Chapter 2. Section 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page 63

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 2. Section 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page 63"

Transcription

1 Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding Section 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page Review Question (page 63) Predict whether the bond between each pair of atoms will be non-polar covalent, slightly polar covalent, polar covalent, or mostly ionic. a. carbon and fluorine e. silicon and hydrogen b. oxygen and nitrogen f. sodium and fluorine c. chlorine and chlorine g. iron and oxygen d. copper and oxygen h. manganese and oxygen You need to classify the nature of a bond between two elements. You know the atoms that are bonded. You can find the electronegativity of the atoms in the periodic table. Find the electronegativity of each given element in the periodic table. Subtract the electronegativity of the two elements that are bonded. Classify the nature of the bond based upon the electronegativity difference, EN. Electronegativity Difference, EN greater than 1.7 between less than 0.4 zero Classification of Bond mostly ionic polar covalent slightly polar covalent non-polar covalent Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 1

2 a. carbon and fluorine EN = EN F EN C = = 1.4 The bond is classed as polar covalent. b. oxygen and nitrogen EN = EN O EN N = = 0.4 The bond is classed as polar covalent. c. chlorine and chlorine EN = EN Cl EN Cl = = 0.0 The bond is classed as non-polar covalent. d. copper and oxygen EN = EN O EN Cu = = 1.5 The bond is polar covalent. e. silicon and hydrogen EN = EN H EN Si = = 0.3 The bond is slightly polar covalent. f. sodium and fluorine EN = EN F EN Na = = 3.1 The bond is mostly ionic. g. iron and oxygen EN = EN O EN Fe = = 1.6 The bond is polar covalent Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 2

3 h. manganese and oxygen EN = EN O EN Mn = = 1.8 The bond is mostly ionic. Check to be certain that the electronegativity values have been recorded and subtracted correctly. The EN are consistent with the type of bond. 12. Review Question (page 63) Arrange the bonds in each group below in order of increasing polarity. a. hydrogen bonded to chlorine, oxygen bonded to nitrogen, carbon bonded to sulfur, sodium bonded to chlorine b. carbon bonded to chlorine, magnesium bonded to chlorine, phosphorus bonded to oxygen, nitrogen bonded to nitrogen You need to arrange bonds in order of increasing polarity. You know the atoms that are bonded. You can find the electronegativity of the atoms in the periodic table. Find the electronegativity of each given element in the periodic table. Subtract the electronegativity of the two elements that are bonded, EN The bond of highest EN is the most polar. List the pairs of bonded elements from lowest to highest EN. a. hydrogen and chlorine EN = EN Cl EN H = = 1.0 oxygen and nitrogen EN = EN O EN N = = Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 3

4 carbon and sulfur EN = EN C EN S = = 0.0 sodium and chlorine EN = EN Cl EN Na = = 2.3 In order from lowest to highest polarity: C S < N O < H Cl < Na Cl b. carbon and chlorine EN = EN Cl EN C = = 0.6 magnesium and chlorine EN = EN Cl EN Mg = = 1.9 phosphorus and oxygen EN = EN O EN P = = 1.2 nitrogen and nitrogen EN = EN N EN N = = 0.0 In order from lowest to highest polarity: N N < C Cl < P O < Mg Cl Section 2.2 Writing Names and Formulas for Ionic and Molecular Compounds Solutions for Practice Problems Student Edition page Practice Problem (page 73) Write the name of P 4 S 7. You need to determine the name of P 4 S Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 4

5 You are given the formula P 4 S 7. Phosphorus and sulfur are both non-metals. The compound is molecular and prefixes are needed. Sulfur is the second element. Change the ending to -ide. There are four phosphorus atoms. The prefix for four is tetra-. There are seven sulfur atoms. The prefix is hepta-. The name is tetraphosphorus heptasulfide. The name describes the correct number of atoms of the corresponding elements. 2. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the name of Pb(NO 3 ) 2. You need to determine the name of Pb(NO 3 ) 2. You are given the formula Pb(NO 3 ) 2. Pb is the metal lead. NO 3 is a polyatomic ion and the name is nitrate. Since the compound is ionic, prefixes are not needed. A lead ion can have a charge of 2+ or 4+. Nitrate has a charge of 1 and there are two of these ions. The lead ion must have a charge of 2+ to make the compound neutral. Add (II) to the name of lead. The name is lead(ii) nitrate. The charges on the ions add up to zero. 3. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the formula for manganese(iv) chloride. You need to write the formula for manganese(iv) chloride Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 5

