1 TCP Performance Management for Dummies Nalini Elkins Inside Products, Inc. Monday, August 8, 2011 Session Number 9285
2 Our SHARE Sessions Orlando 9285: TCP/IP Performance Management for Dummies Monday, August 8, 2011: 11:00 AM-12:00 PM 9269: IPv6 Addressing Wednesday, August 10, 2011: 11:00 AM-12:00 PM 9289: Staying Ahead of Network Problems at DTCC Wednesday, August 10, 2011: 3:00 PM-4:00 PM
3 If TCP/IP Works Fine Then, you don t need to look at anything. But, if it doesn t This session is for the systems programmer who has to maintain TCP/IP, but doesn t really know where to start. This session will tell you: What can cause problems on your TCP/IP network or stack. How to find problems. Where you may be able to change things. How to actually fix some things. Copyright Inside Products, Inc.
4 How Does TCP/IP Work? Packets are sent from one host to another They go through some equipment in the middle a router, switch, etc. Sometimes they get there, sometimes they don t. Sometimes some malicious person tries to snoop on them. What so hard about this? Packet 2 Packet 1 Router Chicago Packet 1 Packet 2 Server
5 Because, it is more like
6 Network diagnostics involves decoding multiple layers of protocols. FTP TCP LPR/LPD IP LDAP IPv6 HTTP UDP MQSeries TN3270
7 Core Internet Protocols The core internet protocols are: TCP, UDP, IP, and ICMP (IPv4 and IPv6) The TCP Profile: TCPConfig SOMAXCONN UDPConfig IPConfig IPConfig6
8 Basic TCP Functions Virtual circuit creation and management Network I/O management Reliability Application management Virtual Circuit Functions TCP connection start up TCP shut down sequence Data transmission TCP is a conversation Hello, Dude! (startup) How s the surf? (data transmission) Later, man! Let s blow this popstand. (close)
9 Virtual Circuit Client Host 1 Connection 1 TCP/IP Connection 2 Network Server Host 2 When two endpoints need to communicate with each other using TCP, a virtual circuit is established. The endpoints are the TCP listener running on the server and the remote client or foreign IP address. The virtual circuit provides the reliability, flow control and I/O management that make it different from UDP. There may be multiple connections between the client and server.
10 Each connection needs to be opened A TCP packet is sent from one side Other side allocates buffers, other resources SYN -- SYN/ACK sequence Ready for data transmission
12 757 HOST1 PACKET :50: Packet Trace From Interface : GBE2 Device: QDIO Ethernet Full=60 Tod Clock : 2009/12/03 07:50: Sequence # : 0 Flags: Pkt Ver2 Source Port : 3886 Dest Port: 5023 Asid: 0066 TCB: IpHeader: Version : 4 Header Length: 20 Tos : 00 QOS: Routine Normal Service Packet Length : 60 ID Number: 0F74 Fragment : Offset: 0 TTL : 64 Protocol: TCP CheckSum: CACC FFFF Source : xxx Open Packet Destination : xxx TCP Source Port : 3886 () Destination Port: 5023 () Sequence Number : Ack Number: 0 Header Length : 40 Flags: Syn Window Size : CheckSum: 6EDE FFFF Urgent Data: 0000 Option : Max Seg Size Len: 4 MSS: 8952 Option : NOP Option : Window Scale OPT Len: 3 Shift: 1 Option : NOP Option : NOP Option : Timestamp Len: 10 Value: DA182CA6 Echo:
13 758 HOST1 PACKET :50: Packet Trace To Interface : GBE1 Device: QDIO Ethernet Full=60 Tod Clock : 2009/12/03 07:50: Sequence # : 0 Flags: Pkt Ver2 Out Source Port : 5023 Dest Port: 3886 Asid: 0066 TCB: IpHeader: Version : 4 Header Length: 20 Tos : 00 QOS: Routine Normal Service Packet Length : 60 ID Number: F585 Fragment : Offset: 0 TTL : 64 Protocol: TCP CheckSum: E4BA FFFF Source : xxx Destination : xxx TCP Source Port : 5023 () Destination Port: 3886 () Sequence Number : Ack Number: Header Length : 40 Flags: Ack Syn Window Size : CheckSum: 4AD2 FFFF Urgent Data Pointer: 0000 Option : Max Seg Size Len: 4 MSS: 1460 Option : NOP Option : Window Scale OPT Len: 3 Shift: 0 Option : NOP Option : NOP Option : Timestamp Len: 10 Value: DA182CA7 Echo: DA182CA6
14 The session start times seem quite good. The absolute time is small and it is consistent. Next we will see a bad situation.
