FAO and Disaster Risk Management. Las Organizaciones Internacionales en el fomento y desarrollo de instrumentos de gestión de riesgos

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1 FAO and Disaster Risk Management Las Organizaciones Internacionales en el fomento y desarrollo de instrumentos de gestión de riesgos

2 Agenda 1. FAO and Disaster Risk Management 2. DRM Conceptual Framework 3. Good Practice Examples 4. Emerging challenge: DRR and CCA

3 UN funds, platforms and programmes use DRR as conceptual framework Disaster risk reduction The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and d property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness edness for adverse events. Why does FAO use DRM? For FAO, DRM goes beyond DRR Disaster risk management The systematic process of using administrative directives, organizations, ions, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies ies and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of disaster.

4 Disaster Risk Management Framework Normal/Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) period Emergency Response Period Recovery Period Risk assessment Mitigation/prevention Warning and/or evacuation Ongoing development activities Recontruction Preparedness Search and rescue Economic/social recovery Re establish logistic routes Restoration of infrastructural services Major hazard/disaster Emergency initiatives Recovery initiatives Coordination Provide ongoing assistance Damage assessment DRR initiatives Media Response Source: Disaster Risk Management Cycle (DRMC) Diagram (modified from TorqAid;

5 Disaster risk results from the combination of a potentially damaging event (hazard) and the degree of susceptibility of the elements exposed to the source of the hazard (vulnerability) Vulnerability conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes that increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards Resilience capacity of a system, community of society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt and maintain an acceptable level of function (coping capacities) Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) builds on the need to understand vulnerability and the promotion of resilience through actions aimed at (i) physical environment and (ii) human processes, primarily socio economic systems.

6 FAO and DRM? Disasters have most severe consequences on poor vulnerable and agriculturally dependent populations Food and agriculture play a key role in increasing community resilience to likely threats Mitigate impact of crisis and help vulnerable people adapt What is the FAO approach? Reduce vulnerability of people before, during and after disasters Continuum covers all phases of the DRM framework from predisaster (risk reduction), post disaster (response, recovery and rehabilitation) to development Management perspective that combines prevention, mitigation and preparedness with response, recovery and rehabilitation moving beyond DRR Transition to development provides basis for an integrated DRM approach

7 DRM and FAO Strategic Framework Strategic Objective I: Improved preparedness for, and effective response to, food and agricultural threats and emergencies Organizational Result 1 Countries vulnerability to crisis, threats and emergencies is reduced through better preparedness and integration of risk prevention and mitigation into policies, programmes and interventions Organizational Result 2 Countries and partners respond more effectively to crises and emergencies with food and agriculture related interventions Organizational Result 3 Organizational Result 3 Countries and partners have improved transition and linkages between emergency, rehabilitation and development

8 What are the major common elements of FAO DRM projects and programmes? All phases of DRM framework incorporated Main aim to support national DRM planning processes to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards Three target audiences: local communities and small scale farmers; local Government and national Ministries Baseline assessment identified good practice Focus on national strategies and programmes

9 Guidelines and Toolkits for Agriculture, Food Security, Fishery and Forestry Guidelines for Disaster Risk Management Systems Analysis Disaster response and risk management in the fisheries sector Guidelines for Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions Guidelines on Protecting and Promoting Good Nutrition in Crisis and Recovery Fire Management Voluntary Guidelines Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS) Socio Economic and Gender Analysis for Emergency and Rehabilitation Towards effective and sustainable seed relief activities Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine (RADAR) Technology for Agriculture (TECA): Good DRR practices

10 Good Practice Examples ( ) 2009) Caribbean Region: prevention and mitigation Horn of Africa: preparedness Pakistan: response Indonesia: transition

11 What is good practice? 1. Supportive of national DRM planning framework 2. Focused on capacity development 3. Community based approach and replicability 4. Knowledge management and sharing Scaling up at country and regional level Template for similar projects in different countries Diverse geographic focus, hazard profiling, type of disasters and DRM components Support for future implementation of FAO Country Focus and national DRM planning 5. Examples: Caribbean, Horn of Africa, Pakistan and Indonesia

12 GOOD PRACTICE - Focus on Prevention and Mitigation Cuba, Grenada, Haiti and Jamaica Impact mitigation of climatic hazards in agriculture Pilot interventions at community level Integrated preparedness into immediate response and medium term recovery and rehabilitation in agriculture and livestock sector Lessons learned for small farmers to reduce effects of hurricanes, landslides, flooding and drought Good coping strategies: diversified cropping (strip and mixed) control soil erosion (contour) tree management

13 GOOD PRACTICE Focus on Preparedness Horn of Africa Coordination and capacity strengthening for disaster and drought preparedness Reduce vulnerability of agro pastoralists in Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda Enhance livelihood and drought related animal production systems Improve food security and early warning (linked to IPC Integrated Food Security Phase Classification) Enhance community based EWS and contingency planning Create pastoralist farmer field schools Develop guidelines and training based on lessons learned

14 GOOD PRACTICE Focus on response Pakistan Livelihoods Baseline Assessments FAO developed a livelihood baseline with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) Evolved into the FAO ILO Livelihood Assessment Toolkit (LAT) LAT approach used to formulate effective response to 2008 floods and hazard baselines (ongoing) One UN DRM Joint Programme

15 GOOD PRACTICE Focus on Transition Indonesia Building back better after the tsunami Transition to build capacities of local and provincial authorities as well as vulnerable fishing communities to jointly manage coastal fisheries in a sustainable way Model of post disaster rehabilitation and transition project demonstrates how development practices can be applied in relief settings and emergency projects Develop, introduce and demonstrate good practices for longer term sustainable development in fisheries

16 Framework for emergency prevention and management for food chain emergencies Ensuring a continuum between all emergency management phases, fully integrating capacities at headquarter and decentralized level Risk Analysis, Emergency Prevention, Surveillance, Assessment Rehabilitation & Development Programme Rapid Response Emergency Response Programme

17 Framework for emergency prevention and management for food chain emergencies A streamlined framework based on 3 main crisis management entities: 1. CMC - Intelligence and Coordination Unit 2. CMC - Emergency Prevention and Early Warning Unit: Based on the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pest and Diseases (EMPRES). A specific EMPRES component for food safety is under development. 3. CMC - Rapid Response Unit (Animal Health, Plant Health, Food Safety)

18 Framework proposal for emergency for emergency prevention prevention and and management management for for food food f chain chain emergencies emergencies Crisis Management Centre (CMC) Office of the ADG/AG Department CMC Intelligence and Coordination Unit Intelligence, Longer term and global risk analysis along the food chain CMC - Prevention and Early Warning Unit (EMPRES) AG Divisions (Includes technical staff at HQ and decentralized units) EMPRES Animal Health EMPRES Desert Locust/ Plant EMPRES Food Safety Prevention, Early Warning, Enabling research TCE Emergency Management Unit (EMU) provides operational staff. CMC- Rapid Response Unit Rapid Response, preparedness AG and other Depts. provide technical staff CMC Animal Health CMC Plant Health CMC Food Safety Emergency Response Programme for TAD s, Plant Pests and Diseases or Food Safety emergencies (ECTAD, ECLO etc.) Longer-term emergency response with multidisciplinary approach

19 Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation FAO work on climate variability and change aims to 1. increase the resilience of agricultural systems to adverse effects of weather and climate change 2. promote adaptation to climate variability and change FAO provides institutional and technical capacity building and supports the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) FAO Expert meeting on Climate Change and DRM, with focus on implications for food security (2008) High Level Conference on World Food Security: Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy (2008) Climate Change Adaptation and Risk Reduction Inventories (2009)

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