6 You know the name is manganese(iv) chloride. Manganese (Mn) is a metal. You know its charge must be 4+ because (IV) is part of the name. Chlorine (Cl) is a non-metal. Its charge is 1. The ending ide indicates that the compound is binary. It is an ionic compound. The charges are not the same, so subscripts are needed. The ratio of the charges on the two ions is 1:4. This does not reduce to a simpler whole number ratio. The ratio of the number of atoms is also 1:4. The subscript (number of atoms) of each element is the same as the magnitude of the charge of the other ion. 1 Mn 4+ ion balances the charge on 4 Cl ions. Therefore, the formula is MnCl 4. The charges on the ions add up to zero. 4. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the formula for nitrogen triiodide. You need to write the formula for nitrogen triiodide. You know the name is nitrogen triiodide. Nitrogen and iodine are both non-metals. The ending is ide. The compound is binary and molecular. Nitrogen has no prefix so there will be one atom of nitrogen and no subscript in the formula. Iodine has the prefix tri- so there must be three iodine atoms. Its subscript is 3. The formula is NI 3. The formula describes the correct number of atoms of the corresponding elements Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 6

7 5. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the name of CuBr. You need to determine the name of CuBr. You are given the formula CuBr. Cu is copper and it is a metal. Br is bromine and it is a non-metal. The compound is ionic. Prefixes are not needed. A copper ion can have a charge of 1+ or 2+. Bromine has a charge of 1 and there is one of these ions. The copper ion must have a charge of 1+ to make the compound neutral. Add (I) to the name of copper. The name is copper(i) bromide. The charges on the ions add up to zero. 6. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the formula for iron(iii) oxide. You need to write the formula for iron(iii) oxide. You know the name is iron(iii) oxide. Iron (Fe) is a metal. Its charge must be 3+ because (III) is part of the name. Oxygen(O) is a non-metal. Its charge is 2. The ending ide indicates that the compound is binary. It is an ionic compound. The charges are not the same so subscripts are needed. The ratio of the charges on the two ions is 2 : 3. This does not reduce to a simpler whole number ratio. The ratio of the number of atoms is also 2:3. The subscript (number of atoms) of each element is the same as the magnitude of the charge of the other ion. 2 Fe 3+ ions balance the charge on 3 O 2 ions. Therefore, the formula is Fe 2 O Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 7

8 The charges on the ions add up to zero. 7. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the formula for silicon dioxide. You need to write the formula for silicon dioxide. You know the name is silicon dioxide. Silicon and oxygen are both non-metals. The ending is ide. The compound is binary and molecular. Silicon has no prefix so there will be one atom of silicon and no subscript in the formula. Oxygen has the prefix di- so there must be two oxygen atoms. Its subscript is 2. The formula is SiO 2. The formula describes the correct number of atoms of the corresponding elements. 8. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the name of SeF 6. You need to determine the name of SeF 6. You are given the formula SeF 6. Selenium and fluorine are both non-metals so the compound is molecular and you need prefixes Fluorine is the second element. Change its ending to -ide. There is one selenium atom. It is the first element in the name and no prefix is needed. There are six fluorine atoms. Its prefix is hexa Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 8

9 The name is selenium hexafluoride. The name describes the correct number of atoms of the corresponding elements. 9. Practice Problem (page 19) Write the name of CaO. You need to determine the name of CaO. You are given the formula CaO. Ca is calcium and it is a metal. O is oxygen and it is a non-metal. The compound is ionic. Prefixes are not needed. Calcium has a charge of 2+. Oxygen has a charge of 2. In this example, the charges on each element are in the ratio of 2:2. This ratio reduces to a simpler whole number ratio of 1:1for the number of atoms. The name is calcium oxide. The charges on the ions add up to zero. 10. Practice Problem (page 73) Write the formula for cobalt(iii) nitrate. You know the name is cobalt(iii) nitrate. Cobalt (Co) is a metal. You know its charge must be 3+ because (III) is part of the name. Nitrate is a polyatomic ion that has the formula and charge NO 3. The compound is ionic. The charges are not the same so subscripts are needed. The ratio between the cobalt and nitrate ions is 1:3. This ratio does not reduce to a simpler whole number ratio. The subscript (number of atoms) of each element is the same as the magnitude of the charge of the other ion Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 9

