2 Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity of immune response ability of discriminate and recognition between self and non-self. Ability to remember imprinting of some information about organisms previously encountered.
3 Antigen A substance that can induce an immune response Antibody A protein produced as a result of introduction of antigen Antibody has the ability to combine with the antigen that stimulated its production.
4 What generates the immune response? Immune system beginning of the external surface mechanical and chemical barrier: skin low ph, antimicrobial peptides (b-defensins) epithelium of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tears, saliva, breast milk enzyme lysozyme and phospholipase A stomach gastric acid and proteases cells neutrophiles and macrophages phagocytosis of potential pathogens
5 The innate and adaptive immune response
6 Cellular components of immune system
7 Cellular components of immune system lymphoid cells B cells (B lymphocytes) recognition of antigen, antibody secreted plasma cells, act as antigen presenting cells (APC). Some B cells differentiate into memory cells Characteristic receptors: express CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules, antigen receptors CD1, CD2 etc., surface IgM, IgD MHC Class II, complement receptors CD3, CD19, CD20, CD21etc. T cell (T lymphocytes) regulation of adaptive immune system, play a central role in initiation, propagation, and control of antigenspecific immune response recognize a "non-self" target (a pathogen), only after antigens (small fragments of the pathogen) have been processed and presented in combination with a "self" receptor - a major histocompatibility system (MHC) molecule.
8 Cellular components of immune system lymphoid cells 2 major subtypes (subclasses) of T cells: T helper cell - regulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses, release necessary cytokines for cells stimulation and differentiation cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells (NK cells) cytotoxic T cells are cytotoxic against tumor cells, virus infected cells. Produce TNFa and TNFb, recognize antigen/mhc Class I NK cells are granular lymphocytes, destroy tumor cells, virus infected cells
9 Cellular components of immune system - myeloid cells Neutrophils first cells recruit into the site of inflammation, dominant phagocytic cells, use respiratory burst to kill cells, are attracted to site of complement activation by C5a (chemoatractive peptide from complement component C5) Basophils blood analogues of tissue mast cells, stimulated by complement C3 Mast cells resident in tissues, tissue granulocytes, produce cytokines, release heparin and histamine Eosinophils attack parasites to large for phagocytosis, adhere to foreign organisms via C3b, release enzymes, use respiratory burst
10 Cellular components of immune system Monocytes Mononuclear phagocyte in blood, mature in bone marrow, precursor of tissue macrophages, process antigens to peptides, present peptides to T cells Macrophages Tissue phagocytes, process antigens for presentation to T cells, principal attack in bacteria, viruses, protozoa Dendritic cells skin, Langerhans cells and lymph nodes and spleen. Recognize and endocytose foreign carbohydrate antigens
11 Adaptive immunity
12 Maturation and selection of B lymphocytes
13 Communication within the immune response Signal activating or inhibiting a cell to perform its function in immune response surface proteins T cell receptors, major histocompatibility complex (MHC), co-stimulatory molecules Cells communicate by direct cell-to-cell contact or through the production of soluble factors cytokines with wide range of different effects endocrine, paracrine or autocrine manner
14 Communication within the immune response Functionality of cytokines 1. Pleiotropic different effect 2. Redundant many different cytokines with the same function 3. Synergistic increase effects of one another 4. Antagonistic one negates the function of the other
15 Cytokines Chemokines - specific class of cytokines. Mediates chemoattraction (chemotaxis) between cells, stimulate leukocyte movement and regulate the migration of leukocytes from the blood to tissues. Interleukins - presumed targets are principally leukocytes. Lymphokines - produced by activated T lymphocytes direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells Monokines - derived primarily from mononuclear cells such as macrophages.
16 Major histocompatibility system (MHC) Cell surface molecule encoded by a large set of highly polymorphic evolutionary related genes The function of MHC to process and bind antigenic peptide fragment during the immune response MHC surface bound proteins present this peptide fragments (antigens) The presented antigen can be either self or nonself MHC determines compatibility of donors for organ transplant, susceptibility to an autoimmune disease In human - the complex is also called the human leukocyte antigen HLA system. The proteins encoded by HLAs are those on the outer part of body cells that are (in effect) unique to that person.
17 Humal leukocyte antigens (HLA) Class I membrane-bound glycoproteins, found on every nucleated cell of the body, function is to display fragments of proteins processed from intracellular protein and present HLA/protein complex to cytotoxic T cells; cells containing foreign proteins will be attacked by the immune system; healthy cells will be ignored class II - membrane-bound glycoproteins are restricted to cells of the immune - macrophages and lymphocytes proteins from the pathogen are digested into small peptides peptides are loaded onto HLA antigens than displayed by the antigen-presenting cells to T-cells variety of effects to eliminate the pathogen. class III other proteins such as complement proteins, cytokines (chemical messengers), and enzymes
18 The HLA complex, structure of HLA molecules
19 The complement system The innate immunity system (the immunity one is born with). The initial response by the body to eliminate microbes and prevent infection. One of the major effector pathway of the inflammation. The biochemical cascade of proteins C1 to C9 (enzymes) normally circulate in constant concentration in the blood (inactive form). In response to the recognition of specific molecular component of the pathogen activation of cascade each enzyme acts as a catalyst for the next. Mechanism for augmenting (complementing) the biological activities in antibody response.
