Suggested Resources Textbook: Chapter 6 (6.3, 6.4, 6.5 & 6.6)

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1 The Mole Big Picture Ideas: 1. The mole is a unit of count. 2. Using conversion factors, one can convert between mass, moles, particles and volume for a given substance. 3. Empirical data including percent composition can be used to determine chemical formulas. Big Picture Questions: 1. How do chemists count particles? 2. How do chemists convert between mass, moles, particles and volume for a given substance? 3. How do chemists determine chemical formulas? Suggested Resources Textbook: Chapter 6 (6.3, 6.4, 6.5 & 6.6) Key Terms 1. mole 2. Avogadro s number 3. atomic mass 4. formula mass 5. molecular mass 6. molar mass 7. percentage composition 8. empirical formula 9. molecular formula 10. STP and SATP conditions

2 UNIT 3: MOLAR MASS & PERCENT COMPOSITION CALCULATING MOLAR MASS OF COMPOUNDS a. sodium hydroxide b. calcium cyanide c. magnesium phosphate d. iron (III) dichromate 2

3 PERCENT COMPOSITION a. Find the percent composition of calcium cyanide Formula: % Ca = % C = % N = How many grams of calcium are in 40.0 g of calcium cyanide? b. Find the percent composition of magnesium phosphate Formula: % Mg = % P = % O = How many grams of magnesium are in 350 g of magnesium phosphate? ** What mass of magnesium phosphate contains 15 g of magnesium? 3

4 TRY 1. Find the molar mass of each compound below a. lithium carbonate b. calcium nitrate c. tin (IV) sulfate 2. Find the percent composition of tin (IV) sulfate % Sn = % S = % O = How many grams of tin are in 250 g of tin (IV) sulfate? 4

5 MOLE CONVERSIONS 1. Find the molar mass of each compound below a. diphosphorus pentoxide b. copper (II) sulfate c. calcium cyanide d. aluminum nitrate MOLE CONVERSIONS 6.02 x molecules = 1 mole 6.02 x formula units = 1 mole molar mass in grams = 1 mole 1. Find the mass of 4.50 moles of diphosphorus pentoxide 2. How many moles is g of copper (II) sulfate? 3. Find the mass of moles of calcium cyanide 4. How many molecules are in 110 g of diphosphorus pentoxide? 5

6 Make the following mole conversions. STEP 1: Write the correct formula STEP 2: Determine the molar mass STEP 3: Use dimensional analysis to convert a. 575 g of sodium sulfate to moles b moles of phosphorus pentachloride to grams c g of iron (III) nitrate to moles d x molecules of carbon disulfide to grams 6

7 EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS a. Find the percent composition of C2H4 %C = %H = b. Find the percent composition of C5H10 %C = %H = empirical formula: molecular formula: Determine the empirical formula of each compound below a. P4O10 b. C6H12O6 c. C3H6O 1. The empirical formula of a compound is CH2O. Its molar mass is 360 g/mol. Find its molecular formula. 2. The empirical formula of a compound is P2O5. Its molar mass is 284 g/mol. Find its molecular formula. 7

8 HOMEWORK - MOLAR MASS AND % COMPOSITION PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1. Label each compound below as ionic or covalent. Write the formula and determine the molar mass of each compound. compound ionic/ covalent? formula molar mass barium sulfate tricarbon octahydride iron (III) carbonate tetraphosphorus decoxide strontium phosphate 2. Find the percent composition of iron (III) carbonate. % Fe = % C = % O = 3. How many grams of iron are in 125 g of iron (III) carbonate? 4. What mass of iron (III) carbonate contains 10.0 g of iron? 8

9 HOMEWORK - PERCENT COMPOSITION Determine the percent composition of each of the compounds below: 1. KMnO4 2. HCl % K = % Mn = % O = % H = % Cl = 3. Mg(NO3)2 % Mg = % N = % O = 4. (NH4)3PO4 % N = % H = % P = % O = 5. Al2(SO4)3 % Al = % S = % O = Solve the following problems 6. How many grams of oxygen can be produced from the decomposition of 100 g of KClO3? 7. How much iron can be recovered from 25.0 g of Fe2O3? 8. How much silver can be produced from 125 g of Ag2S? 9

10 HOMEWORK - PRACTICE CONVERSIONS 1. Write the formula for each compound below. Then determine its molar mass. calcium sulfate formula molar mass aluminum cyanide phosphorus triiodide 2. Use the molar masses you found in # 1 to make the following conversions: a. Find the mass of 1.25 moles of calcium sulfate. b. How many moles is 2.50 g of aluminum cyanide? c. Find the mass of moles of phosphorus triiodide. d. How many molecules is g of phosphorus triiodide? e. Find the number of formula units in 10.0 g of calcium sulfate. 10

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