acid-base balance in the body

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "acid-base balance in the body"

Transcription

1 acid-base balance in the body 1 why acid/base balance is important a major homeostatic challenge is keeping [H+] (ph) of body fluids at an appropriate level. maintenance of acidbase balance is of critical importance to normal cellular function. ex/ a diet containing a large amount of protein, causes cellular metabolism to produce more acids than bases, which tends to acidify blood. 2 ph values in the body arterial blood: 7.40 venous blood/interstitial fluid: 7.35 intracellular fluid:

2 ph values alkalosis: arterial blood ph > 7.45 acidosis: arterial blood ph < review time 5 acids proton (H + ) donors in solution: dissociate to release free H + types strong acids weak acids 6

3 strong acid completely dissociate to free all of its H+ have a large effect on ph 7 weak acid partially dissociates liberates fewer H + ions less effect on fluid ph used to prevent dramatic changes in ph important buffers 8 bases H + acceptors: in solution, dissociate + pick up free H + NaOH Na + + OH - OH - then binds with H + in solution to form water OH - + H + H2O 9

4 strong bases/weak bases strong base: quickly pick up any and all free H + big impact on ph weak bases: slow to accept H + little impact on ph prevents dramatic ph changes (buffers) ex/ (HCO3 - ), ammonia (NH3) 10 abnormalities of acid-base balance 11 abnormalities of acid-base balance Respiratory acidosis alkalosis Metabolic acidosis alkalosis 12

5 respiratory acidosis (pco2 > 45 mm Hg) most common cause of acid-base imbalances cause: decrease in ventilation or gas exchange characterized by falling blood ph rising PCO2 13 respiratory alkalosis (pco2 < 35 mm Hg) a common result of hyperventilation due to stress pain 14 causes of metabolic acidosis ingestion of too much alcohol excessive loss of HCO3 accumulation of metabolic byproducts shock ketosis (diabetic crisis) starvation kidney failure 15

6 metabolic alkalosis much less common indicated by rising blood ph and HCO3 caused by vomiting intake of excess base (e.g., antacids) 16 depression of CNS coma death excitation of nervous system muscle tetany extreme nervousness convulsions respiratory arrest consequences of acid/base imbalances 17 how is ph regulated in the body? 18

7 1 2 ph regulation 3 1. chemical buffer systems 2. respiratory mechanisms 3. renal mechanisms chemical buffers: first line of defense because they act quickly for strong acids or bases utilize weak acids/ bases 1. bind up H + when ph 2. release H + when ph 20 major chemical buffers work together to resist changes in ph in ALL body compartments 1. bicarbonate system 2. phosphate system 3. protein system 21

8 a. bicarbonate system 22 1a. bicarbonate system important buffer in the ECF uses a mixture of H2CO3 carbonic acid or NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate 23 how does the bicarbonate system work? 24

9 what happens when we introduce a strong acid like HCl? HCl strong acid + NaHCO3 H2CO3 + weak base weak acid NaCl salt 25 weak acid (H2CO3) changes ph only slightly partially dissociates to form H + + HCO3- if need arises, H2CO3 can split into CO2 + H2O CO2 stim. ventilation CO2 removed ph raised 26 what happens when we introduce a strong base? NaOH + strong base H2CO3 weak acid NaHCO3 + weak base H2O water 27

10 bicarbonate reserve quantity/availability of HCO3- ion in body levels closely regulated by kidneys if too much acid enters and all HCO3 - is tied up buffering power is lost so system has limited effectiveness 28 what about carbonic acid? [H2CO3] is 1/20th but its supply is limitless obtaining it is not a problem why? 29 b. phosphate buffer system 30

11 1b phosphate buffer important buffer in ICF similar to bicarbonate system; composed of 2 salts: sodium dihydrogen phosphate NaH2PO4 weak acid sodium monohydrogen phosphate Na2HPO4 weak base 31 adding strong acid/base if a strong acid is introduced HCl + Na2HPO4 NaH2PO4 + NaCl strong acid weak base weak acid salt if a strong base is added: NaOH + NaH2PO4 Na2HPO4 + H2O strong base weak acid weak base water 32 c. protein buffer system 33

12 protein buffer system uses intracellular and plasma proteins recall proteins have carboxyl group amine group R H2N C H C O OH free carboxylic group R H2N C C H O O + H + weak acid part free amine end + H3N weak base part R C H C O OH 36

