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1 Storage Compared to the performance parameters of the other components we have been studying, storage systems are much slower devices. Typical access times to rotating disk storage devices are in the millisecond range. Fortunately, organization (both hardware and software) and technology can help mitigate this performance disparity. Probably the largest assist comes from DMA and the actual hiding of this latency (by prefetching or by multitasking). RAID organizations, disk caches, and flash/solid state disks can also help improve overall performance. The text highlighted in green in these slides contain external hyperlinks. 1 / 14

2 I/O Subsystems Device Interfacing I/O Processors Serial vs Parallel Program Controlled I/O Direct Memory Access (DMA) Synchronous vs Asynchronous Interrupt Priority RAID 2 / 14

3 Device Interfacing Memory Mapped I/O Instructions 3 / 14

4 I/O Processors Small processors in their own right 4 / 14

5 Program Controlled I/O ReadWait: if (ReadDeviceBusy) then goto ReadWait; else move CharacterRead to desired memory location; ReadDeviceBusy = true; end 5 / 14

6 Direct Memory Access (DMA) Package and handoff I/O requests to device electronics for concurrent access with other executing tasks. Basic process: 1. Application: issues I/O request 2. O/S: if (device available) package and send request to device & start device else queue request 3. I/O: process request stealing memory cycles 4. O/S: place job requesting I/O on blocked list 5. O/S: return to normal job scheduling 6. I/O: interrupt CPU when I/O complete 7. CPU: respond to interrupt, invoking O/S interrupt service routine 8. O/S: recognize interrupt & move blocked job back to read-to-run list; post any other pending request to the device 9. O/S: return to normal job scheduling 6 / 14

7 The Control Unit Remember the general process of the control unit instruction execution cycle. The addition of DMA adds external interrupt pins that must be examined by the control unit. Generally these are deferable interrupts that can wait until the currently executing instruction completes. There can be one or multiple external interrupt pins that must be examined. The order of their processing will rank order the priority of the interrupts. while true do instrregister = MM[PC]; PC++; decode instrregister; if (executing in user mode and a privileged resource is being accessed) then trap the program/terminate execution; else allow the instruction to be executed; end if (executing in user mode and external interrupt has been raised) then trap the program/context swap for interrupt service; end if (executing in user mode and timeout has occurred) then trap the program/context swap for timeout service; end end 7 / 14

8 Example I/O Back plane CPU-memory bus Cache CPU Bus adapter Main memory I/O bus I/O controller I/O controller I/O controller Disk Disk Graphics output Network FIGURE 6.15 A typical interface of I/O devices and an I/O bus to the CPU-memory bus. 8 / 14

9 Synchronous vs Asynchronous Many devices operate asynchronously Asynchronous is actually slower during a transfer Some SCSI devices can jump into a synchronous transfer mode 9 / 14

10 Interrupt Priority vectored interrupts daisy chains 10 / 14

11 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) Most significant types from the base classification: RAID 0: unchanged (nicknamed JBOD for just a bunch of disks); in practice this is often configured to interleave the data on disk for higher performance RAID 1: mirroring (exact copies of the data; attacking reliability, but also improving read performance) RAID 4: parity (placed on an extra disk; the parity disk rapidly becomes a bottleneck) RAID 5: distributed parity (same as 4 but with distribution of parity bits) 11 / 14

12 RAID 0: Striping Effective Address Enable Data 12 / 14

13 RAID 4/5: Parity P P P P P2 8 9 P P3 12 P P4 P P P5 FIGURE 6.28 Block-interleaved parity (RAID 4) versus distributed block-interleaved parity (RAID 5). 13 / 14

14 RAID: Additional derivatives RAID 10 (RAID 1 + RAID 0): mirror disks and then interleave the mirrors. RAID 01 (RAID 0 + RAID 1): interleave data then mirror. RAID 6: add additional parity disks to allow detecting/recovering from multiple failures. 14 / 14

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