# Revision Notes Adult Numeracy Level 1

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1 Revision Notes Adult Numeracy Level 1 Numbers The number has been entered into a table. It shows the value of each column. The 7 is in the hundred thousands column The 0 cannot be missed out because it shows that there are no ten thousands Millions Hundred thousands Ten thousands Thousands Hundreds Tens Units This number is read: 5million, 7hundred and 3 thousand, 4hundred and twenty-eight. > is the symbol for is greater than 5>3 is read 5 is greater than 3 < is the symbol for is less than 4<9 is read 4 is less than 9 Negative numbers Numbers that are less than 0 are negative. The numbers above 0 are positive A number line can help you understand negative numbers. It s a bit like a thermometer scale. lower numbers higher numbers Remember The more you move to the right on the line, the higher the number gets The more you move left on the line the lower the number gets Negative temperatures indicate cold weather. Water freezes and becomes ice at 0 C and below 1

2 Addition and subtraction When adding or subtracting keep the same columns aligned: hundreds with hundreds etc. To add and align as follows: Multiplication add There are many ways of recording work when multiplying larger numbers (more than one digit) but they all depend on understanding what is meant by the original question E.g means add = = = 232 Adding gives 1972 This is what is being done in the standard method: Any other correct method will give the same answer. Division Remember that division is the inverse (opposite)) of multiplication and that, like subtraction, the order in which the numbers are entered does matter. As division frequently results in a decimal answer it is usually better to use a calculator.. To work out you must key in: [1] [9] [7] [2] [ ] [3] [4] [=] 2

3 Multiplying by = = = 360 The effect of multiplying numbers by 10 is to move them into the next column of higher value because 10 units make one 10 and 10 tens are one hundred Thousands Hundreds Tens Units 10 thousand Thousands Hundreds Tens Units Notes Need a 0 to show 10 that the 6 is in the tens column Need a 0 here again = 5 so here there is a 5 in the units Decimals move in the same way as whole numbers behaves in the same way as all other digits The 0 cannot be missed out - it shows that there are no units 3

4 Dividing by 10 Division is the inverse of multiplication. So each digit will move to the next column of lower value. Thousands Hundreds Tens Units Thousands Hundreds Tens Units Notes Need a 0 to show 10 that the decimal point follows Quick check: = 3 so this is in correct columns behaves in the same way as all other digits The 0 can be missed out here as it is at the end of the number, but if this is money in it must be written down The 0 here cannot be missed out because it is not the end of the number 4

5 Multiplying and Dividing by 100 As 100 = 10 10, to multiply by 100, multiply by 10 and multiply by 10 again. To divide by 100, divide by 10 and divide by 10 again. There are 100 pence in a pound to change pounds to pence: multiply by 100 to change pence to pounds: divide by 100 There are 100 cm in a metre to change m to cm: multiply by 100 to change cm to m divide by 100 There are 10 mm in a cm to change cm to m: multiply by 10 to change mm to cm: divide by 10 Times tables Multiples The multiples of 2 are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20.. The multiples of 7 are 7, 14, 21, 28, Multiples of 1000 are 1000, 2000, ,.. Square numbers Square numbers are made by multiplying a number by itself: 1 1, 2 2, 3 3, 4 4, 5 5, 6 6, 7 7, 8 8, 9 9, 10 10, or 1 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 5

6 Ratio and Proportion The ratio squash to water is 1 to 5 means one measure of squash is used with 5 measures of water and can be written 1:5. The measures used must be the same. Ratios cannot be reversed - the ratio 1:3 is not the same as the ratio 3:1 Direct proportion means that when more of one item in a list is used more of all items are used e.g. a recipe for 2 people can be doubled to become sufficient for 4 people only if every ingredient is doubled. Rounding large numbers See earlier levels for the rules of rounding. Numbers can be rounded to specific degrees of accuracy e.g. to round to the nearest hundred keep all of the digits in the hundreds place and higher, but remove others according to the rules of rounding Number Degree of accuracy Nearest in the units column means that the ten above is nearer Nearest keep the 7 in the hundreds column but the 8 in the tens column means that the number is nearer the hundred above Nearest Nearest million ( ) Rounding skills can be used to get numbers that are easy to work with to estimate answers and check calculations. E.g can be checked by The answer will be close to Other ways of checking include deciding if the answer is sensible - knowing that multiplication of whole numbers increases the size of the numbers means that an answer less than 700 to the above question is impossible. 6