13 amphoteric molecules + H3N weak base part R C C H O O H + + weak acid part 37 respiratory control of ph 38 acidosis short term control of blood ph regulates CO2 to modify acid content of blood recall equation: CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H + + HCO3 - when blood CO2 is high, equation is shifted to right 39

14 alkalosis when blood CO2 is low equation pushed to left CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H + + HCO3-40 however respiratory system impairment can cause acid-base imbalances Hypoventilation respiratory acidosis Hyperventilation respiratory alkalosis 42

15 renal control of ph 43 purpose 1. slow correction of acid/ base imbalances and long term control of ph 2. eliminate metabolic acids 3. renew chemical buffers 44 most important renal mechanism for controlling ph A. reabsorbing or generating new bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions (from filtrate) ph B. excreting bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions (into filtrate) ph in blood happens in Type A cells 45

16 A. reabsorption of HCO3 - (via renal secretion of H + ) 46 reabsorption of HCO3 - Na + H + H + H + HCO 3 Na + Na + H 2 O H + Na + HCO 3 + H + H 2 CO 3 H + URINE tubule lumen CA CO 2 H + A T P A CO 2 + CA H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 3Na + tubule cell HCO 3 Cl 2K + peritubular cap 47 generating new bicarbonate dietary H + must be balanced by generating new HCO3 most filtered HCO3 is used up before filtrate reaches collecting duct 2 mechanisms exist in PCT and CD (in type A cells) to do this both involve renal excretion of acid 1. H + 2. NH4 + 48

17 1. active secretion of H+ HPO 4 2 HPO 4 2 HPO 4 2 HPO 4 2 HPO H + H 2 PO 4 URINE tubule lumen A T P A CO 2 + H 2 O CA (NEW) H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 tubule cell HCO 3 Cl peritubular cap ammonium ion excretion involves metabolism of glutamine in PCT cells each glutamine produces 2 NH4 + and 2 new HCO3 HCO3 moves to the blood and NH4 + is excreted in urine ammonium excretion GLUTAMINE 2NH 4 + 2NH 4 + Na + URINE tubule lumen A Deamination, oxidation, and acidification (+H + ) GLUTAMINE 2NH 4 + (NEW) 2 HCO 3 HCO 3 A T P 3Na + tubule cell HCO 3 Na + 2K + peritubular cap 51

18 B. excreting (secreting) bicarbonate ion secretion when the body is in alkalosis type B cells secrete HCO3 reclaim H+ and acidify the blood mechanism is opposite of bicarbonate ion reabsorption process by type A intercalated cells 52 secretion of HCO3 - H + HCO 3 + H + H 2 CO 3 H 2 O HCO 3 HCO 3 URINE tubule lumen CA CO 2 B CO 2 + CA H 2 O H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 H + H + A T P Cl H + Na + tubule cell peritubular cap 53

Acid-Base Balance and Renal Acid Excretion

Acid-Base Balance and Renal Acid Excretion AcidBase Balance and Renal Acid Excretion Objectives By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Cite the basic principles of acidbase physiology. 2. Understand the bicarbonatecarbon dioxide

More information

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3) Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 27. Effect of Hypoventilation Now let's look at how the

More information

Summary of Water, Electrolyte, & ph Balance

Summary of Water, Electrolyte, & ph Balance VIII. Distribution of Body s Fluids A) Fluid Compartments Summary of Water, Electrolyte, & ph Balance - Water occupies three main locations within the human body: 1. Intracellular Fluid (ICF) 2. & 3. Extracellular

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance , Electrolyte & ph Balance / Electrolyte / AcidBase Balance Body s: Cell function depends not only on continuous nutrient supply / waste removal, but also on the physical / chemical homeostasis of surrounding

More information

Dr. Johnson PA Renal Winter 2010

Dr. Johnson PA Renal Winter 2010 1 Renal Control of Acid/Base Balance Dr. Johnson PA Renal Winter 2010 Acid/Base refers to anything having to do with the concentrations of H + ions in aqueous solutions. In medical physiology, we are concerned

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance , Electrolyte & ph Balance / Electrolyte / AcidBase Balance Body s: Cell function depends not only on continuous nutrient supply / waste removal, but also on the physical / chemical homeostasis of surrounding

More information

ACID- BASE and ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. MGHS School of EMT-Paramedic Program 2011

ACID- BASE and ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. MGHS School of EMT-Paramedic Program 2011 ACID- BASE and ELECTROLYTE BALANCE MGHS School of EMT-Paramedic Program 2011 ACID- BASE BALANCE Ions balance themselves like a see-saw. Solutions turn into acids when concentration of hydrogen ions rises

More information

9.5 ph and the ph Scale

9.5 ph and the ph Scale 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Living things prefer a constant ph. Normal blood ph is strictly regulated between 7.35 and 7.45. The ph of a solution is commonly measured either electronically by using an instrument

More information

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 5. The newly formed bicarbonate moves into the plasma.

