AN468 APPLICATION NOTE

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1 AN468 APPLICATION NOTE STEPPER-MOTOR PERFORMANCE CONSTANT-CURRENT CHOPPER DRIVE UPS The most efficient and performant way to drive a stepper motor is to use a "chopper" drive circuit. This note explains some basic theory then presents practical circuits based on power ICs. PULSE WIDTH-MODULATED DRIVE IMPROVES MOTOR TORQUE AND SPEED YET ADDS NO COMPLEXITY TO CIRCUIT Designers opting to use a fractional-horsepower stepper motor in applications such as computer printers can improve the motor s efficiency and its torque and speed characteristics by using a constant-current pulse-width-modulated (PWM) chopper-drive circuit. What s more, for high-power drives, dedicated control chips and a constant-current chopper drive can be as simple to use as direct drive. A basic problem for a directly driven stepper is that the motor winding s time constant (L/R) causes the current to increase slowly in the winding during each pulsed input. It may, therefore, never reach full-rated value, especially at high speed, or high pulsing rates, unless the voltage (V S ) across the terminals is high. In the simplest stepper drive (see fig. 1a), transistor or Darlington switches sequentially activate the windings to drive the motor (see box, "Stepper motor basics"). This type of drive performs poorly because the supply voltage must be low so that the steady-state current is not excessive. As a result, the average winding current and hence the torque is very low at high drive motor speed. Often, this problem is overcome by introducing a series resistance, thereby increasing the overall value by a factor of four - giving an L/4R ratio - and also by increasing the supply voltage (see fig. 1b). This arrangement reduces the motor s time constant, which improves torque at high step rates. However such an approach is inefficient, because the series resistor constitutes a substantial waste of power. Figure 1. Common unipolar stepping drives (a) produce insufficient torque output becuase their supply voltage must be kept low to limit current. Adding series resistance to an L/4R ratio (b) and raising the supply voltage proportionately improves torque output, especially at high step rates. December /5

2 Figure 2. A Pulse-width-modulated, or chopper, drive overcomes most of the problems of the simpler direct drive or even linear constant-current drives. CONSTANT CURRENT IS BEST Introducing a feedback loop to control the winding current is a better solution. Linear constant-current control is possible but is rarely used because of high power losses in the power stage. However, a pulsewidth-modulation scheme a chopper circuit not only solves the L/R time-constant problem but cuts power dissipation too (see fig. 2). A four-phase bifilar/hybrid unipolar stepper motor could use a quad Darlington like the ULN2075B as a chopper driver and a chip like the L6506 as a current controller (see fig. 3). The L6506, which contains all the chopper circuitry, is simple to use. An external RC network sets the oscillator frequency, and a voltage divider (or trimmer) sets the reference voltages, and hence the phase currents. Normally an oscillator frequency of over 20 KHz is chosen to avoid motor noise. The maximum usable frequency depends on the L/R time constant of the motor. Control signals for the four-phase inputs can be provided by a micro-computer chip or a simple repetitive sequence from a logic circuit. Note that the L6506 contains just two independent chopper-control loops - sufficient for a four-phase unipolar stepping motor because opposing windings never energize together. DRIVING BIPOLAR MOTORS Bipolar stepper motors, preferred for their better torque/weight ratio, however, are normally driven by H- bridge output stages. They enable a single-polarity supply to drive each motor winding end sequentially to achieve a polarity-reversal effect on the windings. Figure 3. A simple chopper drive for a unipolar stepping motor, can be assembled with just two chips : a Quad Darlington output driver IC and constant-current feedback controller IC. 2/5

3 STEPPER-MOTOR BASICS In computer-peripheral office-equipment applications, the most popular stepper motors are permanentmagnet types with two-phase bipolar windings or bifilar-wound unipolar windings. Stripped to the essentials, both types consist of a permanent-magnet rotor surrounded by stator poles carrying the windings. A two-pole motor would have a step angle of 90. However, most motors have multiple poles to reduce the step angle to a few degrees. A bipolar permanent-magnet stepper motor has a single winding for each phase and the current must be reversed to reverse the stator field. Bifilar/hybrid unipolar motors, however, have two windings wound in opposite directions for each phase, so that the field can be reversed with a single-polarity drive. Unipolar motors were once popular because the drive was simpler. But with today s dual bridge (H-bridge) ICs, it is just as easy to drive a bipolar motor. In the most popular drive technique - two-phase-on - both phases are always energized. In another method called the wave drive one phase is energized at a time. A third technique combines the two sequences and drives the motor one half-step at a time. Half-stepping is very useful because motor mechanically designed for very small step angles are much more complex and costly to built. It is more economical to use a 100-step motor in half steps rather than a 200-step motor in full step. Recently designers have started microstepping, or driving the motor at one-quarter stepping rather or less. This type of operation can obtain fine step control without using mechanically complex motors with small step angles. A two-phase bipolar motor needing up to 2A/phase can be driven by a single IC - the L298N dual bridge (see fig. 4). It contains two H-bridges with all the necessary level shifters and gates to directly interface low-level input logic signals. As before, a complete chopper drive can be built by adding a current-controller chip and the necessary protective diodes, an RC network to define the oscillator frequency and a reference-voltage divider to set the current level. Four-phase signals to the controller are provided by a controlling microcomputer or by another dedicated controller chip - the L297 stepper-motor controller. Figure 4. A Dual-bridge IC provides a simple power-stage design solution for a bipolar stepper motor. 3/5

