Cornerstones of Security

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1 Internet Security

2 Cornerstones of Security Authenticity the sender (either client or server) of a message is who he, she or it claims to be Privacy the contents of a message are secret and only known to the sender and receiver Integrity the contents of a message are not modified (intentionally or accidentally) during transmission Non-repudiation the sender of a message cannot deny that he, she or it actually sent the message

3 Encryption Private Key Encryption (Symmetrical Key Encryption) Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the most widely used symmetrical encryption algorithm Private Key Private Key Message Text Encryption Ciphered Text Decryption Message Text Sender Receiver

4 Encryption (cont.) Public Key Encryption (Asymmetrical Key Encryption) Public Key of Recipient Private Key of Recipient Message Text Encryption Ciphered Text Decryption Message Text Sender Receiver

5 Encryption (cont.) Digital Signatures : Authenticity and Non-Denial Public Key of Private Key of Recipient Recipient Message Text Signature Encryption Ciphered Text Decryption Message Text Signature Sender Private Key of Sender Public Key of Sender Receiver

6 Digital Certificates and Certifying Authorities Digital Certificates Verify the holder of a public and private key is who he, she or it claims to be Certifying Authorities (CA) Issue digital certificates Verify the information and creates a certificate that contains the applicant s public key along with identifying information Uses their private key to encrypt the certificate and sends the signed certificate to the applicant

7 Secure Socket Layer (SSL) Is a secure socket connection protocol that operates at the TCP/IP layer Authenticates and encrypts communications between browsers and servers Supports a variety of encryption algorithms and authentication methods Verifies that the content of the message hasn t been altered HTTP servers that implement SSL must run on socket port 443 instead of 80. It has become a common practice for firewall vendors to leave this port open.

8 The SSL protocol provides Private client/server interactions using encryption Server authentication Message integrity checks that detect tampering When a client and server first start communicating: They agree on an SSL protocol version Select the cryptographic algorithm Optionally authenticate each other Use public-key encryption technology for message sending SSL is now called TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol

9 S-HTTP S-HTTP is a security-enhanced variant of the HTTP protocol Adds application-level encryption and security on top of ordinary sockets-based communications The browser and server communicate over an ordinary HTTP session and then negotiate their security requirements Like SSL, S-HTTP incorporates public-key cryptography from RSA. It also supports password- and Kerberos-based security systems.

10 S-HTTP (cont.) It provides the following security checks: It authenticates both clients and servers It checks for server certificate revocations It supports certificate chaining and hierarchies It supports digital signatures that attest to a message s authenticity It allows an application to negotiate the security levels it needs It provides secured communications through existing corporate firewalls

11 S-HTTP on top of SSL Web browser HTTP Message S-HTTP SSL Web Server Port 443 Secure Web S-HTTP Seal

12 IPSec It provides authentication and encryption at the IP layer (Layer 3) SSL operates at the TCP layer (Layer 4) IPSec is less visible than SSL IPSec is faster since IP switches and routers can implement the protocol in their hardware

13 TCP/IP encryption: the choices Layer 7 Application (S-HTTP) Layer 5 Sockets (SSL) Layer 4 TCP (IPSec) Layer 3 IP

14 Access Control Password Protection Passwords are notoriously susceptible to compromise Users have a habit of sharing their passwords with others, writing them down where others can see them, and choosin passwords that are easily guessed. Browser transmits the passwords in a form that is easily intercepted and decoded. One of the roles of a firewall: making sure that even if the passwords are compromised the intruder only has restricted access to the rest of the network.

15 Firewalls A network node consisting of both hardware and software that isolates a private network from a public network Make sure that even if the passwords are compromised the intruder only has restricted access to the rest of the network Three types Packet-filtering firewalls Application level firewalls (Dual-homed gateway) bastion gateway connects a private internal network to outside Internet proxies (software programs) run on the gateway server and pass repackaged packets from one network to the other Screen-host gateway screened subnet gateway in which the bastion gateway offers access to a small segment of the internal network demilitarized zone (DMZ) is the open subnet

16 Packet-filtering firewalls packet filter Internet Intranet mail server IP address Port 25 Are typically implemented in routers at the IP level Drop, reject or permit packets based on Destination IP address Source IP address Application port number Drawback: easy to mimic the IP addresses of trusted machines

17 Proxy (application) firewalls The most secure form of firewalls. They run a small number of proxies that can be secured and trusted. All incoming Internet traffic is passed to the appropriate proxy gateway (for mail, HTTP, FTP, etc.). The proxies transfer the incoming information to the internal network, based on access rights of individual users. The proxy makes its decision based on authentication, authorization rules instead of IP addresses. The proxy s firewall address is the only one visible to the outside world. The IP addresses of your internal network are totally invisible to the outside world.

18 Combined Firewall Combined Firewall Bastion Host Internet Stop Traffic denied Traffic permitted Router Local Network Router is configured to only allow traffic through the bastion s IP address Computers on both sides of the firewall can only communicate via the bastion

19 Screened Subnet Firewall Web Server Bastion Host Internet Router Router Local Network Proxies: Telnet, etc.

20 Demilitarized zone (DMZ) firewall packet filter socks packet filter Intranet DMZ Internet ftp http

21 Firewall Design Guidelines Anything not explicitly permitted is denied Keep it simple: complexity is a risk No unneeded services on firewall No other applications No users Watch those logs Integration with systems management

22 Virtual Private Networks (VPN) A VPN lets organizations connect their geographically dispersed LANs via the Internet. A VPN combines encryption, authentication, and protocol tunneling to provide secure transport of private communications over the public Internet. It s as if the Internet becomes part of a larger enterprise wide area network (WAN). A VPN user can access enterprise data by making a local call into an ISP (Internet Service Provider) rather than using a long distance phone call. In this way, transmission costs are drastically reduced.

23 Structure of a VPN ISP IPSec-Encrypted VPN Remote client Public Internet Intranet Intranet VPN server Firewall Firewall VPN

24 Köszönöm a figyelmüket? További információ:

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