More information

Select the one that is the best answer:

Select the one that is the best answer: MQ Kidney 1 Select the one that is the best answer: 1) n increase in the concentration of plasma potassium causes increase in: a) release of renin b) secretion of aldosterone c) secretion of H d) release

More information

Acid-Base Balance and the Anion Gap

Acid-Base Balance and the Anion Gap Acid-Base Balance and the Anion Gap 1. The body strives for electrical neutrality. a. Cations = Anions b. One of the cations is very special, H +, and its concentration is monitored and regulated very

More information

Renal Acid/Base. Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 H+ Balance... 2

Renal Acid/Base. Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 H+ Balance... 2 Renal Acid/Base By Adam Hollingworth Table of Contents Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 H+ Balance... 2 Acid Base Homeostasis... 2 Role of Kidneys in Acid- Base Homeostasis... 3 Renal H+ Secretion... 3 Proximal

More information

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids

Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4

More information

UNIT IV MAJOR INTRA AND EXTRA CELLULAR ELECTROLYTES

UNIT IV MAJOR INTRA AND EXTRA CELLULAR ELECTROLYTES UNIT IV MAJOR INTRA AND EXTRA CELLULAR ELECTROLYTES J.KAVITHA, M.Pharm., Lecturer, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy SRM University. An electrolyte is any substance that dissociates

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 15. The Urinary System. Slides 15.1 15.20. Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L.

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 15. The Urinary System. Slides 15.1 15.20. Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 15 The Urinary System Slides 15.1 15.20 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Functions of the Urinary System Elimination

More information

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS Sections in this module I. Water is a polar molecule II. Properties of water III. ph IV. Acids and bases V. Buffers I. Water

More information

Plan of care for clients experiencing respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. values do we need to know????

Plan of care for clients experiencing respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. values do we need to know???? 1 Understanding ABG s Plan of care for clients experiencing respiratory acidosis and alkalosis 2 First the Basics.. An ACID is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion or freely dissociate a hydrogen

More information

BLOOD GAS VARIATIONS. Respiratory Values PCO2 35-45 mmhg Normal range. PCO2 ( > 45) ph ( < 7.35) Respiratory Acidosis

BLOOD GAS VARIATIONS. Respiratory Values PCO2 35-45 mmhg Normal range. PCO2 ( > 45) ph ( < 7.35) Respiratory Acidosis BLOOD GAS VARIATIONS 1 BLOOD ph Normal range 7.35 7.45 Think of 7.40 as your new 0 or neutral If the reading is below 7.4 it is acid. Below 7.35 it is acid out of range or Acidosis If the reading is above

More information

Chemical equilibria Buffer solutions

Chemical equilibria Buffer solutions Chemical equilibria Buffer solutions Definition The buffer solutions have the ability to resist changes in ph when smaller amounts of acid or base is added. Importance They are applied in the chemical

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance. Chapter 26 Balance. Electrolyte Balance. Fluid Balance. Acid Base Balance. Water

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance. Chapter 26 Balance. Electrolyte Balance. Fluid Balance. Acid Base Balance. Water Chapter 26 Balance Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance The body must maintain normal volume and composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) and the intracellular fluid (ICF) Part 1. Fluid and Electrolyte

More information

Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation. Self-Learning Module

Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation. Self-Learning Module Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation Self-Learning Module Introduction Washington Hospital Center Nursing Education Department Arterial blood gas (ABG) results enable nurses to assess and monitor a patient

More information

ACID-BASE BALANCE AND ACID-BASE DISORDERS. I. Concept of Balance A. Determination of Acid-Base status 1. Specimens used - what they represent