4 Containing an internal translator circuit controlled by step-and-direction inputs, the L297 motor controller (see fig. 5) allows operation in three modes : two-phase-on, half-step and wave-drive. The normal two-phase-on mode is selected by a low level on the half/full input when the device has been reset to start. Half-step drive is selected by a high level on the half/full step input. To initialize the wave-drive mode, the user disables the output stage (brings enable low), resets the device, steps the translator one step, brings half/full low, and then reenables the outputs. The L297 also lets the designer select either phase or inhibit chopping. Phase chopping provides lower ripple and is suitable four unipolar motor, whereas inhibit chopping returns energy to the supply and is better for bipolar motors. In applications such as printer-paper feed, the motor is often at rest. Since the full torque is not usually necessary to hold the motor in position, designers can save power by switching the current to a lower level between runs. With an L297 or L6506 control chip, this task can be done by simply switching the reference input between two levels. Where several chopper drives are used in the same system, they should be synchronized prevent intermodulation effects. This is done by connecting the sync pins to one another and omitting the oscillator RC network on all but one device. Figure 5. Controlled by step, direction, and mode inputs, the L297 stepper-motor controller chip performs some of the functions of a controlling microcomputer. HANDLING HIGH CURRENT For current drives greater than 2A/phase, the two bridges in an L298N IC can be paralleled by connecting inputs to the corresponding outputs. However, for a more equal distribution of the load and chip heating, driver 1 should be paralleled with driver 4, and driver 2 with driver 3. Additionally, total current should be derated by 0.5 A to allow for the maximum possible imbalance between the current in each bridge. Thus two L298s can drive motors rated at 3.5 A/phase. A different configuration for microstepping stepper motors is employed in the PBL3717A control circuit. It contains all of the control and power circuitry for one phase of a motor. An H-bridge output stage can drive 4/5

5 motors rated at up to 1A/phase. Two of these devices are needed to drive a two-phase bipolar motor. The output current level from the PBL3717A is set both by an analog-reference input and two logic inputs (I1 and I0), which select one of three preset current levels (the fourth combination disables the outputs stage). This feature implements the micro-stepping, in which several current levels are used to obtain very small step angles for even more precise control (but at the expense of a less regular torque). Unlike the L297 and L6506, the PBL3717A has a constant off-time chopper driver which is ideal for microstepping. Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, STMicroelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of STMicroelectronics. Specifications mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice. This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied. STMicroelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without express written approval of STMicroelectronics. The ST logo is a registered trademark of STMicroelectronics. All other names are the property of their respective owners 2003 STMicroelectronics - All rights reserved STMicroelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia - Belgium - Brazil - Canada - China - Czech Republic - Finland - France - Germany - Hong Kong - India - Israel - Italy - Japan - Malaysia - Malta - Morocco - Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - United Kingdom - United States 5/5

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AN4390 Application note

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This is advanced information on a new product now in development or undergoing evaluation. Details are subject to change without notice.

TDA2050 32W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER HIGH OUTPUT POWER (50W MUSIC POWER IEC 268.3 RULES) HIGH OPERATING SUPPLY VOLTAGE (50V) SINGLE OR SPLIT SUPPLY OPERATIONS VERY LOW DISTORTION SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

QUAD EXCLUSIVE OR GATE HIGH SPEED: t PD = 15ns (TYP.) at V CC = 4.5V LOW POWER DISSIPATION: I CC =1µA(MAX.) at T A =25 C COMPATIBLE WITH TTL OUTPUTS : V IH = 2V (MIN.) V IL = 0.8V (MAX) SYMMETRICAL OUTPUT

AN3327 Application note

AN3327 Application note L9942 back EMF stall detection algorithm Introduction The L9942 is an integrated stepper motor driver for bipolar stepper motors used primarily in automotive head lamp leveling.