10 1 Co 3+ ion balances the charge on 3 NO 3 ions. Therefore, the chemical formula is Co(NO 3 ) 3. The charges on the ions add up to zero. Section 2.2 Writing Names and Formulas for Ionic and Molecular Compounds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page Review Question (page 75) Write the name of each compound. a. Al 2 O 3 e. NH 4 Cl b. HgI 2 f. LiClO 4 c. Na 3 P g. HNO 3 (aq) d. K 3 PO 4 h. LiOH (aq) a. aluminum oxide e. ammonium chloride b. mercury(ii) iodide f. lithium perchlorate c. sodium phosphide g. aqueous hydrogen nitrate or nitric acid d. potassium phosphate h. lithium hydroxide 6. Review Question (page 75) Write the formula for each compound. a. zinc oxide d. magnesium iodide b. iron(ii) sulfide e. cobalt(iii) chloride c. potassium hypochlorite f. sodium cyanide a. ZnO d. MgI 2 b. FeS e. CoCl 3 c. KClO f. NaCN 8. Review Question (page 75) The following six compounds contain nitrogen and oxygen: NO, NO 2, N 2 O, N 2 O 3, N 2 O 4, and N 2 O 5 Write the names of these compounds. NO, nitrogen monoxide NO 2, nitrogen dioxide N 2 O, dinitrogen monoxide N 2 O 3, dinitrogen trioxide N 2 O 4, dinitrogen tetroxide N 2 O 5, dinitrogen pentoxide Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 10

11 9. Review Question (page 75) Write the formula for each compound. a. phosphorus pentachloride d. silicon tetrabromide b. difluorine monoxide e. cobalt(ii) hydroxide c. sulfur trioxide f. sulfur hexafluoride a. PCl 5 d. SiBr 4 b. F 2 O e. Co(OH) 2 c. SO 3 f. SF Review Question (page 75) Write the name of each compound. a. CO e. SiO 2 b. BCl 3 f. PI 3 c. CS 2 g. Ba(OH) 2 d. CCl 4 h. H 3 BO 3 a. carbon monoxide e. silicon dioxide b. boron trichloride f. phosphorus triiodide c. carbon disulfide g. barium hydroxide d. carbon tetrachloride h. trihydrogen borate Section 2.3 Comparing the Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds Solutions for Selected Review Questions Student Edition page Review Question (page 82) If a compound has very high melting and boiling points, is the compound likely to be soluble in water? Explain the relationship between these two properties of a compound. Compounds having a very high melting and boiling point are likely to be soluble in water. The high melting and boiling points are due to strong forces of attraction between charged particles called ions. The ionic solids in which these particles are held together can be pulled apart from their crystal lattice structure when surrounded by polar water molecules. This is the dissolving process. 11. Review Question (page 82) Glycerol is a compound that dissolves readily in water. The water solution of glycerol, however, will not conduct an electric current. What would you predict about the properties of glycerol? Since the glycerol dissolves, it is likely made up of polar molecules. Glycerol dissolves as polar water molecules surround the polar glycerol molecules Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 11

12 However, an aqueous solution of glycerol will not conduct an electric current. When electrodes are place in a solution containing polar molecules, the molecules orient themselves so that their positive ends point to the negative electrode and their negative ends to the positive electrode. There is no movement of electrons. Since the glycerol molecules are polar, the melting point and boiling point would be expected to be intermediate in value, lower than that of ionic solids, but higher than that of molecular, non-polar solids. 12. Review Question (page 82) Under what two conditions can an ionic compound conduct an electric current? Ionic compounds can conduct in the liquid state and in aqueous solution. In both these instances, the ions are free to move. 13. Review Question (page 82) Can polar molecular compounds conduct electric current under either of the conditions that you described in question 12? Explain why or why not. Polar molecules cannot conduct electricity in the liquid state or in aqueous solution. In aqueous solution, these molecules orient themselves so that their positive end points to the negative electrode and their negative ends to the positive electrode. There is no movement of electrons. Acids are an exception to this since they react with water to form ions. In the liquid state, the polar molecules are not made up of separate positively and negatively charged particles. This is necessary if the solution is to conduct an electric charge. Each molecule has a positive and a negative end; overall the molecule is neutral. 14. Review Question (page 82) To be transported throughout the body in the bloodstream, fat molecules must be bound to protein molecules, as shown in the following figure. Explain why you think this is necessary Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 12