ACID-BASE BALANCE AND ACID-BASE DISORDERS. I. Concept of Balance A. Determination of Acid-Base status 1. Specimens used - what they represent ACID-BASE BALANCE AND ACID-BASE DISORDERS I. Concept of Balance A. Determination of Acid-Base status 1. Specimens used - what they represent II. Electrolyte Composition of Body Fluids A. Extracellular

More information

Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance. An Introduction to Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance

Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance. An Introduction to Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance An Introduction to Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance Water Is 99% of fluid outside cells (extracellular fluid) Is an essential ingredient of

More information

Urinalysis & Electrolytes

Urinalysis & Electrolytes Urinalysis & Electrolytes Ex 41A 1 Urine Definitions specific gravity compares the relative weight of water to the weight of other elements water = 1 (1ml of water=1g) iron = 7.85 (in other words, iron

More information

BIO132 Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance Lecture Outline

BIO132 Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance Lecture Outline BIO132 Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance Lecture Outline Fluid divisions 1. Extracellular fluid (ECF) 2. Intracellular fluid (ICF) Stabilization 1. Fluid balance 2. Electrolyte balance

More information

Quiz Urinary System. 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct.

Quiz Urinary System. 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct. Quiz Urinary System 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct. 2. The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal

More information

Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases

Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases 1/9/2015 Renal Biology - Sandra Hsu 1 Renal Functions 1) excrete metabolic wastes (blood cleaning)

More information

Urinary System: Notes You Gotta be Kidney Me

Urinary System: Notes You Gotta be Kidney Me Urinary System: Notes You Gotta be Kidney Me You kidneys are the primary organs of excretion. Excretion is the removal of wastes from the body. The wastes we are referring to here are the products of metabolism.

More information

Multiple Choice Questions- Acid Base Balance

Multiple Choice Questions- Acid Base Balance Multiple Choice Questions- Acid Base Balance Q.1- A person was admitted in a coma. Analysis of the arterial blood gave the following values: PCO 2 16 mm Hg, HCO 3-5 mmol/l and ph 7.1. What is the underlying

More information

R enal Function in Respiratory Failure*

R enal Function in Respiratory Failure* A n n a l s o f C l i n i c a l L a b o r a t o r y S c i e n c e, Vol. 32 N o. 4 C opyright 1973, In stitu te for C linical Science R enal Function in Respiratory Failure* NORMAN M. SIMON, M.D.f AND FRANCESCO

More information

Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance. Lecture 16

Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance. Lecture 16 Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance Lecture 16 Review of Concepts So Far An increase in energy demand requires an increase in cellular respiration The oxidation of glucose results in an increase

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Chapter 15 Body Fluids. Chapter 15 Body Fluids. Introduction. Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids. Composition of Body Fluids

Chapter 15 Body Fluids. Chapter 15 Body Fluids. Introduction. Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids. Composition of Body Fluids Chapter Objectives: Chapter 15 Body Fluids Learn about the composition of body fluids. Learn about blood and hemoglobin. Learn about oxygen and carbon dioxide transport, and chemical transport to and from

More information

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts Name: 15.1: Acids and Bases Define an Acid: Define a Base: Ex of an acid in aqueous solution: Ex of a base in aqueous solution: List some of the properties of acids

More information

Electrolyte Homeostasis

Electrolyte Homeostasis Electrolyte Homeostasis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 1. Electrolyte Homeostasis The fluid surrounding the cells in

More information

LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION

LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION Components of the Urinary System 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters Bladder Urethra Refer to Renal System Vocabulary in your notes Figure 2-1,page10 Kidney Composition Cortex Outer region Contains

More information

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a

More information

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19) Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

More information

Acid-Base Disorders. Jai Radhakrishnan, MD, MS. Objectives. Diagnostic Considerations. Step 1: Primary Disorder. Formulae. Step 2: Compensation

Acid-Base Disorders. Jai Radhakrishnan, MD, MS. Objectives. Diagnostic Considerations. Step 1: Primary Disorder. Formulae. Step 2: Compensation Objectives Diagnostic approach to acid base disorders Common clinical examples of acidoses and alkaloses Acid-Base Disorders Jai Radhakrishnan 1 2 Diagnostic Considerations Data points required: ABG: ph,

More information

Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal

Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal 2006-2007 Animal systems evolved to support multicellular life CH CHO O 2 O 2 NH 3 CH CHO O 2 CO 2 NH NH 3 O 2 3 NH 3 intracellular