7 Equivalent fractions Fractions are equivalent if they can be simplify to the same fraction. E.g. 6 = 3 Because both the numerator (6) and the denominator (20) can be divided by 2. Similarly 18 = 3 (Divide numerator and denominator by 6) 24 4 and 3 = 1 (Divide numerator and denominator by 2). 6 2 Fractions of an amount Finding 1/3 of something is the same as dividing it by 3. E.g. 1/3 of 24 = 8 (24 3 = 8) To find 2/3, find 1/3 and then double. E.g. 2/3 of 24 is = 2 8 = 16 Comparisons of fractions, decimals and percentages Fractions, percentages and decimals are all ways of being able to express parts of a whole These are the relationship between some common fractions, percentages and decimals: Fraction Decimal Percentage ½ % ¼ % 1/ % 1/ % 7

8 Comparing decimals To understand the value of each digit in a decimal number, put the number in a place value table. A decimal point separates the whole numbers from the decimal fractions. Start at the left end of a place value table - every time we move a column to the right the value of the column is 1/10 in value. If we continue this across the decimal point we find the values of the columns there Whole numbers Parts of number Hundreds Tens Units Tenths Hundredths Thousandths From the column values we can see that is made up of: 2 hundreds 7 tens 0 units 6 tenths of a unit 5 hundredths of a unit 3 thousandths of a unit Addition and subtraction of decimals Remember that digits of equivalent value must be added so add in columns and the decimal point indicates where the columns should be e.g is written down: Subtraction is worked in the same way as addition 8

9 Multiplication and division of decimals by single digits When multiplying or dividing decimals by a single digit number, remember that a decimal point will occur in the answer also e.g and When using a calculator to work out decimals always do a check by rounding the numbers to the nearest whole number or ten and working with the rounded numbers. Rounding decimals Rounding to the nearest whole number If the first digit after the decimal point is less than 5, it is nearer to the whole number that is written. E.g = 234 to the nearest whole number If the first digit after the decimal point is 5 or more, it is nearer to the whole number above. E.g = 235 to the nearest whole number Rounding to two decimal places If the 3 rd decimal place is 5 or more round up: So rounds to (correct to 2 decimal places) If the 3 rd decimal place is 4 or less, leave the digit alone: So rounds to (correct to 2 decimal places) 9

10 Percentages 100% means the whole. 100% correct means no wrong answers at all. Here are some quick ways of working out common percentages Work out..percent of Ways of working 50% halve the value 25% halve the 50% value 75% Add the 50% value and the 25% value 10% Divide the value by 10 5% Halve the 10% value 20% 1. Double the 10%value 2. Divide the original by 5 Percentage increase To calculate a percentage increase, work out the percentage of the original and add this to the original amount. E.g. A car costing 8000 goes up by 10% 10% of 8000 is 800 so the new price will be = 8800 Percentage decrease To calculate a percentage decrease, work out the percentage of the original and take it away from the original amount. E.g. In a sale the cost of a coat costing 70 is reduced by 20% 10% of 70 is 7 20% of 70 is 14 so the sale price will be = 56 Converting between fractions, percentages and decimals To change a fraction to a decimal: divide the numerator by the denominator E.g. ¾ = 3 4 = 0.75 To change a decimal to a percentage: multiply by 100 e.g = = 75% 10

11 Money When working with money we have to remember that 100 pence = 1. In 5.23 the 5 tells you that there are 5 pounds ( 5). The number 23 after the decimal point tells you that there are 23 pence (20p). Money, in pounds ( ) is a decimal number with 2 decimal places. It behaves in the same way as other decimals, so use the decimal part of rules and tools to help with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Time Dates These are all short forms of the date twenty sixth of June 2004: /06/04 26 June Jun 04 Twenty-four hour clock There are 24 hours in a day. Some clocks show a 12-hour clock and repeat the times twice. Others show a 24-hour clock and show the times once. Three o clock in the afternoon can be written as 3 pm using the 12-hour clock, or 15:00 (15 00) using the 24-hour clock., since 15 is the number of hours and 00 the number of minutes after midnight (00 00). When using the 24-hour clock, 4 digits must always be used. This means that 9 45 am is on the 24 hour clock There is no need for am or pm as the times after noon are all greater than