13 Fat molecules are not soluble because they are only slightly polar. Protein molecules are polymers, very large molecules, made up of amino acids with many sites that are polar, thus increasing the solubility. Molecules that make up fats can readily adhere to these protein molecules and are carried through the blood. 15. Review Question (page 82) You might have heard the saying, Like dissolves like. From what you have learned about solubility, comment on the validity of this statement. This is a general statement that is often valid. Like refers to similarity in structure: ionic compounds with polar solvents; polar molecules with polar solvents; non-polar solids with non-polar solvents. In nature, many factors affect the events we see and often explanations are not clear cut. There are many exceptions to Like dissolves like For example, the molecules of all alcohols have a polar end but not all alcohols are soluble in water. At some point, the non-polar chain in the alcohol molecule dominates the solubility process. 16. Review Question (page 82) Two molecular compounds, X and Y, have similar masses. Compound X is solid at room temperature, has a melting point of 146 C, and is soluble in water. Compound Y is liquid at room temperature, has a melting point of 10 C, and is not soluble in water. a. What would you predict about the polarities of compound X and compound Y? b. Based on your predictions, explain the differences in their melting points and solubilities. a. The compound having the higher melting point, X, would be predicted to be more polar. Melting point depends upon the electrical attractions between molecules. The more polar the molecule, the greater the attractions and the higher the melting point. Compounds X is polar; compound Y is less polar or possibly non- polar. b. Compound X has a melting point of intermediate value. It is lower than that of ionic solids, but higher than that of molecular, non-polar solids. Compound X would be expected to be made up of polar molecules. This compound will dissolve in water as its polar molecules become surrounded by polar water molecules. Since it has a low melting point, compound Y is likely made up of non-polar (or only slightly polar) molecules with low attractions between molecules. Polar water molecules will not be attracted to these molecules and the solubility would be low Chapter 2 Chemical Bonding MHR 13

CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS

CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS 9 CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS SECTION 9.1 NAMING IONS (pages 253 258) This section explains the use of the periodic table to determine the charge of an ion. It also defines polyatomic ion and gives the

More information

Activity One: Binary Ionic Compounds Composed of Main Group Elements

Activity One: Binary Ionic Compounds Composed of Main Group Elements Activity One: Binary Ionic Compounds Composed of Main Group Elements This activity focuses on the nomenclature rules for ionic compounds composed of two different elements from select groups on the periodic

More information

Naming Compounds. There are three steps involved in naming ionic compounds- naming the cation, naming the anion, and naming the entire compound.

Naming Compounds. There are three steps involved in naming ionic compounds- naming the cation, naming the anion, and naming the entire compound. Naming Compounds Naming compounds is an important part of chemistry. Most compounds fall in to one of three categories ionic compounds, molecular compounds, or acids. Part One: Naming Ionic Compounds Identifying

More information

Name: Block: Date: Test Review: Chapter 8 Ionic Bonding

Name: Block: Date: Test Review: Chapter 8 Ionic Bonding Name: Block: Date: Test Review: Chapter 8 Ionic Bonding Part 1: Fill-in-the-blank. Choose the word from the word bank below. Each word may be used only 1 time. electron dot structure metallic electronegativity

More information

Naming Compounds Handout

Naming Compounds Handout Naming Compounds Handout IONIC COMPOUNDS versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS ionic compound: consist of cations (positive ions) and anions (negative ions) held together by electrostatic attraction usually metal

More information

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom

Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom Sample Exercise 2.1 Illustrating the Size of an Atom The diameter of a US penny is 19 mm. The diameter of a silver atom, by comparison, is only 2.88 Å. How many silver atoms could be arranged side by side

More information

Nomenclature Packet. 1. Name the following ionic compounds: a. Al 2 O 3 Aluminum oxide. b. Cs 2 O Cesium oxide. c. Rb 3 N Rubidium nitride

Nomenclature Packet. 1. Name the following ionic compounds: a. Al 2 O 3 Aluminum oxide. b. Cs 2 O Cesium oxide. c. Rb 3 N Rubidium nitride Nomenclature Packet Worksheet I: Binary Ionic Compounds (representative metals) metals from groups 1A, 2A, and 3A (1, 2, and 13) have constant charges as ions and do NOT get Roman Numerals in their names