More information

Syre-base regulering og bikarbonat

Syre-base regulering og bikarbonat Syrebase regulering og bikarbonat Peter Bie Institut for Molekylær Medicin Syddansk Universitet, Odense The (only) example of acidbase metabolism in normal man H + 80 Nonorganic acids 80 NH 3 Organic ions

More information

Function. Renal (Urinary) System. Anatomy. Anatomy. Nephron. Anatomy

Function. Renal (Urinary) System. Anatomy. Anatomy. Nephron. Anatomy Function Renal (Urinary) System Chapter 17 Maintains homeostasis in ECF Removing metabolic waste (except CO 2 ) e.g. ammonia, urea, uric acid Removing foreign compounds e.g. drugs, food additives, pesticides

More information

Buffer Solutions. Chapter 16 Additional Aqueous Equilibria. Buffer Action. Buffer Action. The ph of Buffer Solutions.

Buffer Solutions. Chapter 16 Additional Aqueous Equilibria. Buffer Action. Buffer Action. The ph of Buffer Solutions. Buffer Solutions John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 16 Additional Aqueous Equilibria Buffer = chemical system that resists changes in ph.

More information

Barrier between plasma and. ECF and ICF. Homeostasis: process of maintaining consistent composition of body s extracellular fluid

Barrier between plasma and. ECF and ICF. Homeostasis: process of maintaining consistent composition of body s extracellular fluid : process of maintaining consistent composition of body s extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid (ECF) Fluid in which the cells live (fluid outside the cells) Major components: Plasma interstitial fluid

More information

6 Easy Steps to ABG Analysis

6 Easy Steps to ABG Analysis 6 Easy Steps to ABG Analysis E-Booklet David W. Woodruff, MSN, RN- BC, CNS, CMSRN, CEN 571 Ledge Road, Macedonia, OH 44056 Telephone (800) 990-2629 Fax (800) 990-2585 1997-2012 Ed4Nurses, Inc. All rights

More information

11. 6 C is called carbon 12. It has 6 protons (as do all carbon atoms) and an atomic mass of exactly 12, meaning that this isotope has 6 neutrons.

11. 6 C is called carbon 12. It has 6 protons (as do all carbon atoms) and an atomic mass of exactly 12, meaning that this isotope has 6 neutrons. Pierce College Putman/Biol 241 Lecture 2: General Chemistry notes Universe is made of matter (physical substance) + energy Matter is made of atoms Atomic Structure & Isotopes 1. Atom is the smallest whole

More information

Eileen Whitehead 2010 East Lancashire HC NHS Trust

Eileen Whitehead 2010 East Lancashire HC NHS Trust Eileen Whitehead 2010 East Lancashire HC NHS Trust 1 Introduction: Arterial blood gas analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patient s oxygenation status and acid-base balance However,

More information

Purpose of Gas Exchange

Purpose of Gas Exchange Respiration: Gas Exchange / Acid Base Balance Animal Physiology Spring, 2008 Purpose of Gas Exchange To transfer oxygen from the atmosphere to tissues of the body, and to move metabolically produced carbon

More information

CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups

CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups PRACTICE PROBLEM Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a hormone secreted when the body is under stress. Illicit drugs that are structurally similar to epinephrine are highly

More information

Homeostasis. The body must maintain a delicate balance of acids and bases.

Homeostasis. The body must maintain a delicate balance of acids and bases. Homeostasis The body must maintain a delicate balance of acids and bases. Metabolic and respiratory processes must work together to keep hydrogen ion (H+) levels normal and stable. ph of Blood The ph of

More information

Buffers. GOAL: To introduce students to buffers and show how ph is regulated in the body.

Buffers. GOAL: To introduce students to buffers and show how ph is regulated in the body. Buffers GOAL: To introduce students to buffers and show how ph is regulated in the body. I. DEMONSTRATION: MATERIALS: 1 M HCl 1 M NaOH thymol blue 2 Alka-Seltzer tablets 4 250 ml beakers 4 stirring sticks

More information

1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY. Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action.

