Maximizing benefits of phytase in the presence of Meat and Bone Meal. David Creswell & Hadden Graham

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1 Maximizing benefits of phytase in the presence of Meat and Bone Meal David Creswell & Hadden Graham

2 Introduction This paper is addressed to those (mainly non-eu) markets where Meat and Bone meal (MBM) is a commonly used ingredient to provide the supplemental phosphorus in broiler diets, rather than inorganic phosphorus This paper demonstrates, through feed formulation examples, how to derive the maximum benefit from a phytase in broiler diets containing MBM. Many feed companies formulate broiler feeds with nutrient requirements as suggested by the breeding companies; for example Ca & P requirements for the Ross 308. These values are high, and do not necessarily reflect published research conducted in recent years.

3 Calcium and Available Phosphorus requirements of broilers PHASE ROSS 1 CRESWELL 2 Calcium Available P Calcium Available P ROSS NUTRITION SUPPLEMENT, APPENDIX 3 2 David Creswell Updated calcium, phosphorus and sodium requirements of broilers. Asian Poultry magazine (September 2012, p. 20)

4 Introduction to formulations The main part of this paper is a series of broiler feed formulations designed to demonstrate phytase usage for markets that use MBM as their source of supplemental phosphorus, rather than inorganic phosphates. Each of the 3 feeds (starter, grower and finisher), have been formulated in 4 different ways, as explained below:

5 Formulation Models 1. Standard formulation, using calcium and available P requirement values from the Ross manual. These values can be seen in the formulations, and are 1.05/0, 0.90/0.45, and 0.85/0.42 for a three-phase diet program 2. Standard formulations using Creswell calcium and available phosphorus requirement values. These values can be seen in the formulations, and are 0.84/, 0.74/0.35 and 0.63/0.30 for a three-phase diet program 3. As 2, using Quantum Blue (AB Vista Feed Ingredients) at 500 FTU, and full nutrient matrix as recommended by AB Vista (see next slide) 4. As 2, using Quantum Blue at 750 FTU, and full nutrient matrix as recommended by AB Vista

6 Nutrient matrices for Quantum Blue, 5000 FTU/g 1, 2 Nutrient Units 500 FTU 750 FTU ME Calcium Available P Sodium SID Lysine Methionine M+C Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Isoleucine Valine Kcal/kg These matrix values multiplied by the inclusion levels give the quantities of nutrients released 2 From Formulating with Quantum Blue Poultry, AB Vista Feed Ingredients, Marlborough, UK

7 Formulation - Cereals The ingredients and their prices are those that prevailed in NSW & Queensland, Australia in the week of September 20, Prices are in AUD (can be considered as USD) Note prices for wheat and sorghum of $290 and $250. A common practice in Australia when these 2 grains are not far apart in price is to use them in combination. Having a proportion of wheat is often desired for reasons of pellet quality. In these examples 15 wheat has been retained in the largely sorghum diets

8 Formulation Protein Feedstuffs The grains available for this exercise are therefore wheat and sorghum, and the protein meals are Argentine soybean meal, MBM (Meat and Bone Meal) and Cold Pressed canola meal. Soybean Meal, MBM and canola meal compete with each other for a place in these broiler diets. Their relative prices vary widely, but more often than not, MBM is priced above soybean meal. For this exercise they have been given prices of $ 730, $ 780 and $ 450 for soybean meal, MBM, and canola meal, prices that prevail during late September The MBM used in this exercise had calcium, phosphorus and available phosphorus values of 9.0, 4.5 and 4.0 respectively

9 Formulation Oil & Enzymes Poultry Oil is a common supplemental feed grade oil used in Australia, and has been used in this exercise, at a price of $1000 Assumed values are free fatty acids and U:S ratio of ME values, based on the Wiseman Equation, are then 8140 and 8620 kcal/kg for young and older chickens The lower value was used in the starter, and the higher value in grower and finisher diets A xylanase enzyme (Econase XT) was included in all diets, without any nutrient matrix. The xylanase effect has been placed on the wheat, which is given the name wheat 11 (xylanase) In the formulations, Quantum Blue (5000) has been tested at 500 and 750 FTU/kg, with the full nutrient matrices as suggested by AB Vista