More information

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide:

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide: Monatomic Ions Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons. While atoms are neutral, ions are charged particles. A loss of electrons results in a positive ion or cation (pronounced cat-eye-on

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Periodic Table: an arrangement of elements in horizontal rows (Periods) and vertical columns (Groups) exhibits periodic repetition of properties First Periodic Table: discovered

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

Naming Compounds Tutorial and Worksheet

Naming Compounds Tutorial and Worksheet Naming Compounds Tutorial and Worksheet Since we use different methods in naming binary covalent (molecular) compounds and ionic compounds, the first step in naming or writing the formula of a compound

More information

Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds

Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds 4.1 Octet Rule and Ions Octet Rule An octet is 8 valence electrons. is associated with the stability of the noble gases. He is stable with 2 valence electrons (duet).

More information

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like

More information

Naming Compounds Handout Key

Naming Compounds Handout Key Naming Compounds Handout Key p. 2 Name each of the following monatomic cations: Li + = lithium ion Ag + = silver ion Cd +2 = cadmium ion Cu +2 = copper (II) ion Al +3 = aluminum ion Mg +2 = magnesium ion

More information

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

More information

(b) Formation of calcium chloride:

(b) Formation of calcium chloride: Chapter 2: Chemical Compounds and Bonding Section 2.1: Ionic Compounds, pages 22 23 1. An ionic compound combines a metal and a non-metal joined together by an ionic bond. 2. An electrostatic force holds

More information

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole LI 1 The chemical formula of a covalent molecular compound tells us the number of atoms of each element present

More information

Naming ions and chemical compounds Worksheet #1. a. iodide ion b. barium ion c. mercury(ii) ion. d. Tin(IV) ion e. Phosphide ion f.

Naming ions and chemical compounds Worksheet #1. a. iodide ion b. barium ion c. mercury(ii) ion. d. Tin(IV) ion e. Phosphide ion f. Naming ions and chemical compounds Worksheet #1 Write the symbol for each ion. Be sure to include the charge. a. iodide ion b. barium ion c. mercury(ii) ion d. Tin(IV) ion e. Phosphide ion f. Silver ion

More information

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids Chemistry Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids The patterns are related to the chemical properties of the element.

More information

CHAPTER 9. 9.1 Naming Ions. Chemical Names and Formulas. Naming Transition Metals. Ions of Transition Metals. Ions of Transition Metals

CHAPTER 9. 9.1 Naming Ions. Chemical Names and Formulas. Naming Transition Metals. Ions of Transition Metals. Ions of Transition Metals CHAPTER 9 Chemical Names and Formulas 9.1 Naming Ions Monatomic Ions: a single atom with a positive or negative charge Cation (rules): listed first Anion (rules): ide ending Transition Metals have a varying

More information

Elements and Compounds. Chemical Bonds compounds are made of atoms held together by chemical bonds bonds are forces of attraction between atoms

Elements and Compounds. Chemical Bonds compounds are made of atoms held together by chemical bonds bonds are forces of attraction between atoms Elements and Compounds elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds the properties of the compound are totally different from the constituent elements Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular

More information

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES 31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

Formulas and Nomenclature

Formulas and Nomenclature Formulas and Nomenclature Formulas First of all, the formulas are the symbols for compounds and molecules. There are three different types of formulas, which are, Empirical formula Molecular formula Structural

More information

Polyatomic ions can form ionic compounds just as monatomic ions.

Polyatomic ions can form ionic compounds just as monatomic ions. 1 POLYATOMIC IONS We have seen that atoms can lose or gain electrons to become ions. Groups of atoms can also become ions. These groups of atoms are called polyatomic ions. Examples: O hydroxide ion NO

More information

Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds

Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds I. Ionic Bonds bonding between a metal and nonmetal or the bond between a positive ion and a negative ion forming a binary compound. end in the suffix "ide" Or bonding

More information

CHAPTER 3: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS. F Se F

CHAPTER 3: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS. F Se F APTER 3: ANSWERS T SELETED PRBLEMS SAMPLE PRBLEMS ( Try it yourself ).... 3.1 : l.. : I.. :.. 3.2 : l.. : 3.3 Selenium needs two more electrons to satisfy the octet rule, and fluorine needs one. The simplest