1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY. Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action. 1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action. Anatomy & Physiology: inseparable & complementary They are complementary

More information

ACID-BASE DISORDER. Presenter: NURUL ATIQAH AWANG LAH Preceptor: PN. KHAIRUL BARIAH JOHAN

ACID-BASE DISORDER. Presenter: NURUL ATIQAH AWANG LAH Preceptor: PN. KHAIRUL BARIAH JOHAN ACID-BASE DISORDER Presenter: NURUL ATIQAH AWANG LAH Preceptor: PN. KHAIRUL BARIAH JOHAN OBJECTIVES OF PRESENTATION 1. To refresh knowledge of acid-base disorders 2. To evaluate acid-base disorders using

More information

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Educational Goals 1. Given a chemical equation, write the law of mass action. 2. Given the equilibrium constant (K eq ) for a reaction, predict whether

More information

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

More information

Homework #3. CEE 680 Spring 2016

Homework #3. CEE 680 Spring 2016 CEE 680 Spring 2016 Homework #3 1. Acid/Base Equilibria I (2 POINTS) Determine the complete solution composition of the following systems (all are added to 1 liter of pure water), based on the governing

More information

Introduction to Body Fluids

Introduction to Body Fluids -1- Introduction to Body Fluids Graphics are used with permission of : adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) Page 1: Introduction to Body Fluids The fluids

More information

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

25.1 Acids, Bases, and ph

25.1 Acids, Bases, and ph In the Investigations, you measured several indicators of water quality, including the ph. You may remember that ph values range from 0 to 14. Low values (0 to 6) indicate that a solution is acidic whereas

More information

1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq)

1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) H 3 O (aq) NH 3 (g) H 2 O ( ) NH 4 (aq) OH (aq) CH 3 COO (aq) H 2 O ( ) CH 3 COOH(aq) OH (aq) H 2 O

More information

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

3 The Preparation of Buffers at Desired ph

3 The Preparation of Buffers at Desired ph 3 The Preparation of Buffers at Desired ph Objectives: To become familiar with operating a ph meter, and to learn how to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to make buffer solutions at a desired ph

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Chapter 8: Water and Electrolytes-Striking a Balance

Chapter 8: Water and Electrolytes-Striking a Balance Chapter 8: Water and Electrolytes-Striking a Balance Fluids are substances composed of freely moving molecules that have the ability to conform to the shape of their container. There are different types

More information

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

More information

Topic 5. Acid and Bases

Topic 5. Acid and Bases Topic 5 5-1 Acid and Bases Acid and Bases 5-2 There are a number definitions for aicd and bases, depending on what is convenient to use in a particular situation: Arrhenius and Ostwald: Theory of electrolyte

More information

Introduction to Body Fluids

Introduction to Body Fluids Introduction to Body Fluids Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Introduction to Body Fluids The fluids in your body

More information

Body Fluids. Physiology of Fluid. Body Fluids, Kidneys & Renal Physiology

Body Fluids. Physiology of Fluid. Body Fluids, Kidneys & Renal Physiology Pc Remember arterioles have more smooth muscle So SNS effects are greater on arterioles than on venules Net effects: SNS P c (vasoconstriction > venoconstriction) SNS P c (vasodilation > venodilation)

More information

The arterial blood gas gives you information about two key areas of the patient s physiology: Gas exchange Acid-base balance

The arterial blood gas gives you information about two key areas of the patient s physiology: Gas exchange Acid-base balance Arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation tutorial Introduction The arterial blood gas gives you information about two key areas of the patient s physiology: Gas exchange Acidbase balance Information about

More information

Metabolic alkalosis. ICU Fellowship Training Radboudumc

Metabolic alkalosis. ICU Fellowship Training Radboudumc Metabolic alkalosis ICU Fellowship Training Radboudumc Case History 28-year-old male Discovered by roommate at home in bewildering state During transport by EMS possible tonicclonic seizure Arrival in

More information

Acid-Base Disorders. Jai Radhakrishnan, MD, MS

Acid-Base Disorders. Jai Radhakrishnan, MD, MS Acid-Base Disorders Jai Radhakrishnan, MD, MS 1 Diagnostic Considerations Data points required: ABG: ph, pco 2, HCO 3 Chem-7 panel: anion gap Step 1: Acidemia/alkalemia (Primary disorder) Step 2: Compensation

More information

Comes to Life. Chemical reactions occurring in the human body. Chemistry Teacher Notes. School of Science and Technology.

