Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

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1 A. Goetzberger V.U. Hoffmann Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation With 138 Figures 4y Springer

2 Contents 1 What Is Photovoltaics? What Is Photovoltaics? Short History of Photovoltaics Technology Applications Relevance of PV, Now and in the Future Markets, Economics 8 2 Physics of Solar Cells Basic Mechanisms of Energy Conversion The Silicon Solar Cell 18 3 Silicon Solar Cell Material and Technology Silicon Material Monocrystalline and Multicrystalline Silicon Technology of Czochralski and Float Zone Silicon The Silicon Supply Problem Ribbon Silicon Principle The Main Approaches in Ribbon Silicon Production Silicon Cell Technology Production of pn and pp + Junctions Oxidation Process Electrical Contacts Antireflection Technologies Status Today Advanced Si-Solar Cells High Efficiency Cells Bifacial Solar Cells Buried Contact Cells Interdigitated Back Contact Cells OECO Cell 37

3 VIII Contents a-si/c-si Heterostructures Rear Side Contacted Cells Laser-Fired Contact Cells 40 4 Crystalline Thin-Film Silicon History The Basic Components of a Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cell The Present Status of the Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cell Si Layers Deposited Directly onto Glass Si Layers on High-Temperature Resistant Substrates Transfer Technologies of Monocrystalline Thin Si Films onto Glass 51 5 Other Materials, New Concepts, and Future Developments Theoretical Efficiencies and Requirements for Solar Cell Materials Thin-Film Materials Amorphous Silicon Copper Indium Diselenide and Related Compounds Cadmium Telluride Other Materials and Concepts Tandem Cells, Concentrating Systems Dye-Sensitized Cells Organic Solar Cells Theoretical Concepts for New High Efficiency Semiconductor Materials Auger Generation Material Intermediate Metallic Band Material and Up and Down Conversion Past and Future Development of Solar Cell Efficiency 81 6 Solar Cells and Solar Modules Characteristic Curves and Characteristics of Solar Cells Characteristic Curves of Solar Cells Characteristics of Solar Cells Module Technologies 91

4 Contents IX 7 PV Systems Stand-Alone PV Systems Consumer Applications Solar Home Systems Residential Systems Hybrid Systems Photovoltaic Water Pumping Grid-Connected PV Systems Decentralized Grid-Connected PV Systems Central Grid-Connected PV Systems Inverter PV Systems: Installation Possibilities Geometrical Considerations PV Systems in Connection with Buildings Advantages and Potential Installation on the Roof Roof-Integrated Systems Facade-Integrated Systems PV Sound Barriers Solar Power Plants Examples of Large PV Power Plants PV and Plant Growth Sun-Tracked and Concentrating Systems Sun-Tracked Systems Concentrating Systems Environmental Impacts by PV Systems Environmental Impacts Due to Manufacturing of PV Systems Environmental Impacts from Operation of PV Systems Energy Payback Time Land Area Required by PV Systems Recycling of PV Systems Recycling of Crystalline Silicon PV Modules Recycling of Amorphous Silicon PV Modules Recycling of Compound Semiconductor Thin-Film PV Modules Energy Demand for Recycling of PV Modules 146

5 X Contents 10 Efficiency and Performance of PV Systems Stand-Alone PV Systems Grid-Connected PV Systems Final Yield Performance Ratio Possibilities of Quality Control and Control of Energy Yield of Grid-Connected PV Systems Long-Term Behavior of Grid-Connected PV Systems Solar Module Inverter Mounting Racks and Fixing Materials Cables Electric Safety of Grid-Connected PV Systems PV Markets Support Measures and Costs Market Survey Influences on the PV Market Demonstration General Investment Subsidy Programs Sponsoring Low Interest Loans Tax Benefits Rate-Based Incentives or Feed-In Tariffs Green Pricing Foundation Solar Power Stock Exchange Cooperatives Green "Utility" Tendering Renewable Obligation Order or Renewable Portfolio Standard Installation on Leased Roof Areas Political Commitment Information Evaluation of Market Support Measures Cost of Photovoltaics Cost of PV Modules Cost of PV Systems Cost of Power Production 184

6 Contents 12 The Future of PV Boundary Conditions for the Future Development of Photovoltaics Cost Development of Conventional Electricity Effects of Liberalization and Environmental Restrictions Cost and Market Development of Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Systems PV in a Future Liberalized and Partly Decentralized Energy System Integration of PV into a Decentralized Energy System Fully Autonomous Systems, Autonomous House Concepts PV in a Centralized Energy System Electricity from the Desert Electricity, from Space Other (Perhaps Competing) CO 2 -Free Energy Sources Other Renewable Energy Sources Solar Thermal Energy Hydropower Wind Energy Biomass Ocean and Wave Energy Geothermal Energy Carbon-Free Combustion of Fossil Fuels: Carbon Sequestration What Is Carbon Sequestration? CO 2 Capture and Separation Popular Killing Arguments Against PV and Why They Are Not Valid Solar Modules Consume More Energy for Their Production Than They Ever Generate PV Produces More Greenhouse Gases Than It Saves Grid-Connected PV Requires Lots of Back-Up Fossil Power Plants PV Is Too Expensive PV Is Not Ready for Marketing, More Research Is Required 217 XI

7 XII Contents 14.6 Installation of PV in the Northern Half of Europe Does Not Make Sense Because the Same Solar Cells Generate Electricity Much Cheaper in the South PV Involves Toxic Materials PV Consumes Valuable Land Area PV Competes for Roof Space with Thermal Collectors A Feed-in Tariff Causes Unacceptably High Electricity Cost 219 References 221 Index 229

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