial Vocational Students in Taiwan

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1 E-Commerce Digital Learning by Commercial Vocational Students in Taiwan Ching-San Lai, Professor, Department of Science Education, National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan ABSTRACT The study investigates the e-commerce digital learning performance of students in Taiwan. A total of 102 students from a commercial vocational school participated in this study. They were guided to explore the topics of information technology and e-commerce, and given instructions for using a 3D imaging technology system in order to enhance their training in and application of both information technology and e-commerce. A Learning Questionnaire was employed to gather student feedback on their learning with the 3D imaging technology system. The feedback collected was then analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. Results indicated that integrating 3D imaging technology into e-commerce promoted the e-commerce technology literacy of students. There was no gender difference in e-commerce technology performance, but some differences did exist among students from different majors. Keywords: 3D imaging, E-Commerce, E-Commerce Education, E-Learning, Information Technology INTRODUCTION Although Taiwan has provided increasing computer facilities for primary and secondary school information education, digital gaps still influence strongly school students' information technology literacy (Chen, 2013; Cheng, 2008; Hou & Chan, 2011; Liou & Lee, 2010; Yu & Lai, 2010). Therefore, how to make full use of existing school resources for information technology and how to enhance students' information technology literacy is important for promoting both information technology education and e-commerce education in Taiwan. Ho (2012) pointed out that the instructional use of new information and internet technologies should include not only diverse teaching methods, but also increasing teacher/student interaction and new ways of learning. Huang (2013) indicated that primary and secondary school students' information technology literacy will be better prepared by information courses and by teachers who apply information technology in their teaching methods. Electronic commerce (e-commerce) has grown rapidly from 1995 through the present (Ngai, Gunasekaran, & Harris, 2005; Tabor, 2005). Ngai, Gunasekaran, & Harris (2005) pointed out that e-commerce continues to grow dramatically, due mainly to the permeation of the internet into homes and offices worldwide and because it offers many advantages, including cost saving for companies, convenience for consumers, easy comparison of goods and prices, and access to goods and services not available locally. Huang (2004) indicated that e-commerce applications constitute a new form of business model for the information age, and that situational teaching strategies of e-commerce can increase students' training experience with real-life business issues giving them better business knowledge and skills. In view of the contemporary development of information technology and e-commerce, how to enhance students literacy in e-commerce technology has become particularly important. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue 43

2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The major purpose of this study was to investigate the e-commerce digital learning performance of students from a commercial vocational school in Taiwan. LITERATURE REVIEW E-Commerce E-Commerce has grown rapidly since 1995 (Ngai, Gunasekaran, & Harris, 2005; Tabor, 2005). According to the definition provided by the Taiwan Ministry of Commerce (2013), e-commerce is internet plus commerce. In other words, e-commerce conducts traditional commercial activities within an internet environment, where commercial transactions are conducted electronically. A business enterprise applies e-commerce and utilizes the internet, to help consumers to understand a product and its producer. In addition, e-commerce could attract new consumers and create an appropriate size of market. In Japan, for example, e-commerce has expanded local industries and increased the added value of local products (Chang Lee, 2011). E-Commerce is a new business activity pattern and one of the main driving forces of the knowledge economy (Yeh, Chen, Kuo, & Chung, 2012). However, the industrial sector and academia have different perspectives on e-commerce management. Yazdanifard & Zargar (2012) argued that some companies emphasize business e-commerce marketing management functions, while other companies focus on e-commerce management information functions or network design and development. Nevertheless e-commerce technology has played an increasingly important role. In summary, e-commerce is a new business activity pattern and one of the main driving forces of the knowledge economy. Therefore, how to integrate information technology and business operations to promote the development of e-commerce and to help students develop e-commerce technology literacy will rely on the continuing efforts of e-commerce education. E-Learning Ho (2012) emphasized that the impact of information and network technology in education is very profound, and that teaching and learning were affected significantly by these changes. Liu, Hodgson, & Lord (2010) pointed out that the effectiveness of e-learning depends on technological support, institutional culture, staff development and students' receptivity and learning behaviors. Sung, Chang, & Hou (2005) found that teachers in USA believe there are six obstacles to integrating information technology into teaching methods: (1) lack of sufficient time to learn or practice how to prepare teaching using the computer, (2) lack of time for students to use computers in the classroom, (3) lack of sufficient computers, (4) lack of good educational software, (5) lack of support in integrating internet technology and curriculum, and (6) lack of enough training opportunities. Therefore, how to increase school teachers ability to integrate information technology into teaching is the key in promoting information technology education. In their research on topics of research on the teaching of information technology, Chang & Wang (2008) found that teachers with better knowledge, attitude, school environment, and external environment are more likely to put more effort into integrating information technology into teaching. Chen & Reimer (2009) pointed out that teachers beliefs concerning technological development in the integration of information technology affect their integration of information technology during practice teaching. 44 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue

3 In addition, effective use of knowledge management strategy is the key in promoting the development of information technology education. In an information education system, knowledge management is the most important element during the process of teaching and learning, because knowledge management can promote the quality of teaching and learning (Bhusry & Ranjan, 2012; Velazquez, 2014). Velazquez (2014) further emphasized the use of knowledge management as a strategic process to promote, create and transform competitive capabilities in many kinds of organizations through diverse knowledge representation. This management is closely linked with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) because it makes knowledge management possible. In summary, the effectiveness of information technology education is closely related to a region's development and progress. Therefore, how to make full use of the school resources of information technology and thereby enhance students' information technology literacy is our main objective for information technology education. 3D images With the widespread and convenience of e-commerce marketing, the use of two-dimensional photo images on the internet is already very common. However, e-commerce, though it provides the convenience of online shopping, cannot let customers try on goods or view them in real-time. Moreover, two-dimensional pictures on the internet often mislead consumers, resulting in erroneous purchases. Therefore, 3D images can facilitate e-commerce marketing. Moreover, because viewers seek high quality and photorealistic images, 3D images has become a new trend in the development of digital imaging. Furthermore, the production cost of 3D images has been reduced due to technological advances, thereby attracting many people or companies to start 3D stereoscopic imaging production and applications (Lan & Chung, 2008). METHODOLOGY A total of 102 students from a commercial vocational school in Hualien, Taiwan participated in this study. Student participants were guided to explore the topics of information technology and e-commerce, and instructed to operate the 3D imaging technology system with the aim promoting students training and application of information technology and e-commerce. A research instrument, referred to as Learning Questionnaires, was employed to gather feedback from students about their learning on the use of a 3D imaging technology system. The Learning Questionnaire was designed with reference to the evaluation model proposed by Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick (2007). The Learning Questionnaire contains 15 questions with responses provided according to a 5 point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree). The 15 questions can be divided into three sub-scales: (1) the reaction sub-scale with 5 questions investigating the learner s response of consciousness, emotional, subjective or satisfaction after using 3D imaging technology; (2) the learning sub-scale with 5 questions investigating the learner s understanding of cognition, skills, and affective changes after using 3D imaging technology; and (3) the behavior sub-scale with 5 questions investigating whether the learning outcomes after using 3D imaging technology can be transferred into other tasks or new learning. This study did not use Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick s 4 th level sub-scale (results sub-scale) for evaluation because the Learning Questionnaire focuses on students individual learning feedback rather than on the teaching program itself. The reliability coefficients for each sub-scale and total scale are The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue 45

4 Cronbach α =.91,.91,.86, and.96 respectively; indicating good reliability of the research instrument. The research instrument was validated by three research experts, who confirmed that the research instrument had good validity. The results were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results on reaction sub-scale After participating in e-commerce activities and 3D imaging technology learning, the student participants answered the Learning Questionnaires to give learning feedback about their use of the 3D imaging technology system. Students learning outcomes on three sub-scales were collected and analyzed and table 1 lists the learning outcomes on the reaction sub-scale. Table 1: Student learning performance on the reaction sub-scale Item No. Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree N % N % N % N % N % As shown in table 1, (1) 83.3% of students reported that they feel they are suitable for using the 3D imaging technology system. (2) 93.1% of students are satisfied with the quality of 3D imaging technology system. (3) 88.2% of students reported that they feel 3D imaging technology system is easy to use. (4) 93.1% of students reported that they feel the products of 3D images are attractive. And (5) 95.1% of students reported that they enjoy using the 3D imaging technology system. In summary, most of students are satisfied with using the 3D imaging technology system. Moreover, in order to understand the response of students from different backgrounds on reaction sub-scale, t-test and ANOVA procedure were performed between different gender and classes. The results of t-test and ANOVA for students feedbacks on reaction sub-scale are shown in tables 2 and 3. Table 2: t-test for student learning performance on reaction sub-scale by gender gender N Mean SD t p male female Table 3: ANOVA for student learning performance on reaction sub-scale by class SS df MS F p between within As shown in tables 2 and 3, there was no difference on student feedback on the reaction sub-scale by gender or by class. However, checking each single item showed that there was a significant difference among the classes for item 3. The results indicated that more students from the Accounting and Information Management departments felt that the 3D imaging technology system was easy to use compared to students from the Business Department (F=8.735, p<.001). 46 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue

5 Results on learning sub-scale Table 4 lists the learning outcomes on the learning sub-scale. Table 4: Student learning performance on the learning sub-scale Item No. Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree N % N % N % N % N % Table 4 shows that student feedback about learning sub-scale indicated: (1) 93.1% of the students reported that the 3D imaging technology enhance the attractiveness of the image. (2) 90.2% of the students reported that the 3D imaging technology increased the quality of web content. (3) 81.3% of students reported that the 3D imaging technology promoted image message dissemination. (4) 94.1% of students reported that the 3D imaging technology promoted cultural and creative sharing. (5) 95.1% of students reported that the 3D imaging technology promoted e-commerce marketing. In summary, most students understood that 3D imaging technology and e-commerce are closely related, and strongly agreed that 3D imaging technology can enhance e-commerce. Moreover, in order to understand the feedback of students from different backgrounds on the learning sub-scale, t-test and ANOVA procedure were performed between different genders and classes with the results as shown in tables 5 and 6. However, as indicated in tables 5 and 6, there was no difference between different genders and classes for student feedback about the learning sub-scale. Table 5: t-test for student learning performance on learning sub-scale by gender gender N Mean SD t p male female Table 6: ANOVA for student learning performance on learning sub-scale by class SS df MS F p between within Results on behavior sub-scale Table 7 lists the learning outcomes on the behavior sub-scale. Table 7: Student learning performance on the behavior sub-scale Item No. Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree N % N % N % N % N % The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue 47

6 As shown in table 7, student feedbacks on the behavior sub-scale were as follow: (1) 94.1% of students reported that the 3D imaging technology enhanced their web production. (2) 85.3% of students reported that the 3D imaging technology could help them achieve their other information technology tasks. (3) 88.2% of students reported that they were satisfied with their use of 3D imaging technology for information applications or e-learning. (4) 94.1% of students reported that they were satisfied with their use of 3D imaging technology for e-commerce marketing. (5) 95.1% of students reported that 3D imaging technology enhanced their information technology application performance. In summary, most of students are willing to apply 3D imaging technology for information technology operations and e-commerce marketing. In addition, they enjoy using 3D imaging technology and confirm that 3D imaging technology enhanced their information technology application performance. To understand the response of students from different backgrounds on behavior sub-scale, t-test and ANOVA procedures were performed between different genders and classes. The results of t-test and ANOVA for students feedback on behavior sub-scale are shown in tables 8 and 9. Table 8: t-test for student learning performance on behavior sub-scale by gender gender N Mean SD t p male female Table 9: ANOVA for student learning performance on behavior sub-scale by class SS df MS F p between * within There was no difference on student feedback about behavior sub-scale by gender. However, found from table 9, there has a significant difference (F=3.855, p<.05) between different classes on students feedbacks about behavior sub-scale. Results from the post hoc Scheffe method indicated that students from the Accounting Department use the system more effectively than students from the Business Department on the behavior sub-scale. Checking each item indicated that the source of difference between two classes derives from items 11, 13 and 15. Therefore, it can be summarized that (1) students from the Accounting Department are more likely to agree that 3D imaging technology enhances their web production than students from the Business Department (F=5.061, p<.01), (2) students from the Accounting and Information Management departments are more satisfied with their applications of 3D imaging technology for information applications or e-learning than students from the Business Department (F=5.968, p<.01), and (3) students from the Accounting Department are also more likely to agree that 3D imaging technology can enhance the performance of their information technology applications than students from the Business Department (F=3.100, p<.05). CONCLUSION Making best use of the school resources for information technology and enhancing students' information technology literacy is the main objective for information technology education. This study incorporates 3D imaging technology into students e-commerce digital learning and the results revealed that most of the students were satisfied with using the 3D imaging technology. The findings also showed that 3D imaging technology can fulfill students needs and expectations for image message dissemination. In 48 The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue

7 addition, students reported that 3D imaging technology can promote their work on cultural and creative sharing, e-learning, and e-commerce marketing. Therefore, it can be concluded that 3D imaging technology is effective in promoting e-commerce digital learning for commercial vocational students. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under contract no. NSC S MY3. Opinions expressed in this study do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan. Thanks also for the contributions of project members Prof. Y. Liu, Prof. Z. Zhao, Prof. S. Huang, and Prof. K. Yang. Special thanks to the group members involved in teaching activities for the 3D imaging technology including Principal Y. Chen; Director of the Office of Academic Affairs Y. Yang; and the school teachers who participated in this study. REFERENCES Bhusry, M., & Ranjan, J. (2012). Enhancing the teaching-learning process: a knowledge management approach. International Journal of Educational Management, 26(3), Chang Lee, H. (2011). A study on the trend of Japan s development of e-commerce with local culture industry. Journal of Science and Technology and Humanities of Transworld Institute of Technology, 12, Chang, C., & Wang, C. (2008). Influencing factors of teachers integrating IT technology into teaching in Taipei municipal vocational high schools. Journal of Educational Practice and Research, 21(1), Chen, C., & Reimer, T. C. (2009). Teacher beliefs, contextual factors, and Taiwanese high school teachers integration of technology into the classroom. International Journal on Digital Learning Technology, 1(3), Chen, R. (2013). The impact of the digital divide and digital opportunity on the integration of information technology into instructional activities for young children. Taiwan Journal of Sociology of Education, 13(1), Cheng, J. (2008). The research of digital divide and its responses of education. Journal of School Administration Research, 56, Ho, R. (2012). Educational technology: A brief retrospect and prospect in Taiwan. Taiwan Education Review, 674, Hou, Y., & Chan, Y. (2011). The learning problems of net-generation and its enlightenment on education innovation. Journal of Teacher Professional Research, 2, Huang, T. (2013). Problem-solving approach to the analysis of development principals for information technology integrated with teaching. Journal of Education Research, 236, Huang, Y. (2004). An action study of situated teaching on electronic commerce. Electronic Commerce Studies, 2(3), Kirkpatrick, D. L. & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2007). Implementing the four levels: A practical guide for effective evaluation of training programs. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Lan, S., & Chung, S. (2008). The study of modeling and layout on the effects of stereoscopic scenes in 3D computer animation. Minghsin Journal, 34(2), Liou, C., & Lee, H. (2010). A study on the information literacy and digital divide of the teachers of compulsory education. Journal of School Administration Research, 66, Liu, A., Hodgson, G., & Lord, W. (2010). Innovation in construction education: The role of culture in e-learning. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 6(2), Ngai, E. W. T., Gunasekaran, A., & Harris, A. L. (2005). The maturing of e-commerce education in our curricula. Journal of Information Systems Education, 16(1), 5-8. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue 49

8 Sung, Y., Chang, K., & Hou, H. (2005). Technology-instruction integration: Learning from America s experience and reflecting on Taiwan s development. Bulletin of Educational Research, 51(1), Tabor, S. W. (2005). Achieving significant learning in e-commerce education through small business consulting projects. Journal of Information Systems Education, 16(1), Taiwan Ministry of Commerce (2013, Feb. 12) Taiwan Ecommercee yearbook. Retrieved from Velázquez, P. C. (2014). Knowledge management, semantic web and logic of significances to create technologic skills for support e-learning methodologies. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 4(1), 1-5. Yazdanifard, R., & Zargar, A. (2012). Today need of e-commerce management to e-skill trainings. International Journal of e-education, e-business, e-management and e-learning, 2(1), 52. Yeh, R., Chen, Y., Kuo, S., & Chung, P. (2012). The trend of research topic classifications of electronic commerce in Taiwan. Journal of Meiho University, 31( (2), Yu, P., & Lai, Y. (2010). Bridging the digital divide in rural area. International Journal on Digital Learning Technology, 2(3), The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 10, Num. 1, June 2014 issue

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