Hiding Tracks on the Net

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1 Hiding Tracks on the Net Ways one might hide their tracks Private Browsing Anonymizers & Proxy Servers SSL / TLS Passwords False Information Public Networks Services Encryption Firewalls Private Browsing 1

2 What is a browser? A browser is a computer application that retrieves and displays content from the web This content may include web pages, videos, pictures, and more Popular browsers include Firefox, Internet Explorer, Chrome, and Safari Address Bar Search Box Tab Status Bar Browser Functions Web browsers also collect a variety of information about a user s online actions and save this information on the computer History Cache / Temporary Internet Files Cookies 2

3 Private Browsing Most browsers now have a private browsing function that allows the user to prevent cookies, cache, and history from being saved Internet Explorer: InPrivate Browsing Firefox: Private Browsing Chrome: Incognito Safari: Private Browsing Private Browsing Private Browsing 3

4 Private Browsing This function prevents history, cookies, and cache from being saved on the user s computer However, the user s actions are still tracked by the ISP AND the server hosting the information Private Browsing Home Computer Home Router 5 4 Internet Service Provider Website Host Internet Exchange Point QUIZ Private Browsing protects the user from A. Secret Agents B. Sharing information with their ISP C. Saving information on their computer D. Sharing information with websites they visit 4

5 Anonymizers Anonymizers Access the Internet on your behalf Allow you to be a step removed from the websites you visit Often, users get advertisements corresponding to their location. Anonymizers give the websites someone else s location Anonymizers 5

6 Anonymizers Networked Anonymizers A request for a certain webpage goes through several computers before going to the user who requested the information Makes traffic analysis very difficult However, each computer along the chain may be able to compromise the confidentiality Encryption may solve this problem if available Anonymizers Home Computer in Mississippi Home Router Internet Service Provider Internet Exchange Point Website Host Computer C California Computer B Germany Computer A Kansas Anonymizers Single Point Anonymizers Information passes through a single website Often offers encryption 6

7 Anonymizers Home Computer Home Router Internet Service Provider Internet Exchange Point Website Host Internet Exchange Point Anonymizer Website TOR: The Onion Router "Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows people and groups to improve their privacy and security on the Internet." Onion routing uses multiple layers of security that are removed (like onion skin) as a message is routed through the TOR network TOR 7

8 TOR TOR TOR 8

9 TOR TOR, while the most popular anonymizer is not flawless In October, TOR was hacked by Anonymous in order to find visitors to a popular child pornography website. Anonymous then posted the IP addresses of those users online Anonymizers Other popular anonymizers include: Anonymizer (anonymizer.com) Freenet (freenetproject.org) I2P QUIZ An anonymizer helps prevent sharing which of the following with a website the user visits: A. Location B. IP address C. ISP D. all of the above 9

10 Proxy Servers Proxy Servers A server that acts as an intermediary to a client seeking information from another server Browsers are set up to allow people to send all information through a proxy server Unlike anonymizers, no additional software is required Proxy Servers 10

11 Proxy Servers There are legitimate uses for proxy servers To audit Internet usage However, they can also be used to: Bypass work/parental controls Facebook at work, for example Anonymize access Proxy Servers A few popular proxy servers can be found at: Browser9.com Youhide.com Proxify.com Fastproxynetwork.com Proxy Servers 11

12 TLS / SSL TLS / SSL TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the successor to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Enables encrypted network communications for activities like: Credit card payments Healthcare data Financial information TLS / SSL In order to use TLS, a website you visit must be subscribed to it. Usually, the cost is rather minimal (about $10 per month) Encryption methods are very secure 12