15 Look at the last time! Why might this be?
16 Let s look at how session establishment works. Why do you think that the SYN-ACK was sent after so much time?
17 Viewing Session States How do you view session states? This is a Netstat Byteinfo command on z/os. Notice Listen and Established connect states Established state will have foreign address
18 TCP Connect States (RFC793) A connection progresses through a series of states during its lifetime. The states are: LISTEN, SYN-SENT, SYN-RECEIVED, ESTABLISHED, FIN-WAIT-1, FIN-WAIT-2, CLOSE-WAIT, CLOSING, LAST-ACK, TIME-WAIT, and the fictional state CLOSED. CLOSED is fictional because it represents the state when there is no TCB, and therefore, no connection. A TCP connection progresses from one state to another in response to events. The events are the user calls, OPEN, SEND, RECEIVE, CLOSE, ABORT, and STATUS; the incoming segments, particularly those containing the SYN, ACK, RST and FIN flags; and timeouts. LISTEN - represents waiting for a connection request from any remote TCP and port. This is for a server port. SYN-SENT - represents waiting for a matching connection request after having sent a connection request. SYN-RECEIVED - represents waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment after having both received and sent a connection request. ESTABLISHED - represents an open connection, data received can be delivered to the user. The normal state for the data transfer phase of the connection.
20 How Does ACK Work? Segment 1 Segment 101 Segment 201 Segment 301 Ack 101 Ack 301 Assume each segment has 100 bytes. Ack is for all the bytes received and indicates the next byte of data that is expected Ack is not sent for each packet Segment 401 Ack 501
21 15 HOST2 PACKET :31: Packet Trace From Interface : CISCO1 Device: CLAW Full=43 Tod Clock : 2009/10/14 13:31: Sequence # : 0 Flags: Pkt Ver2 Adj Source Port : 1080 Dest Port: 23 Asid: 0038 TCB: IpHeader: Version : 4 Header Length: 20 Tos : 00 QOS: Routine Normal Service Packet Length : 43 ID Number: 0280 Fragment : Offset: 0 TTL : 125 Protocol: TCP CheckSum: DED2 FFFF Source : Destination : TCP Source Port : 1080 () Destination Port: 23 (telnet) Sequence Number : Ack Number: Header Length : 20 Flags: Ack Psh Window Size : CheckSum: 6878 FFFF Urgent Data Pointer: 0000 Telnet: IAC,DO,BIN TRANS; IP Header : 20 Data : 3 Data Length: 3 At: 2009/10/14 13:31: From: :1080 To: :23-3 bytes Sequence number: Expected ACK :
22 16 HOST2 PACKET :31: Packet Trace To Interface : CISCO1 Device: CLAW Full=119 Tod Clock : 2009/10/14 13:31: Sequence # : 0 Flags: Pkt Ver2 Adj Out Source Port : 23 Dest Port: 1080 Asid: 0038 TCB: IpHeader: Version : 4 Header Length: 20 Tos : 00 QOS: Routine Normal Service Packet Length : 119 ID Number: 01E9 Fragment : Offset: 0 TTL : 64 Protocol: TCP CheckSum: 1C1E FFFF Source : Destination : TCP Source Port : 23 (telnet) Destination Port: 1080 () Sequence Number : Ack Number: Header Length : 20 Flags: Ack Psh Window Size : CheckSum: 5974 FFFF Urgent Data Ptr: 0000 Telnet: (data=77),iac,eor; IP Header : E C1E 0AC90002 C0A89107 Protocol Header : F24787 B36D24D5 5018FFFF
23 TCP Buffers and MSS In the TCP Open, the TCP Send / Receive buffers and MSS are set. The Send / Receive buffers are pools used to hold data prior to sending it out across the physical adapter. TCP Send and Receive Buffers o Can affect speed of transmission o Match sender and receiver window sizes Send and Receive Buffers Max Segment Size o Can affect speed of transmission o Can be different in each direction. On most platforms each application can explicity set the buffer size via a socket option call. Server Interface IP Layer TCP Layer Application Packet Send and Receive Buffers
24 Congestion Window z/os Host Pkt 368: 14:15: Set Window Size to Interface GBE1 Port 2089 Pkt 369: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 370: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 371: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 372: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 373: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 374: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 375: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 376: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 377: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 378: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 379: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 380: 14:15: Send Data -> 1448 Pkt 381: 14:15: Send Data -> 144 Remote: Port 4987 (12 * 1448) = 17,520 Pkt :15: ACK
25 Protocol Header : B36D24B A9C HOST2 PACKET :31: Packet Trace From Interface : CISCO1 Device: CLAW Full=48 Tod Clock : 2009/10/14 13:31: Sequence # : 0 Flags: Pkt Ver2 Source Port : 1080 Dest Port: 23 Asid: 0038 TCB: IpHeader: Version : 4 Header Length: 20 Tos : 00 QOS: Routine Normal Service Packet Length : 48 ID Number: 026E Fragment : Offset: 0 TTL : 125 Protocol: TCP CheckSum: DEDF FFFF Source : Destination : TCP Source Port : 1080 () Destination Port: 23 (telnet) Sequence Number : Ack Number: 0 Header Length : 28 Flags: Syn Window Size : CheckSum: 0A9C FFFF Urgent Data:0000 Option : Max Seg Size Len: 4 MSS: 1448 Option : NOP Option : NOP Option : SACK Permitted IP Header : E0000 7D06DEDF C0A AC SYN Packet: TCP Open Connection. -- Will send out 13 packets (12 at 1,448 and 1 with remainder) before waiting for an ACK.
