Patterns of Behavior of Main Group Elements (Groups 1, 2, and 13-18)

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1 Reading Guide - Chapter 8.1 Periodic Properties of the Elements Section 1 - Main Group Elements Patterns of Behavior of Main Group Elements (Groups 1, 2, and 13-18) 1. Elements in the same group have the number of valence electrons and properties. 2. Valence electrons from left to right in every period except for period. 3. Elements in the same period have a number of valence electrons and properties. 4. In a period, from left to right, you will find: elements, elements, elements, and a gas at the end. 5. Atomic radius as you move down a group, and as you move from left to right in a period. Question: Why does atomic radii increase as you move down a group? Question: Why does atomic radii decrease as you move L to R in a period? 6. A positive ion has a radii than its neutral atom because its nucleus holds the outermost electrons tightly. There is attraction between the electrons and the nucleus. 7. A negative ion has a radii than its neutral atom because its nucleus holds the outermost electrons tightly. There is attraction between the electrons and the nucleus.

2 8. Ionic radii down the groups except for group. Question: Why does the ionic radii increase for both positive and negative ions as you move down groups? (For example, compare group 1 and 17) 9. Ionic radii from left to right within a period with ions of atoms with 1 +., 2 +., 3 + and 4 + and ions of atoms with - 3, - 2, and - 1 because nuclear charge. 10. Elements tend to react in way that allow them to achieve the stable configuration of the nearest. Question: Magnesium will lose electrons to obtain the electron stability of what noble gas? How many electrons will magnesium lose? What positive ion will magnesium form? Question: Bromine will gain an electron to obtain the electron stability of what noble gas? What negative ion will bromine form? The Main Group Metals and Nonmetals Alkali Metals - Group 11. What are some properties of the alkali metals? 12. Alkali metals lose electron to form a ion. 13. Cesium, Cs, is considered to be the reactive alkali metal because it is the in size, besides, which is a scarce radioactive metal. 14. is the least reactive alkali metal because it is the in size. Alkaline Earth Metals - Group 15. What are some properties of the alkali earth metals? * 16. Alkali earth metals lose electrons to form a ion.

3 17. Alkali earth metals are reactive and have melting points than alkali metals. Question: Give two reasons why radium, Ra, is the most reactive alkaline earth metal? Question: If radium, Ra, is the most reactive alkaline, earth metal, then which e element is the least reactive? Group All of the elements in group 13 are except for the element,, which is a. 19. Elements in Group 13 are reactive than alkali and alkaline earth metals. 20. What are some properties of group 13 elements? 21. Group 13 metals tend to electrons in compounds, and exhibit a charge. Group What are some properties of group 14 elements? 23. Which element(s) of group 14 are nonmetals and covalently bond to attain noble-gas 24. Which element(s) of group 14 are metalloids and covalently bond to attain noblegas

4 25. Which element(s) of group 14 are metals and will lose electrons to attain noblegas 26. Which elements of group 14 form covalent bonds to attain a noble-gas Question: Why do the group 14 elements, tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) lose electrons to attain a noble-gas configuration when carbon (C), silicon (Si), and germanium (Ge) share electrons and form covalent bonds instead? Group Which element(s) of group 15 are nonmetals and covalently bond to attain noble-gas 28. Which element(s) of group 15 are metalloids and gain/share electrons to attain noble-gas 29. Which element(s) of group 15 are metals and will lose electrons to attain noble-gas Question: What are two ways chemically unreactive nitrogen can be fixed from its unusable (by humans) form, N 2, into useable forms such a NO and NH 4? Group Which element(s) of group 16 are nonmetals and covalently bond to attain noble-gas 31. Which element(s) of group 16 are metalloids and covalently bond to attain noble-gas

5 32. The element of group 16 is the second most reactive nonmetal.33. Nonmetals of group 16 tend to gain electrons to become ions with a charge and a stable electron configuration. Halogens - Group 34. Which halogens are nonmetals? 35. Halogens gain electron to become an ion with a charge and a stable electron configuration. Questions: Why do halogens not exist as free elements in nature? 36. In terms of size, fluorine, F, is the halogen with the atomic radius, and the ability to attract electrons. Therefore it is the reactive halogen. 37. In terms of size, iodine, I, is the halogen with the atomic radius, and ability to attract electrons. Therefore it is the reactive halogen. 38. Halogens exist as molecules that are reactive and. Noble Gases - Group. 39. List the noble gases Question: Why are the elements in group 18 referred to as noble gases, and not inert gases? 40. Noble gases gain electrons or electrons. 41. Elements in group 18 are the reactive of all.

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