13 TLS / SSL Passwords Passwords 13

14 Passwords Vary greatly in security. Long passwords with mix of numbers, letters, and symbols are much stronger. Should be changed often Many logins are protected by TLS, which helps prevent unauthorized interception If not protected by TLS, anyone along the chain can obtain your password Passwords Passwords can be used to restrict access to: An online blog A photo album (Flickr or Picasa) Video accounts (YouTube) QUIZ Which of the following is false: A. Passwords are always protected by TLS B. Proxy servers allow a user to bypass parental controls C. TLS usually protects online payments D. Proxy servers usually do not require extra software 14

15 False Information False Information False Information Accounts rarely require information to be accurate. Doing so might require: Credit card authorization Verification by sending in copy of driver s license / Social Security card Thus, users can create false identities online 15

16 False Information Might encourage someone to share pictures, video, etc., under an alias, providing them with some protection However, this doesn t prevent the ability to track it back to the user s computer Just requires an additional step in authenticating the actions of a specific user Public Networks Public Networks Where do public networks exist? McDonalds Starbucks Public Libraries Hotels Apartment Buildings Often allow users to connect without providing any information that reveals their identity 16

17 Public Networks How safe are they? Not very! Easy-to-find tools allow other users to obtain all of your account information and browsing history The provider may even track it intentionally for research purposes Public Networks Public Networks 17

18 Public Networks More than anything, it makes someone feel like their actions are anonymous Beyond tracking from others on the network at the time, use of public networks does make it difficult to track actions back to the user QUIZ Public networks allow a user to browse the Internet with full anonymity. A. True B. False Services 18

19 Services Many websites allow users to send anonymous s that prevent tracing to the sender anonymouse.org (reroutes through other countries and delays sending up to 12 hours) AnonymousSpeech.com (constantly moves servers in Asia and South America to prevent subpoena, provides legal insurance concerning protected information) Services Other services allow spoofing of another s address (pretending to be someone else) Many providers now allow all to be sent and received through TLS Encryption 19

20 Encryption Makes data unreadable without a key To properly protect data, it needs to be encrypted before leaving the sender s computer and decrypted once it reaches the recipient s computer Encryption Encryption Other data can be encrypted: Entire hard drives Or Individual folders or files CDs / DVDs USB Flash drives U3 software 20

21 Firewalls Firewalls May be hardware or software Computers often have firewall software Routers may have either Prevents unauthorized access May be used to prevent the user from certain actions (like using P2P software) Prevent hackers Firewalls 21

22 Firewalls Malware or Spyware operating on the computer may be able to bypass the computer s firewall Main function is not anonymity, but if the computer is on a network, the firewall may make it difficult to distinguish activities from each computer Miscellaneous Issues Steganography StenographyOriginal.png ( pixels, file size: 88 KB) StenographyRecovered.png ( pixels, file size: 19 KB) 22

23 Changing File Extensions Each file on a Windows computer has an extension that connects it to a program on the computer.doc or.docx = Microsoft Word.jpg,.gif,.tif,.jpeg,.png = Image files that can be opened by many programs.exe = an Application.zip = archive of compressed files Changing File Extensions Zip Files Allow users to compress files into small sizes for faster transmission on the Internet Some compression applications allow the user to password protect and encrypt the files, preventing unauthorized use 23

24 SecretHelper Firefox extension that allows user to create encrypted and passwordprotected drive on computer Only accessible through the Firefox tool Re-encrypted and inaccessible once browser is closed Good Reasons to Hide Tracks Private Browsing provides some protection while on public computers Encryption protects credit card numbers and important account passwords Proxy servers were used recently in Egypt to allow access to social networking when the government tried to block these sites QUIZ Which is not a function of a firewall: A. Encryption of files B. Control of a user s action C. Protection from hackers D. Anonymity 24

25 QUIZ Which of the following are legitimate ways to hide your privacy? A. Private Browsing B. Proxy Servers C. Passwords D. Encryption E. All of the above Ways one might hide their tracks Private Browsing Anonymizers & Proxy Servers SSL / TLS Passwords False Information Public Networks Services Encryption Firewalls Presented by Don Mason Associate Director, NCJRL

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