26 Congestion Window = 0 If the window size is set to 0, then the sender should stop sending. The buffers may be full at the receiver side. Network printers are the most likely to advertise a 0 window. Server Router 1 New York This may be because: o Paper jam in the printer o Printer is out of paper Window=0 Router 2 Chicago
27 Monitoring Congestion Window Netstat All or SNMP (z/os MIB TCP connection entry) o Provide congestion window on a per connection basis o Must sample regularly to have meaning SMF Record 119 (TCP termination record) shows Congestion Window Size at time of connection close After z/os 1.4, there is a new network management API which provides some measurements. You need to write an application to retrieve the data periodically. Network Management API shows if congestion window ever went to 0 during the life of the connection.
28 What is a Duplicate ACK? Segment 1 Segment 101 Segment 201 Segment 301 Segment 101 (again) Ack 101 LOST! Ack 101 Ack 101 Ack 401 Assume each segment has 100 bytes. Ack is for the next byte of data it is waiting for. A duplicate ack is sent when a packet is received and the sequence number indicates that it does not contain the byte you are waiting for.
29 TCP Retransmits By Remote Address Five remote addresses are responsible for over 80% of the retransmits. Duplicate acknowledgments show a similar pattern to the retransmits.
30 Monitoring Retransmits and Dup Acks Netstat All or SNMP (z/os MIB TCP connection entry) o Provide retransmits / duplicate acknowledgments on a per connection basis o Must sample regularly to have meaning SMF Record 119 (TCP termination record) shows retransmits at time of connection close (after z/os 1.8 will also show dup acks) Network Management API (SYSTCPCN) shows retransmits at time of connection close (after z/os 1.8 will also show dup acks) Network Management API (EZBNMIFR) shows retransmits / duplicate acknowledgments on a per connection basis. Must sample regularly.
31 Tuning TCP Saves Money Eliminate errors and unneeded traffic and benefit from: o Lower CPU usage o Less frequent hardware upgrades o Lower costs for MIPS-based software charges o Increased bandwidth availability o Increased technical staff productivity Focus on problem solving and tuning.
32 Before Tuning Data from a recent Network Health Check reveal TCP, UDP, ICMP, and listener errors for both systems. Over 2,000 errors per 3-minute interval. With tuning these numbers fall significantly. Errors contribute to TCP/IP SRB usage.
33 After Tuning After a Health Check and tuning efforts lasting 2-3 weeks, the listener and UDP errors for both systems have been completely eliminated. The ICMP errors for both systems are nearly eliminated. The TCP errors have been cut to 1/4 to 1/3 of what they used to be. TCP CPU usage dropped
34 The Silent Killer You may not even realize you have problems with TCP/IP. Just as cholesterol in the heart can be a silent killer, retransmissions, excessive connections, and unneeded traffic can clog up the network. And these problems are preventable!
35 Today s Complex Network Protocols Today, the packets we see are quite complex. They may have multiple protocols or multiple headers. o HPR over UDP o IPSec o Tunneling (6to4) for IPv6 Why? o Because of the need to integrate legacy SNA networks with TCP/IP o o Security IPv4 and IPv6 are incompatible protocols UDP Packet SNA Data IP Header ESP Header Encrypted Data IPv4 Packet IPv6 Packet
36 EE Trace Analysis Enterprise Extender uses HPR/RTP within IP/UDP. Let s decode the packets ourselves. We have to decode multiple headers. Inside some of the headers are indicators of congestion or problems RTP will retransmit data, if needed, so control information for retransmission is in some of the headers. RTP will try to adapt to changing network conditions, so some headers contain information needed for flow control. EE Packet Headers IP Header (20 bytes) UDP Header (8 bytes) LLC Header (3 bytes) NLC (variable) RTP Header (20 bytes) Optional RTP Segments FID5 TH RH (3 bytes) RU SNA Data
37 Inside Products Offerings Classes: TCP Diagnostics TCP/IP Trace Analysis, EE Trace Analysis IP Security Protocols (SSL, IPSec) IPv6 Consulting: Network Health Check / EE Health Check TCP Problem Resolution Planning for the Future Products: Inside the Stack, Early Warning System, Connection Log, Availability Checker TCP Problem Finder, EE Problem Finder, SSL Problem Finder TCP Response Time Monitor, TN3270 Response Time Reports 2cSNA (NetView replacement) Webcasts:
2057-15 First Workshop on Open Source and Internet Technology for Scientific Environment: with case studies from Environmental Monitoring 7-25 September 2009 TCP/IP Networking Abhaya S. Induruwa Department
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