Operating Systems. Lecture 03. February 11, 2013

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1 Operating Systems Lecture 03 February 11, 2013

2 Goals for Today Interrupts, traps and signals Hardware Protection System Calls

3 Interrupts, Traps, and Signals The occurrence of an event is usually signaled by an interrupt from either the hardware or the software. Hardware may trigger an interrupt at any time by sending a signal to the CPU usually by way of the system bus. Software may trigger an interrupt by executing a special operation called a system call. Answer the Phone... Resume

4 Interrupts, Traps, and Signals A process can generate a trap, for example, by dividing a number by zero. A user or a process may generate a signal (an interrupt to a process) Answer the Phone... Resume

5 Interrupt Handling Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine, generally, through the interrupt vector, which contains addresses of all the interrupt service routines. Interrupt architecture must save the address of the instruction after the interrupted instruction and the CPU state so that execution of the interrupted process may continue after the interrupt has been serviced.

6 Interrupt Handling Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent lost interrupts. An operating system is interrupt driven.

7 Hardware Protection Dual-Mode Operation I/O Protection Memory Protection CPU Protection

8 Dual-Mode Operation Sharing system resources requires operating system to ensure that an incorrect program cannot cause other programs to execute incorrectly. Provide hardware support to differentiate between at least two modes of operations. User mode execution done on behalf of a user. Monitor mode (also kernel mode or system mode) execution done on behalf of operating system.

9 Dual-Mode Operation Mode bit added to computer hardware to indicate the current mode: monitor (0) or user (1). When an interrupt or fault occurs hardware switches to monitor mode. Interrupt/fault monitor user set user mode Privileged instructions can be issued only in monitor mode.

10 Dual Mode Operation Hardware provides at least two modes: Kernel mode (or supervisor or protected ) User mode: Normal programs executed Some instructions/ops prohibited in user mode: Example: cannot modify page tables in user mode» Attempt to modify Exception generated Transitions from user mode to kernel mode: System Calls, Interrupts, Other exceptions

11 I/O Protection All I/O instructions are privileged instructions. Must ensure that a user program could never gain control of the computer in monitor mode (i.e., a user program that, as part of its execution, stores a new address in the interrupt vector).

12 Use of A System Call to Perform I/O

13 Memory Protection Must provide memory protection outside the address space of a process. In order to have memory protection, add two registers that determine the range of legal addresses a program may access: Base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address. Limit register contains the size of the range Memory outside the defined range is protected.

14 Use of Base and Limit Register

15 Hardware Support

16 CPU Protection Timer interrupts computer after specified period to ensure operating system maintains control. Timer is decremented every clock tick. When timer reaches the value 0, an interrupt occurs. Timer commonly used to implement time sharing. Time also used to compute the current time. Load-timer is a privileged instruction.

17 OS Kernel Users Applications Operating System API, AUI Operating System Kernel Computer Hardware Real work is done in the kernel

18 Entry Points into Kernel System Call Signal Interrupt Trap

19 System Calls User processes must not be given open access to the kernel code The system call interface layer contains entry point in the kernel code Any user or application request that involves access to any system resource must be handled by the kernel code

20 Types Of System Calls Process Control File Management Device Management Information maintenance Communications

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