20 The complement system
22 The function of major proteins of complement system 1. Opsonisation: C3b and, to a lesser degree, C4b molecules are opsonins. They coat foreign organisms, enhancing their phagocytosis because phagocytes have receptors that recognize complement proteins bound to pathogen. 2. Inflammation: The C5a and, less potently, the C4a and C3a fragments are important inflammatory activators inducing vascular permeability, recruitment and activation of phagocytes.
23 3. Lysis The function of major proteins of complement system C5b begins formation of a membrane pore (binds C6 to C9 components) which forms a transmembrane pore of ~ 10nm diameter causing lysis of the cell. This macromolecular assembly is known as the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC).
24 Main function of component cleavages: Complement-mediated chemotaxis C5a is chemotractic for all types of phagocytic cells - (neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, basophils) - stimulates respiratory burst of neutrophils C3a, C4a and C5a are anaphylatoxins hormone like peptides cause smooth muscle contraction, vascular permeability, release of histamin from mast cells and basophils and lysosomal enzymes release from granulocytes.
25 Inflammatory mediators Inlammatory mediators released from different leukocytes initiation and modulation of inflammation; proinflammatory cytokines released from macrophages IL1, IL6, TNF-a are endogenous pyrogens; production of C-reactive protein (CRP) by liver; mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, platelets in connective tissue produce release vasodilatators (histamin, kinins, leukotriens, prostaglandins.
26 Production of microbicidal reactive oxygen intermediates within phagocytic vesicules
28 4 polypeptide chains: 2 identical heavy (H) 2 identical light (L) H chains: μ, δ, γ, α, ε (different amino acid composition) L chains: κ, λ Izotypes = classes of IgG: IgM (μ) IgD (δ) IgG (γ) IgA (α) IgE (ε) Immunoglobulin structure
29 Immunoglobulin classes
31 Immunoglobulin diversity The human immune response must be able to provide antibodies against any and all non-self antigens. Problem the immune system makes over one billion different antibody proteins. B cells create this vast antibody diversity by randomly selecting from a number genes. These are spliced together.
32 Immunoglobulin gene arrangements The heavy chain locus ~80 Variable (V H ) genes, 27 Diversity (D H ) genes, 6 Joining (J H ) genes for producing the wide range of antigen-binding sites, 9 Constant (C H ) genes for the constant region. The light chain loci (k and l) V genes and J genes, no D genes
34 Isotype rearrangement In the course of the immune response to the antigen there is a switch from IgM to IgG production or to other classes of Ig. Mechanism: the Cμ segment is cut out and in its place in order is received the next segment, e.g. Cγ (production of antibodies IgG). Direction of rearrangement (option isotype) is regulated by cytokines - especially IL-4 (stimulates production of IgG, IgE), TGF-β, IL-10. Change concerns only the constant domain of H-chain; antigenic specificity is maintained.
36 Antigen recognition by T and B cells in lymph node B cells recognize specific antigen in the soluble form using membrane-bound immunoglobulin T cells recognize specific antigen as a peptide fragment presented by an antigen-presenting cell (macrophage)
37 Primary and secondary antibody response
38 Reference N.V. Bhagavan, Chung-Eun Ha: Essentials of Medical Biochemistry With Clinical Cases
The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The
AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,
Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.
The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune
The Adaptive Immune Response B-cells FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self
Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability
Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated
Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide
Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.
Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes
Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive
Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs
Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides
Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,
Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.
AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts
Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on
Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Page 1: Introduction Surface barriers (the skin, mucous membranes,
The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic
Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens
TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein
Fogarty-IBRO School Nairobi-KENYA May 22 nd 25 th 2007 Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By Ahmed El-Gohary, M.D. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT The
Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.
AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and
22. Immune System and the Body s Defense I. Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents Disease can be caused by a variety of factors, some have causes within our bodies (e.g., genetic disorders and
The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.
Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components
Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic
Innate immunity: Definition and Importance Updated: July 2015 1 Contents INNATE IMMUNITY... 3 DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE... 3 Overview of innate immunity in animals... 3 The innate immune system acts early
The Specific/Adaptive Immune Response The Third Line of Defence Is called specific immunity The body s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a smart system
General Pathology VPM 152 INFLAMMATION: Chemical Mediators CHEMICAL MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION Definition: any messenger that acts on blood vessels, inflammatory cells or other cells to contribute to an
Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive
16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity. Define toll-like receptors. Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list examples
Amphibian Immunology Heather Williamson University of Tennessee Department of Microbiology March 4, 2014 Vertebrate Immunology Lymphoid Organs 1 3/4/14 Immunity First Line of Defense 2 Innate Immunity:
Immune system Acknowledgement Material used in some of the slides was taken from open websites and personnel communications. Help from these sites and providers is acknowledged. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Molecules,
14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain
Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets
1 Innate Immunity and Antigen Presentation Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Innate immunity Receptors and mechanisms Roles in disease Antigen
CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES An understanding of the distinct families of molecules present on different cells of the immune system provides the tools for distinguishing
Immunology for 1 st Year Medical Students for Timothy Lee PhD and Andrew Issekutz MD Department of Microbiology and Immunology Dalhousie University Medical School Nova Scotia Halifax, Nova Scotia Department
CHAPTER 22 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY CHAPTER OVERVIEW: This chapter introduces the lymphatic system including diffuse lymphatic tissues. Inflammation, non-specific immunity and specific immunity are
KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:
Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2
Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain
Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,
Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2
B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production
Chapter 5 Lymphocyte Migration and Inflammation Lymphocyte Recirculation Naïve lymphocytes enter lymph nodes from the blood circulation Lymphocytes return to blood via the thoracic duct Antigens from infected
AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital CATEGORIES OF PATHOGENS Viruses (~0.2 microns) Bacteria (1-2 microns) Parasites (Millimeters)
Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting
The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability
CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport
o The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses Lymphatic system Anatomy Non specific defenses o The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic
B A S I C S C I E N C E Tutorial 323 IMMUNOLOGY FOR ANAESTHETISTS Part 1 Basic Immunology Dr. Katharine Kennedy Anaesthetics Registrar, Mersey Deanery, UK Dr. Tushar Dixit Consultant Anaesthetist, St Helens
Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity CHAPTER SUMMARY Elements of Specific Immunity (pp. 462-472) The body augments the mechanisms of nonspecific defense with another line of defense that destroys invaders
Immune system - many different types of cells mediate the to destroy bacteria and viruses as well as pre-cancerous cells - all cells in the immune system, as well as all the red blood cells, arise from
Cells and Tissues of the Immune System Cells normally present as circulating cells in the blood and lymph, as collections in lymphoid organs, and as scattered cells in all tissues except the CNS The immune
Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies
The Innate Immune Response FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self components.
IMMUNOLOGY An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity Tapasya Srivastava and Subrata Sinha Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 CONTENTS Concept
Primer on the Immune System Martin J. Spiering, Ph.D., ELS Martin J. Spiering, Ph.D., ELS, is a senior staff member with CSR, Incorporated, and contributing editor to Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.
Immunity The immune system Vaccination Learning Objective Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; The following micrographs show as to how different types of phagocytes and lymphocytes
WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph
BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity
Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select
Immunity Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect
Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name: Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies,
Assignment Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity 1 The Immune System 2 I. Immunity A. defense against invading parasites and abnormal cells B. Types:
The Complement System Definition The Classical Complement Pathway The Lectin Pathway The Alternative Complement Pathway Ways in which Microorganisms can Resist Body Defenses by Circumventing the Complement
Introduction to immunology. LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES Today we will get to know: The antibodies How antibodies are produced, their classes and their maturation processes Antigen recognition
See Targeted Therapy available online at studentconsult.com Diseases of the Immune System C H A P T E R 4 CHAPTER CONTENTS Innate and Adaptive Immunity 99 Cells and Tissues of the Immune System 100 Lymphocytes
Ian Todd, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK A variety of cell types are important components of the immune system. They constitute some of the body s main defences against infection. Introduction
B cell activation and Humoral Immunity Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies and its physiological function is defense against extracellular microbes (including viruses) and microbial exotoxins.
CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,
Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign
2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 12. 13. 14. 15. What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the fluid
Recognition of T cell epitopes (Abbas Chapter 6) Functions of different APCs (Abbas Chapter 6)!!! Directon Routes of antigen entry (Abbas Chapter 6) Flow of Information Barrier APCs LNs Sequence of Events
Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs
Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins
Antibody Structure, and the Generation of B-cell Diversity B cells recognize their antigen without needing an antigen presenting cell CHAPTER 4 Structure of Immunoglobulin G Different Immunoglobulins Differences
Module 3: Development of immune cells Lecture 15: Development of Lymphocytes (Part I) Pluripotent stem cells and fetal liver are considered as hematopoietic stem cells in the body which give rise to lineages
Biology 2402 A & P II Exam 2 Notes - Cardiovascular System : Blood Ch 12 Cardiovascular system links all cells with the environment. Composed of 12.1 - heart, a pump that produces pressure to move fluid
Study Guide for Immunobiology BIO401. Fall 2009 Eddies Final Study Guide What are the two branches of the immune system? Which is the first to respond? Which is more specific? Give examples of components
The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back