12 Timetables Timetables are usually printed using the 24-hour clock. Read the time a train will leave a station by finding the station and looking across that line to find the train time. Train 1 Train2 Train3 Crewe Sandbach Wilmslow Manchester E.g. Train 1 leaves Crewe at 09 58, that is at 9 58am Train 3 gets to Manchester at 17 38, that is 5 38 pm Units of time Unit Millennium Century Year Month Week Day Hour Minute Second Length of time 1000 years 100 years 365 days (366 in a leap year) 12 months 52 weeks January 31 February 28(29 in a leap year) March 31 April 30 May 31 June 30 July 31 August 31 September 30 October 31 November 30 December 31 7 days 24 hours 60 minutes 60 seconds Smallest unit of time commonly used 12

13 The metric system measure unit short form equivalents length Metre Centimetre Millimetre Kilometre m cm mm km 1m = 100 cm = 1000 mm 1000 m = 1 km weight Gram g 1000 g = 1 kg capacity Kilogram Litre Millilitre kg l ml 1000 ml = 1 l The diagrams show how to convert between different units. Length mm cm m km x 10 x 100 x 1000 Weight 1000 x 1000 Capacity g kg x 1000 Capacity 1000 ml l x

14 Distances Distances between two places such as two towns can be measured either in kilometres or miles. A miles is more than a kilometre (1 mile is about 1.6 kilometres) Distance Charts Distance Charts record the distance between towns. Check whether the figures given are in miles or kilometres. This chart shows that the distance between Leeds and Cardiff is 230 miles. London 198 Leeds Distance in miles Dover Aberdeen Cardiff Fort William Perimeter The perimeter of a shape is the distance round the edge of the shape. Perimeter is a length so the units will be mm, cm, m To work out the perimeter of a shape add the lengths of all the sides. The perimeter of this shape is = 3.8 m 1.2 m 0.7 m 0.7 m 1.2 m Area of rectangle The area of a shape is the amount of surface that the shape covers. The area of a rectangle is worked out from the length and the width. These must be measured in the same units i.e. both measurements must be in metres or they must both be in centimetres. The area of a rectangle = length width. 14

15 The units of area are square units: m² or cm² The area of this rectangle is 2.3 cm x 2 cm = 4.6 cm cm 2 cm Volume The volume of an object is the amount of space it occupies or contains. The volume of a cuboid (box) is worked out from the length, height and width. These must be measured in the same units i.e. all measurements must be in metres or they must all be in centimetres The volume of a cuboid = length width height. The units are cubic units - m³ or cm³ The volume of this cuboid is 2 cm x 3 cm x 4cm = 24 cm3 2 cm 3 cm 4 cm Shape This shape is a rectangle. It has four angles. Angles are measured in degrees. The four angles of this square are all right angles and all measure 90 degrees (90 o ) This hexagon has 6 sides all the same length. All the angles are also the 15

16 same size. So it is a regular hexagon. All the angles are bigger than a right angle so they are more than 90 o Look at this tiling pattern. Four square tiles of four right angles fit together. Square tiles fit together perfectly without learning gaps or without overlapping so we say that they tessellate. For example circles do not tessellate. Reading and Drawing Graphs In addition to the rules and tools used at earlier levels remember to look at the scale of a graph to interpret the data shown. Always choose a sensible scale to fit the data. Mean The mean is one form of average. Find the mean by adding up all of the values and dividing the total by the number of values E.g. Mean of 3, 6, 7, 2, 8 is = 26 = The mean may not be the best average to represent the data if there are many items of a small value and one with a very large value. 16

17 Range The range is a measure of how far the data spreads out. Work out the range by subtracting the smallest value from the largest value E.g. the range of 3, 6, 7, 2, 8 is 8-2 = 6 Probability Events can be: impossible ( seeing a blue cow) certain (sun rises each day) or somewhere in between Events (or happenings) have several outcomes: the outcomes of rolling a die are 1,2,3,4,5,6 the outcomes of tossing a coin are heads or tails. Events can happen in various ways: A total of 5 when throwing 2 dice can be 1 +4, 2 +3, 4 +1 or 3 +2 Probability is the likelihood or chance of something happening The probability of an impossible event happening is 0 The probability of a certain event happening is 1 The probability of any event is Number of ways the event can happen Total number of outcomes E.g. Probability of throwing a six is 1 (there is only one six on a die) 6 (there are a total of six numbers on a die). Probabilities can be written as fractions, decimals or percentages. 17

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