More information

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia 1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

More information

19.2 Chemical Formulas

19.2 Chemical Formulas In the previous section, you learned how and why atoms form chemical bonds with one another. You also know that atoms combine in certain ratios with other atoms. These ratios determine the chemical formula

More information

Oxidation States of Nitrogen

Oxidation States of Nitrogen Oxidation States of Nitrogen HNO 3 NH 3 HNO 2 NO N 2 O N 2 HN 3 N 2 H 5 + +3 +2 +1 0-1/3-2 Oxidation +5-3 Reduction Oxidation States of Chlorine HClO 4 HClO 3 ClO 2 HClO 2 HClO Cl 2 HCl +5 +4 +3 +1 0 Oxidation

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS

CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS 6 CEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS SECTION 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO CEMICAL BONDING (pages 133 137) This section explains how to distinguish between ionic and molecular compounds. It also defines cation and anion

More information

Chapter 9 Practice Test - Naming and Writing Chemical Formulas

Chapter 9 Practice Test - Naming and Writing Chemical Formulas Chapter 9 Practice Test - Naming and Writing Chemical Formulas Matching Match each itme with the correct statement below. Match each item with the correct statement below. a. monatomic ion f. cation b.

More information

Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding

Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding 1 Chemical Bonds There are three basic types of bonds: Ionic The electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent The sharing of electrons between atoms Metallic Each metal

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

Naming Ionic Compounds

Naming Ionic Compounds Naming Ionic Compounds I. Naming Ions A. Cations (+ions) 1. Element name followed by "ion" (when in Group IA, IIA, Al 3+, Ga 3+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Ag +, Ni 2+ ). Na + sodium ion, K + potassium ion, Al 3+ aluminum

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations 1. sodium carbonate + calcium hydroxide sodium hydroxide + calcium carbonate Na 2 CO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 2 NaOH + CaCO 3 2. carbon dioxide + water carbonic acid CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions What is an Oxidation-Reduction, or Redox, reaction? Oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions, are technically defined as any chemical reaction in which the oxidation

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

Period 3 elements

Period 3 elements 3.1.4.2 Period 3 elements 173 minutes 169 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. (a) Explain why certain elements in the Periodic Table are classified as p-block elements. Illustrate your answer with an example of a p-block

More information

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Chapter 4: Nonionic Compounds and Their Nomenclature

Chapter 4: Nonionic Compounds and Their Nomenclature 50 Chapter 4: Nonionic Compounds and Their Nomenclature A nonionic compound is a substance composed of atoms held together by chemical bonding forces, called covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed by

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

Study Guide For Chapter 7

Study Guide For Chapter 7 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

More information

Test 8: Review Questions

Test 8: Review Questions Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

More information

ANSWERS: Formula writing and nomenclature of inorganic compounds

ANSWERS: Formula writing and nomenclature of inorganic compounds ANSWERS: Formula writing and nomenclature of inorganic compounds 1. Determine the oxidation number of S in each of the following compounds: a) Na 2 S 2 O 3 ans. a) +2 b) H 2 SO 3 b) +4 c) SO 2 c) +4 d)

More information

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score:

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score: Name: Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. Valence electrons are electrons located A) in the outermost energy level of an atom. B) in the nucleus of

More information

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Octet rule-duet role: when undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an electron

More information

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education January 2014 Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 assessing Basic Concepts in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry AC112

More information

Chapter 2 Part 2 Honors Review

Chapter 2 Part 2 Honors Review Chapter 2 Part 2 Honors Review Student: 1. An anion is defined as A. a charged atom or group of atoms with a net negative charge. B. a stable atom. C. a group of stable atoms. D. an atom or group of atoms

More information

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date:

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: 1. At STP, fluorine is a gas and bromine is a liquid because, compared to fluorine, bromine has 1) stronger covalent bonds 2) stronger intermolecular forces

More information

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Naming Ionic Compounds. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Naming Ionic Compounds. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Objectives Name cations, anions, and ionic compounds. Write chemical formulas for ionic compounds such that an overall neutral charge is maintained. Explain how polyatomic ions and their salts are named

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 3

Chemical Bonds. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 3 hemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, ampbell & arrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, rganic and Biochemistry hapter 3 hemical Bonds Electronic Structure & hemical Valence An atom that loses one or more

More information

Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula

Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula Purpose: Theory: Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds 1. To become familiar with the rules of chemical nomenclature, based on the classification of compounds. 2. To write the proper name of the

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues)

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY Complete the following problems to help prepare for the test. Objective 1: Students will know ionic and covalent bonding. 1. Which subatomic

More information

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS PURPOSE EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS To perform and observe simple chemical reactions. To identify the products of chemical reactions and write balanced equations for those reactions.