Comes to Life. Chemical reactions occurring in the human body. Chemistry Teacher Notes. School of Science and Technology. Chemistry Teacher Notes Comes to Life Chemical reactions occurring in the human body Thousands of chemical reactions dictate all of the essential processes within the human body. Electrochemical gradients

More information

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases

Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases. 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids

More information

Chapter 23. Composition and Properties of Urine

Chapter 23. Composition and Properties of Urine Chapter 23 Composition and Properties of Urine Composition and Properties of Urine urinalysis the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine appearance - clear, almost colorless to deep

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

This article reviews the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance. It

This article reviews the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance. It RENAL REGULATION OF ACID-BASE BALANCE Bruce M. Koeppen Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030 This article reviews the role

More information

ph Cases David- Brett-Augusta-Vivian

ph Cases David- Brett-Augusta-Vivian ph Cases David- Brett-Augusta-Vivian Clinical Case #1 15-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis has complained of an increased cough productive of green sputum over the last week. She also complained of being

More information

Interpretation of the Arterial Blood Gas Self-Learning Packet

Interpretation of the Arterial Blood Gas Self-Learning Packet Interpretation of the Arterial Blood Gas Self-Learning Packet * See SWIFT for list of qualifying boards for continuing education hours. Table of Contents Purpose... 3 Objectives... 3 Instructions... 4

More information

2. Write a balanced chemical equation which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. 1/2 3/ 2

2. Write a balanced chemical equation which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. 1/2 3/ 2 Practice Problems for Chem. 1B Exam 1 F2011 These represent the concepts covered for exam 1. There may be some additional net ionic equations from chem. 1A. This is not the exact exam! Sections 16.1-16.3

More information

Metabolic Acidosis: Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Metabolic Acidosis: Diabetic Ketoacidosis 1 98 PHYSIOLOGY CASES AND PROBLEMS Case 34 Metabolic Acidosis: Diabetic Ketoacidosis David Mandel, who was diagnosed with type I diabetes mellitus when he was 12 years old (see Case 30), is now a third-year

More information

Introduction to the Physiology Laboratory

Introduction to the Physiology Laboratory Introduction to the Physiology Laboratory Physiology is commonly described as the study of biological function, while anatomy is described as the study of biological structure. In fact, each discipline

More information

4. Acid Base Equilibria

4. Acid Base Equilibria 4. Acid Base Equilibria BronstedLowry Definition of acid Base behaviour A BronstedLowry acid is defined as a substance that can donate a proton. A BronstedLowry base is defined as a substance that can

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN -

QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - QUESTION (2012:3) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. Conjugate acid Conjugate base - HCO 3 2 CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - (ii) HPO 4 2 (aq) Write equations for the reactions

More information

CHAPTER 20: URINARY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 20: URINARY SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the major function of the urinary system, and name and locate (on a diagram) the organs that compose the system. 2. Explain what the term renal refers to. 3. Define the term retroperitoneal.

More information

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body.

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body. Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture 20 Chapter 16 I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system 1

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

Acids, Bases and Concentrations

Acids, Bases and Concentrations 61 Chapter 7 Acids, Bases and Concentrations Thoughts or pictures of a shark usually evoke fear. But most sharks are not harmful to humans and shark attacks while dangerous and sometimes fatal are extremely

More information

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review Sessions @ pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate

More information

III. IDENTIFICATION of the IONS in CONSUMER PRODUCTS

III. IDENTIFICATION of the IONS in CONSUMER PRODUCTS 1 III IDENTIFICATION of the IONS in CONSUMER PRODUCTS I. OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND NOTE: Parts A-F need not be completed in the order written. The solutions used in this experiment have concentrations

More information

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

More information

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions

More information

Laboratory 10. Renal Physiology

Laboratory 10. Renal Physiology Laboratory 10 The primary function of the kidney is to maintain a constant level of blood solute concentration (or blood osmolarity). Additionally, the kidneys are responsible for excretion of metabolic

More information

Ettinger & Feldman Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Ettinger & Feldman Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine Ettinger & Feldman Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine Client Information Sheet Nutritional Management of Chronic Renal Disease Andrea J. Fascetti and Sean J. Delaney What is kidney failure and why

More information

Drug Metabolism. Kinetics of metabolism

Drug Metabolism. Kinetics of metabolism Drug Metabolism Drugs are most often eliminated by biotransformation and /or excretion into the urine or bile. The process of metabolism transforms lipophilic drugs into more polar, hydrophilic, readily

More information

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base? You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

More information

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator).

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator). Acid/Base Basics How does one define acids and bases? In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by two sets of theories. One is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea

More information