Virtual Machines. COMP 3361: Operating Systems I Winter 2015

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1 s COMP 3361: Operating Systems I Winter 2015

2 1 Virtualization! Create illusion of multiple machines on the same physical hardware! Single computer hosts multiple virtual machines (computers)! Virtualization software is also called hypervisors L7-1! Each virtual machine is managed by a Monitor (VMM)! Host: the OS that runs the hypervisor, or the hypervisor itself! Guest: the OS that runs in the virtual machine

3 2 Why Virtualization? L7-2! Isolation: failure of one guest does not bring down the entire system! Cost: fewer physical machines mean less money to maintain hardware, or pay for running costs (e.g. electricity)! Migration: moving a system is equivalent to moving the memory and disk images (files) in software! Legacy support: run legacy applications without the need for legacy hardware! Software development: test software written for different operating systems in a single machine! Class assignments!

4 3 Requirements for Virtualization! Safety: hypervisor should have full control of virtualized resources! Fidelity: behavior of a program on a virtual machine should be identical to same program running on bare hardware! Efficiency: much of the code in a virtual machine should run without intervention by the hypervisor L7-3

5 4 Trap-and-Emulate run regular operations directly on hardware Virtual machine 1 Virtual machine 2 Virtual machine 3 Guest processes Guest processes Guest processes catch (trap) operations that try to change hardware ` Guest OS Guest OS Guest OS Virtualized Hardware Virtualized Hardware Virtualized Hardware Hypervisor.. emulate caught operations L7-4 Hardware

6 5 Instruction Types! Sensitive: instruction works differently in kernel mode and in user mode! e.g. POPF, SGDT, SIDT,! Privileged: instruction that is only allowed in kernel mode! e.g. CLI, MOV to CR3,! executing a privileged instruction in user mode will result in an exception L7-5

7 6 Type 1 Hypervisors Windows process Linux process Windows Linux Control Domain Type 1 Hypervisor Hardware (CPU, disk, network, interrupts, etc.) L7-6

8 7 Type 2 Hypervisors Windows process Linux process Guest OS Windows Linux OSX process Type 2 Hypervisor Host OS OSX L7-7 Hardware (CPU, disk, network, interrupts, etc.)

9 8 Virtualizing Sensitive Instructions privileged instructions will trap to ring 0 ring 3 ring 1 Guest OS user modes Type 1 Hypervisor ring 0 kernel mode Hardware L7-8 Privileged instruction in user modes from ring 1: emulate the instruction from ring 3: transfer to exception handler in guest OS What happens for sensitive operations performed in guest OS?

10 9 Full Virtualization With Binary Translation! Hardware will run sensitive instructions in guest OS processes as they should be since they are issued from ring 3 L7-9! Sensitive instructions executed in guest OS should be run as if they are issued in kernel mode! ring 1 is not kernel mode: hardware will not do this by default! Binary translation: sensitive instructions in kernel code are converted to calls into hypervisor code! hypervisor code emulates the instruction as if it is executed in kernel mode! Converted code fragments are cached

11 10 Para-Virtualization! Guest OS is modified so that it makes a system call to the hypervisor when privileged operations are to be performed! these calls are also called hypercalls! Poor portability, but easier than full virtualization L7-10

12 11 Technology: Hardware Assisted Virtualization Intel VT-X, AMD-V program in guest OS tries to run sensitive or privileged instruction ring 3 user mode guest OS tries to run sensitive or privileged instruction ring 0D Guest OS virtual kernel mode Type 1 Hypervisor ring 0P Hardware with Virtualization Support L7-11

13 12 Type 2 Hypervisors! Type 2 hypervisors run as user processes! Must perform binary translation of all sensitive and privileged code that run in the hypervisor! Or, install a module in ring 0 that takes care of loading virtual machines! set up to run similar to full virtualization in type 1 hypervisors! ring 0 module must take care to clean the CPU state when other host OS processes are running L7-12

14 13 Memory in s virtual machine with 2GB RAM 0 4GB Pages Virtual Address Space 0 2GB Virtual RAM Physical Address Space 0 8GB Physical RAM Machine Address Space L7-13 physical machine with 8GB RAM

15 14 Memory Virtualization! Efficiency: the lesser we involve the hypervisor, the faster the code runs! Consider that the guest page tables map page x to frame y, and we use these page tables directly in hardware for efficiency! Could be problematic:! frame y could be in use by the hypervisor or the host! frame y could be in use by another guest L7-14

16 15 Shadow Page Tables! Hypervisor maintains another set of page tables for each virtual machine! shadow page tables: the actual mapping between pages and frames! When guest OS tries to load page tables, it traps to the hypervisor! loading page tables is a privileged operation! Hypervisor makes MMU use the shadow page tables instead of the guest page tables L7-15

17 16 Issue with Shadow Page Tables! Guest OS removes an existing mapping! guest OS needs to invalidate the entry in the TLB! invalidating TLB is a privileged operation! hypervisor will know and update the shadow page table as well! Guest OS remaps a page to a different frame! TLB invalidation should be performed here too! Guest OS maps a new page to a frame! a simple update in memory that belongs to the guest OS! no sensitive/privileged operation is necessary to do this L7-16

18 17 Shadow Page Table Syncing L7-17! Solution 1: For the guest OS, hypervisor marks the pages containing the page directory/tables as read only in the shadow page table! hardware will generate an exception when attempting to write to the page directory/tables! exception will be handled by the hypervisor! Solution 2: Delay syncing till problem occurs! guest OS creates new entry in its page tables! guest OS tries to access newly added page! no mapping will be found by the hardware for the page! since it is using the out-of-sync shadow page tables! an exception will be generated! hypervisor handles exception by syncing the page tables

19 18 Hardware Based Memory Virtualization! Shadow page tables work by transferring control to the hypervisor via exceptions! too expensive!! Hardware support for memory virtualization! AMD Nested Page Tables! Intel Extended Page Tables L7-18

20 19 Nested Page Tables guest virtual address Guest Page Table guest physical address Nested Page Table machine physical address MMU hardware no mapping no mapping exception forwarded to guest OS exception forwarded to hypervisor L7-19

21 20 I/O Virtualization L7-20! I/O operations are sensitive! hypervisor gets control when they are performed by guest OS and handles it! Disk I/O: can read/write to a file instead of an actual disk! Interrupts: hypervisor receives actual interrupts and propogates them to guest OS by calling the guest handler! DMA transfers: hypervisor loads IOMMU with mappings such that data is transferred to frames dedicated to guest OS! Hardware support: separate buffers, registers, queues, etc. for virtual machines

22 21 References! Chapter , Modern Operating Systems, A. Tanenbaum and H. Bos, 4 th Edition. L7-21

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