More information

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations Symbols used in chemical equations: Symbol Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

Understanding Chemical Equations

Understanding Chemical Equations Connections Understanding Chemical Equations Have you ever... Seen the result of mixing baking soda and vinegar? Used friction to light a match? Seen a car eaten through by rust? Chemical equations model

More information

CHEMISTRY Quiz #1 answer key September 16, 2010

CHEMISTRY Quiz #1 answer key September 16, 2010 CHEMISTRY 123-07 Quiz #1 answer key September 16, 2010 Statistics: Average: 37 p (74%); Highest: 48 p (96%); Lowest: 20 p (40%) Number of students performing at or above average: 69 (58%) Number of students

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see.

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see. Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what

More information

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has

More information

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search Diagnostic/Introductory Activity Find any 10 of the first 20 elements. Word Search Q H Z S B N Q J B C N P K M A A M M O O A O E C H E H H U A T L R U X D R E V L G O N I D I O U E I Y I Z N O O S M L

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 2 Notes: Atoms, Molecules, & Ions

AP Chemistry Chapter 2 Notes: Atoms, Molecules, & Ions AP Chemistry Chapter 2 Notes: Atoms, Molecules, & Ions The History of Atomic Theory Circa. 400-5 BC. Greek philosopher Democritus proposes the idea of matter being made up of small, indivisible particles

More information

Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Using IUPAC Rules

Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Using IUPAC Rules Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Using IUPAC Rules There are three categories of ionic compounds that we will deal with. 1.Binary ionic o simple ions (only single charges) o multivalent

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Ionic Compounds Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical bond electrons

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

Exercise 3.5 - Naming Binary Covalent Compounds:

Exercise 3.5 - Naming Binary Covalent Compounds: Chapter Exercise Key 1 Chapter Exercise Key Exercise.1 Classifying Compounds: Classify each of the following substances as either a molecular compound or an ionic compound. a. formaldehyde, CH 2 O (used

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules Unit 8: Drawing Molecules bjectives Topic 1: Lewis Dot Diagrams & Ionic Bonding 1. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any representative element. 2. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any ionic compound. A Lewis structure

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

Ionic bonds are the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions. The cation is usually a metal, and the anion is usually a nonmetal.

Ionic bonds are the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions. The cation is usually a metal, and the anion is usually a nonmetal. Chapter 4 Ionic Bond Introduction Atoms can gain or lose valence electrons to become ions. Ions can be monatomic, such as Ca 2+ and Cl, or polyatomic, such as NH 4 1+ and CO 3. An bond is the electrostatic

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Compounds (structure and naming)

Compounds (structure and naming) Compounds (structure and naming) Compounds Ionic (made of ions) Composed of a Metal (left side) and a Nonmetal (right side) One element from the left side and one from the right side of the Periodic Table

More information

COMPOUNDS. 8]VeiZg. Introduction. In this chapter

COMPOUNDS. 8]VeiZg. Introduction. In this chapter 8]VeiZg ( COMPOUNDS Introduction Compounds are formed when different elements react chemically. This chemical interaction involves the outermost electrons of the atoms of each element. To understand the

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s)

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s) Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical

More information

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Concepts 1. Know the law of conservation of mass 2. Know about the structure of the atom and who did what including Thomson, Rutheford, Millikan, Bohr 3. Know the three

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Instructions and Sequence for Using the Atom Board

Instructions and Sequence for Using the Atom Board Instructions and Sequence for Using the Atom Board Bohr s atomic model is a representation of protons, neutrons, and electrons and their relationships within an atom. Because these particles are so small

More information

Naming Ionic Compounds Practice Worksheet Name the following ionic compounds: 1) NH 4 Cl 2) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 3) TiBr 3 4) Cu 3 P 5) SnSe 2 6) GaAs 7) Pb(SO 4 ) 2 8) Be(HCO 3 ) 2 9) Mn 2 (SO 3 ) 3 10) Al(CN)

More information