Computer Systems: TCP - Adaptive Distributed Reliable Transport Protocol

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1 Computer Systems: TCP - Adaptive Distributed Reliable Transport Protocol Presenter: Sandeep K. S. Gupta Reference: -- Chapter 3, 5 Computer Networking, Kurose and Ross, Addison Wesley - Chapter 7, An Engineering Approach to Networking, Keshav, Addison Wesley. Arizona State University School of computing, informatics, and decision systems engineering

2 Agenda Adaptive Protocol Example TCP Dynamically adapts to level of resources available and condition of the channel Improving Performance - Windowing Flow Control Estimating RTT Congestion Control

3 TCP: Overview RFCs: 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581 socket door point-to-point: one sender, one receiver reliable, in-order byte steam: no message boundaries pipelined: TCP congestion and flow control set window size send & receive buffers application writes data TCP send buffer segment application reads data TCP receive buffer socket door full duplex data: bi-directional data flow in same connection MSS: maximum segment size connection-oriented: handshaking (exchange of control msgs) init s sender, receiver state before data exchange flow controlled: sender will not overwhelm receiver

4 TCP Segment Structure: Priciples Extensibility Make common case fast In-channel control

5 TCP segment structure URG: urgent data (generally not used) ACK: ACK # valid PSH: push data now (generally not used) RST, SYN, FIN: connection estab (setup, teardown commands) Internet checksum (as in UDP) 32 bits source port # dest port # head len sequence number acknowledgement number not used U A P R S F checksum Receive window Urg data pnter Options (variable length) application data (variable length) counting by bytes of data (not segments!) # bytes rcvr willing to accept

6 TCP seq. # s and ACKs Seq. # s: ACKs: byte stream number of first byte in segment s data seq # of next byte expected from other side cumulative ACK Q: how receiver handles out-of-order segments A: TCP spec doesn t say, - up to implementor User types C host ACKs receipt of echoed C Host A Host B simple telnet scenario host ACKs receipt of C, echoes back C time Transport Layer 3-6

7 Agenda Adaptive Protocol Example TCP Improving Performance - Windowing Window Size Examples: GBN and Selective Repeat Flow Control Estimating RTT Congestion Control

8 Performance of rdt3.0 rdt3.0 works, but performance stinks example: 1 Gbps link, 15 ms e-e prop. delay, 1KB packet: T transmit = L (packet length in bits) R (transmission rate, bps) = 8kb/pkt 10**9 b/sec = 8 microsec U sender : utilization fraction of time sender busy sending U sender = L / R RTT + L / R = = microsec 1KB pkt every 30 msec -> 33kB/sec thruput over 1 Gbps link network protocol limits use of physical resources! Transport Layer 3-8

9 rdt3.0: stop-and-wait operation sender receiver first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last packet bit transmitted, t = L / R RTT first packet bit arrives last packet bit arrives, send ACK ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R U sender = L / R RTT + L / R = = microsec Transport Layer 3-9

10 Pipelined protocols Pipelining: sender allows multiple, in-flight, yet-tobe-acknowledged pkts range of sequence numbers must be increased buffering at sender and/or receiver Two generic forms of pipelined protocols: go-back-n, selective repeat Transport Layer 3-10

11 Pipelining: increased utilization first packet bit transmitted, t = 0 last bit transmitted, t = L / R sender receiver RTT ACK arrives, send next packet, t = RTT + L / R first packet bit arrives last packet bit arrives, send ACK last bit of 2 nd packet arrives, send ACK last bit of 3 rd packet arrives, send ACK Increase utilization by a factor of 3! U sender = 3 * L / R RTT + L / R = = microsecon Transport Layer 3-11

12 Go-Back-N Sender: k-bit seq # in pkt header window of up to N, consecutive unack ed pkts allowed ACK(n): ACKs all pkts up to, including seq # n - cumulative ACK may receive duplicate ACKs (see receiver) timer for each in-flight pkt timeout(n): retransmit pkt n and all higher seq # pkts in window Transport Layer

13 GBN: sender extended FSM rdt_send(data) L base=1 nextseqnum=1 rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && corrupt(rcvpkt) L if (nextseqnum < base+n) { sndpkt[nextseqnum] = make_pkt(nextseqnum,data,chksum) udt_send(sndpkt[nextseqnum]) if (base == nextseqnum) start_timer nextseqnum++ } else refuse_data(data) Wait rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && notcorrupt(rcvpkt) base = getacknum(rcvpkt)+1 If (base == nextseqnum) stop_timer else start_timer timeout start_timer udt_send(sndpkt[base]) udt_send(sndpkt[base+1]) udt_send(sndpkt[nextseqnum-1])

14 GBN: receiver extended FSM L default expectedseqnum=1 sndpkt = make_pkt(0,ack,chksum) udt_send(sndpkt) Wait rdt_rcv(rcvpkt) && notcurrupt(rcvpkt) && hasseqnum(rcvpkt,expectedseqnum) extract(rcvpkt,data) deliver_data(data) sndpkt = make_pkt(expectedseqnum,ack,chksum) udt_send(sndpkt) expectedseqnum++ ACK-only: always send ACK for correctly-received pkt with highest in-order seq # may generate duplicate ACKs need only remember expectedseqnum out-of-order pkt: discard (don t buffer) -> no receiver buffering! Re-ACK pkt with highest in-order seq #

15 GBN in action Transport Layer 3-15

16 GBN: Observations Allows to fill the pipeline avoiding channel utilization problem of stop-and-wait Problem: when window size is large lot of packets can be in the pipeline. A single packet error can cause GBN to retransmit a large number of packets As p_error increases the pipeline can be filled with unnecessary retransmits. Selective Repeat (SR) avoids this problem

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