The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.

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1 Lesson 3. Topic Great Britain Grammar material: Conditionals. Grammar: IF Clause Type 1 Form if + Simple Present, will-future Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation. The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address. Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will- Future on how to form negative sentences. Example: If I don t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening. Use Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic so we think it is likely to happen. Example: If I find her address, I ll send her an invitation. I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure, however, that I will find it. Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari. I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris. So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari. Task 1. Some friends are planning a party. Everybody wants to party, but nobody's really keen on preparing and organising the party. So everybody comes up with a few conditions, just to make sure that the others will also do something.

2 Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I. 1. If Caroline and Sue (prepare).the salad, Phil (decorate) the house. 2. If Sue (cut) the onions for the salad, Caroline (peel) the mushrooms. 3. Jane (hover) the sitting room if Aaron and Tim (move) the furniture. 4. If Bob (tidy) up the kitchen, Anita (clean) the toilet. 5. Elaine (buy) the drinks if somebody (help) her carry the bottles. 6. If Alan and Rebecca (organize) the food, Mary and Conor (make) the sandwiches. 7. If Bob (look) after the barbecue, Sue (let) the guests in. 8. Frank (play) the DJ if the others (bring) along their CDs. 9. Alan (mix) the drinks if Jane (give) him some of her cocktail recipes. 10. If they all (do) their best, the party (be) great. IF Clause Type 2 Form if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive) Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address. Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional I on how to form negative sentences. Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn t stay here. Were instead of Was In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use were even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it. Example: If I were you, I would not do this.

3 Use Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if the present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however. I just imagine what would happen if Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address, but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her address. Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari. I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely that he will have the money to buy one in the near future. Task 2.Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type II) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional I with would in the main clause. 1. If we (have) a yacht, we (sail) the seven seas. 2. If he (have) more time, he (learn) karate. 3. If they (tell) their father, he (be) very angry. 4. She (spend) a year in the USA if it (be) easier to get a green card. 5. If I (live) on a lonely island, I (run) around naked all day. 6. We (help) you if we (know) how. 7. My brother (buy) a sports car if he (have) the money. 8. If I (feel) better, I (go) to the cinema with you. 9. If you (go) by bike more often, you (be / not) so flabby. 10. She (not / talk) to you if she (be) mad at you. IF Clause Type 3

4 Form if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation. The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma. Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address. Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. Example: If I hadn t studied, I wouldn t have passed my exams. Use Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then, however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled. Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation. Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation. Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari. I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one. Task 3. Complete the Conditional Sentences (Type III) by putting the verbs into the correct form. Use conditional II with would in the main clause. 1. If you (study) for the test, you (pass) it. 2. If you (ask) me, I (help) you.

5 3. If we (go) to the cinema, we (see) my friend Jacob. 4. If you (speak) English, she (understand). 5. If they (listen) to me, we (be) home earlier. 6. I (write) you a postcard if I (have) your address. 7. If I (not / break) my leg, I (take part) in the contest. 8. If it (not/ start) to rain, we (walk) to the museum. 9. We (swim) in the sea if there (not / be) so many sharks there. 10. If she (take) the bus, she (not / arrive) on time. Exceptions for Conditional Sentences So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it's possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect. Conditional Sentences Type I (likely) Condition refers to: future action action going on now IF Clause If the book is Simple Present interesting, Present Progressive finished action Present Perfect If he is snoring, If he has moved into his new flat, Main Clause Future I I will buy it. Imperative buy it. Modal Auxiliary you can buy it. Future I I will wake him up. Imperative wake him up. Modal you can wake Auxiliary him up. Future I we will visit him. Imperative visit him. Modal we can visit him.