10 Formulation Ca & P It is of some importance to note the methods used to fix the dietary calcium and available phosphorus requirement values, when using phytase In all the formulations shown in this exercise, including those with phytase included, the dietary calcium and available P values were fixed, by putting on the exact same minimum and maximum values This has the effect of maintaining a ratio of calcium to available phosphorus of approximately 2/1 By way of illustration, for Creswell starter diets, minimum and maximum Calcium was 0.84, and minimum and maximum available Phosphorus was

11 Broiler Starter Diets - ingredient composition Ingredient Cost, $/t Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Quantum Blue, FTU/kg feed Wheat 11 (xylanase) Sorghum 9 Soybean Meal 47 Canola CP MBM 50 Poultry Oil Salt Sodium bicarbonate Limestone L Lysine HCL DL Methionine L Threonine Choline Chloride 60 Vitamins /minerals Coccidiostat Xylanase Quantum Blue Total, kg Total cost, $/t Net savings, $/t

12 Broiler Starter Diets - nutrient content Ingredient Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Quantum Blue, FTU/kg feed Nutrient minimums ME, Kcal/kg SID, Lysine Methionine M+C Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Isoleucine Valine Calcium, Available P, Sodium, Choline, ppm Phytate P,

13 Broiler Grower Diets - ingredient composition Ingredient Cost, $/t Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Quantum Blue, FTU/kg feed Wheat 11 (xylanase) Sorghum 9 Soybean Meal 47 Canola CP MBM 50 Poultry Oil Salt Sodium bicarbonate Limestone L Lysine HCL DL Methionine L Threonine Choline Chloride 60 Vitamins/Minerals Coccidiostat Xylanase Quantum Blue Total, kg Total cost, $/t Net savings, $/t

14 Broiler Grower Diets - nutrient content Ingredient Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Quantum Blue, FTU/kg feed Nutrient minimums ME, Kcal/kg SID, Lysine Methionine M+C Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Isoleucine Valine Calcium, Available P, Sodium, Choline, ppm Phytate P,

15 Broiler Finisher Diets - ingredient composition Ingredient Cost, $/t Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Quantum Blue, FTU/kg feed Wheat 11 (xylanase) Sorghum 9 Soybean Meal 47 Canola CP MBM 50 Poultry Oil Salt Sodium bicarbonate Limestone L Lysine HCL DL Methionine L Threonine Choline Chloride 60 Vitamins/Minerals Coccidiostat Xylanase Quantum Blue Total, kg Total cost, $/t Net savings, $/t

16 Broiler Finisher Diets - nutrient content Ingredient Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Quantum Blue, FTU/kg feed Nutrient minimums ME, Kcal/kg SID, Lysine Methionine M+C Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Isoleucine Valine Calcium, Available P, Sodium, Choline, ppm Phytate P,

17 Summary of net savings, $/t feed Diet Ross Creswell Creswell FTU Creswell FTU Starter Grower Finisher Mean (+16.23) (+18.48)

18 Discussion cost savings Changing from the Ross Calcium and Phosphorus requirements to Creswell saved $ 2-5/t feed Inclusion of the phytase at either 500 or 750 FTU, with full nutrient matrices, saved $ 16-18/t. Use of 750 FTU saved $ 2-3/t feed more than 500 FTU

19 Discussion meat & bone meal In each type of diet (starter, grower or finisher), the level of MBM which came into the diets on a least cost basis was reduced when going from Ross to Creswell formulations Further, the MBM levels used in conjunction with phytase were dramatically reduced. The main reason for this is the way calcium and available phosphorus requirement levels were set as fixed values. This allows MBM to come into the diet only up to the level of meeting the phosphorus requirements.

20 Discussion Ca & P This large reduction in MBM usage is beneficial for phytase efficacy, mainly as it increased the levels of dietary phytate By doing so, it increases the confidence of the user to employ full nutrient matrix values, for example. This method of formulation also keeps the ratio of Calcium to available P around 2:1, even when the release of calcium and phosphorus due to the phytase is included in the calculations. If reducing MBM had increased the feed costs, then it would be a more difficult decision whether to use this formulation approach.

21 Summary We conducted a formulation exercise for broiler diets using ingredient and prices for Australia, in late September Changing from the Ross calcium and phosphorus recommendation values to lower Creswell values reduced feed costs by $ 2-5/t feed. Use of a high efficiency phytase dramatically reduced the inclusion of MBM and also feed costs, by $ 18-22/t feed. A key point in the formulation method demonstrated is to use correct requirement values for calcium and phosphorus, and to fix those values by having the same minimum and maximum values This prevents the available phosphorus level from floating above the minimum by taking in more MBM

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