Main components Offline high voltage converter Advanced constant voltage and constant current controller

DN0002 Design note 10W offline LED driver based on VIPER27 Designs from our labs describe tested circuit designs from ST labs which provide optimized solutions for specific applications. For more information

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

2N2219A 2N2222A DESCRIPTION The 2N2219A and 2N2222A are silicon Planar Epitaxial NPN transistors in Jedec TO-39 (for 2N2219A) and in Jedec TO-18 (for 2N2222A) metal case. They are designed for high speed

LM833 LOW NOISE DUAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

LOW NOISE DUAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER LOW VOLTAGE NOISE: 4.5nV/ Hz HIGH GAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT: 15MHz HIGH SLEW RATE: 7V/µs LOW DISTORTION:.2% EXCELLENT FREQUENCY STABILITY ESD PROTECTION 2kV DESCRIPTION

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

14 W hi-fi audio amplifier Features Wide-range supply voltage, up to 36 V Single or split power supply Short-circuit protection to ground Thermal shutdown Description The TDA2030 is a monolithic integrated

STW20NM50 N-CHANNEL 550V @ Tjmax - 0.20Ω - 20ATO-247 MDmesh MOSFET

N-CHANNEL 550V @ Tjmax - 0.20Ω - 20ATO-247 MDmesh MOSFET TYPE V DSS (@Tjmax) R DS(on) I D STW20NM50 550V < 0.25Ω 20 A TYPICAL R DS (on) = 0.20Ω HIGH dv/dt AND AVALANCHE CAPABILITIES 100% AVALANCHE TESTED

AN1879 Application note

Application note How to use the M41ST87W tamper detect and RAM clear Introduction The M41ST87W is a supervisory family circuit that provides the industry with the latest in onchip security solutions. The

L293D L293DD PUSH-PULL FOUR CHANNEL DRIVER WITH DIODES. 600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive)

293D 293DD PUS-PU FOUR CANNE DRIVER WIT DIODES 600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABIITY PER CANNE 1.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CANNE ENABE FACIITY OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION OGICA "0" INPUT VOTAGE

M74HC4078TTR 8-INPUT NOR/OR GATE

8-INPUT NOR/OR GATE HIGH SPEED: t PD = 10ns (TYP.) at V CC = 6V LOW POWER DISSIPATION: I CC = 1µA(MAX.) at T A =25 C HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY: V NIH = V NIL = 28 % V CC (MIN.) SYMMETRICAL OUTPUT IMPEDANCE:

2STBN15D100. Low voltage NPN power Darlington transistor. Features. Application. Description

Low voltage NPN power Darlington transistor Features Good h FE linearity High f T frequency Monolithic Darlington configuration with integrated antiparallel collector-emitter diode TAB Application Linear

QUAD EXCLUSIE OR GATE MEDIUM-SPEED OPERATION t PHL = t PLH = 70ns (Typ.) at CL = 50 pf and DD = 10 QUIESCENT CURRENT SPECIFIED UP TO 20 5, 10 AND 15 PARAMETRIC RATINGS INPUT LEAKAGE CURRENT I I = 100nA

AN3116 Application note

Application note STM32 s ADC modes and their applications Introduction STM32 microcontrollers have one of the most advanced ADCs on the microcontroller market. You could imagine a multitude of applications

AN4212 Application note

Application note PowerSSO-24 devices evaluation board Introduction The EV board concept is intended to provide customers with an easy way to connect ST's surface mounted VIPower drivers into their existing

STLD40D. White LED power supply for large display backlight. Features. Applications. Description

White LED power supply for large display backlight Features Inductor switches boost controller PFM mode control High efficiency over wide range of input voltage from 3.0 V to 5.5 V Over voltage protection

AN1448 APPLICATION NOTE

AN1448 APPLICATION NOTE HOW TO REDUCE 3rd HARMONICS WITH ST6200C MOTOR CONTROL SOFTWARE by Microcontroller Division Application Team INTRODUCTION Universal motors are widely used in home appliances such

ULN2001, ULN2002 ULN2003, ULN2004

ULN2001, ULN2002 ULN2003, ULN2004 Seven Darlington array Datasheet production data Features Seven Darlingtons per package Output current 500 ma per driver (600 ma peak) Output voltage 50 V Integrated suppression

TDA2003 10W CAR RADIO AUDIO AMPLIFIER

TDA2003 10W CAR RADIO AUDIO AMPLIFIER DESCRIPTION The TDA 2003 has improved performance with the same pin configuration as the TDA 2002. The additional features of TDA 2002, very low number of external

L9409. Alternator voltage regulator with load response control. Features. Description

Alternator voltage regulator with load response control Features IC regulator for 12 V type alternator Fixed frequency regulation loop 130 mhigh side field driver Fail safe device with double sensing of

L200 ADJUSTABLE VOLTAGE AND CURRENT REGULATOR ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT CURRENT UP TO 2 A (GUARANTEED UP TO Tj = 150 C) ADJUSTABLE OUTPUT VOLTAGE DOWN TO 2.85 V INPUT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION (UP TO 60 V, 10 ms)