6 Condition refers to: improbable action present facts should + Infinitive IF Clause If she should win this race, If he gets what he Simple Present wants, Main Clause Auxiliary Future I I will congratulate her. Imperative congratulate her. Modal we can Auxiliary congratulate her. Simple Present he is very nice. Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely) Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, I would travel around Conditional I the world. consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, Conditional II I would have said hello. Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible) Condition refers to: Past present Perfect Past past Perfect IF Clause Main Clause If I had known it, I would not be here Conditional I now. If he had learned for the Conditional he would not have test, II failed it. Task 4. Exercise on Exceptions (Conditional Sentences with different Tenses) Complete the conditional sentences (type I). Remember to use the auxiliary verbs. 1. If it doesn't rain, we (can / go) swimming tomorrow.

7 2. If you train hard, you (might / win) first prize. 3. If we go to Canada next year, we (can / improve) our English. 4. I (may / go) to the disco in the evening if I do the washing-up now. 5. If we go on holiday next week, I (not / can / play) tennis with you. 6. If you see Gareth tomorrow, you (should / tell) him that you love him. 7. If my parents go shopping in the afternoon, I (must / look) after my little sister. 8. He (must / be) a good drummer if he plays in a band. 9. If you are listening to the radio after 10 pm, you (should / turn) the volume down. 10. If you like that shirt, you (can / have) it. Task 5. To illustrate the use of different tenses, similar examples are used in the exercise. Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I according to the information in brackets. 1. If it (rain /still - action going on now), (stay - imperative) here for another while. 2. If it (stop - completed action) raining, we (go - future). 3. If it (start - fact) raining, we always (close - fact) the windows. 4. If it (rain / should - not very likely), please (close - imperative) the windows. 5. If it (rain - future action), the windows (must / close - passive voice). Task 6. Study the following situations. In every sentence, the 'if' clause expresses a general situation in the present (Type II). Decide, however, whether the consequences refer to the present (Conditional I) or past (Conditional II). 1. I am trying to reach Sue on the phone now, but I'm afraid she is not there because If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone. 2. A couple of minutes ago, I tried to reach Sue on the phone, but I'm afraid she is not there because If she (be) at the office, she (answer) the phone. 3. I want to ring a friend now, but I don't know his phone number. If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him.

8 4. A week ago, I wanted to ring a friend, but I don't know his phone number. If I (know) his phone number, I (ring) him. 5. A friend tells me what she is planning to do. I don't think what she is planning is a good idea. If I (be) you, I (do / not) this. 6. A friend tells me what she did. I don't think what she did was a good idea. If I (be) you, I (do / not) this. 7. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I'm seeing her in town tonight. If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town tonight. 8. Somebody tells me that Sarah is on holiday in Italy at the moment. This cannot be true because I saw her in town last night. If Sarah (be) in Italy, I (see / not) her in town last night. 9. My brother feels like he is getting the flu. I tell him You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit. 10. A few weeks ago, my brother had the flu. I tell him You (get / not) the flu if you (eat) more fruit. Task 7. Study the following situations. In every sentence, the 'if' clause expresses a situation in the past (Type III). Decide, however, whether the consequences refer to the present (Conditional I) or past (Conditional II). 1. It didn't rain yesterday. So I had to water the plants yesterday. If it (rain) yesterday, I (water / not) the plants. 2. It didn't rain yesterday. So I am watering the plants now. If it (rain) yesterday, I (water / not) the plants now. 3. I went to bed late last night. So I am still tired now. If I (go) to bed earlier yesterday, I (feel / not) so tired now. 4. I went to bed late last Tuesday. So I was very tired the following day. If I (go) to bed earlier that Tuesday, I (feel / not) that tired the following day.

9 5. After a night out, I want to drive home now. I haven't drunk any alcohol. If I (drink) alcohol, I (drive / not). 6. After a night out last weekend, I drove home. I hadn't drunk any alcohol. If I (drink) alcohol, I (drive / not). 7. We won the match last week. So when we came home, we looked really happy. We (look / not) that happy if we (win / not) the match. 8. We've just won a match. So we look really happy now. We (look / not) that happy if we (win / not) the match. 9. My daughter is blamed for having done something. She tells me now that she didn't do it. I believe her. She (tell) me if she (do) it. 10. Last year, my daughter was blamed for having done something. She told me that she hadn't done it. I believed her. She (tell) me if she (do) it.

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