MultiMedia and Imaging Databases

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1 MultiMedia and Imaging Databases Setrag Khoshafian A. Brad Baker Technische H FACHBEREIGM W-C^KA VK B_l_3JLJ0 T H E K Inventar-N*.: Sachgebiete: Standort: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. San Francisco, California

2 Color Plates Following page 324 List of Figures «// Preface xxiu Chapter 1 The Multimedia Revolution ; 1.1 Introduction / Multimedia for Everyone Multimedia Environments What Are the Multimedia Data Types or Objects? Enter Multimedia and Imaging Databases Putting It in Context: Structure and Audience Evolution of Database Technologies is Network and Hierarchical Models The Relational Model Semantic and Functional Data Models Extended-and Object-Relational Models Nested Relational and Complex Object Models Object-Oriented Databases Databases Supporting Imaging and Multimedia Applications What Are Multimedia Databases? Various Definitions of Multimedia Databases 2J Multimedia and Object-Oriented Databases Other Basic Multimedia Database Management System Features Integrating Conventional DBMSs with IR and Hierarchical Storage Systems ClientyServer Architectures for Multimedia Databases 38

3 VI CONTENTS 1.6 Summary 40 Chapter2 Interfaces and Applications fov Multimedia Databases 4i 2.1 Introduction Major Application Categories for MMDB Interfaces The Multimedia Interface A Brief History of Graphical User Interfaces Editing Multimedia Elements Bit-Mapped Images and Graphics Objects Digitized Audio Digitized Video Integrated Multimedia Applications Presentation and Authoring Tools Forms Compound Documents Hypermedia Document-Imaging Systems Multimedia Databases Summary 707 Chapter 3 Multimedia Peripherals and Devices Introduction Multimedia Peripherals and Multimedia Databases 3.2 High-Resolution Display Monitors Scanners Sound Cards Video Boards Video Cameras Multimedia Computers Printers and Plotters Touch-Screen Devices Storage Devices 7J Digital Film Recorders Personal Digital Assistants Virtual Reality Summary

4 VII Chapter 4 Object Orientation: Concepts, Analysis, and Design for Multimedia Databases Introduction Relationship between Object Orientation and Multimedia Object Orientation: Overview What Is Object Orientation? The Object-Message Paradigm The Fundamental Concepts of Object Orientation Abstract Data Types 75s Classes Containers and Class Extensions Overloading and Dynamic Binding Advantages of Abstract Data Typing for Multimedia Database Application Development Inheritance Inheriting Instance Variables Inheriting Methods Method Overriding Multiple Inheritance Delegation Advantages of Inheritance for Multimedia Database Application Development Object Identity Path Names in Operating Systems Identity through Identifier Keys The Type-State-Identity Trichotomy Object Spaces with Identity Advantages of Object Identity in Multimedia Database Application Development Schema Development, Modeling, and Design for Multimedia Databases Double Design Three-Layered ANSI/SPARC Architecture Semantic and Entity-Relationship Modeling Foundation Overview of Object-Oriented Analysis and Design for Multimedia Database Applications Development Life Cycle Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Notation: A Very Brief Introduction Designing Classes and Objects: An Overview of Notation Integrity Constraints for Multimedia Database Applications Summary 213

5 VIII CONTENTS Chapter 5 Client/Server Architectures and Multimedia Databases Introduction File Server and Database Server Foundations Other Servers and Seryices for Multimedia Computing Coarse-Grained and Fine-Grained Client/Server Computing Component Object Computing and Client/Server Architectures Networking Network Operating Systems Security and Authorization Client/Server Architectures: File Servers Partitioning Functions in a Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Architectures: Database Servers Functions Performed on the Database-Server Nodes Distributed Databases Approaches for Developing Distributed Databases Characteristics of Distributed Database Systems Distributed Concurrency Control Replication and Distributed Databases Video Servers Fax Servers Messaging Servers for Transport Multimedia Extensions to the IBM LAN Server: A Case Study Oracle Media Server: A Case Study Summary 267 Chapters Database Management Systems for Multimedia Databases Introduction Revisiting the Definition of Multimedia Databases Taxonomy of Multimedia Databases Intelligent Multimedia Databases Dealing with Persistence Multimedia Objects in Relational Databases Supporting Multimedia and Imaging Data Types in Relational DBMSs Case Studies Object-Oriented Databases and Multimedia Database Applications Integrating Object-Oriented and Database Capabilities Extending a Database Language with Object-Oriented Capabilities Extending an Existing Object-Oriented Programming Language with Database Capabilities Application-Specific Products with an Underlying Object-Oriented DBMS 323

6 ix 6.5 Summary 324 Chapter 7 Querying and Content Retrieval in Multimedia Databases Introduction 325 Extracting Attributes and Key Features: Manual versus Automatic Indexing 333 Objects as Attributes versus Attributes of Objects 338 Searching Multimedia Objects 339 Multikey Searching of Multimedia Objects 341 Spatial Databases and Data Types Vectorized Images and Regions Spatial Predicates and Operations SQL Extensions for Spatial Searches 347 Iconic Indexing 350 Content Searching Searching Large Collections Uncertainty, Probabilistic Models, and Fuzziness Content Retrieval for Text Documents Concept Indexes SQL Extensions for Full-Text Searching 367 Content Retrieval for Images Case Study: Ultimedia Manager Case Study: Excalibur Case Study: XDP from Plexus 367 Indexing and Retrieval for Electronic Video Libraries 367 The Next Step in Database Querying: Virtual-Reality Interfaces Case Study: The SANDBOX Summary Chapter 8 Transactions, Concurrency, and Recovery in Multimedia Databases Introduction 377 Transactions The ACID Test Transactions for MMDBMS Applications Transactions Involving the Three Subsystems of an MMDBMS 393

7 8.3 Concurrency Control Locking Multiversion Concurrency Control Optimistic Concurrency Control Recovery Recovery Manager Recovery Strategies Versioning Configurations Historic Versions Summary 473 Chapter 9 Access Methods and Clustering for Multimedia Object Storage Introduction Partitioning Search Spaces Indexing Strategies and Data Structures for Indexing Single-Key Index Structures B Trees Mapped or Hashed File Structures Index Structures for BLOBs: Positional Access Linked List Directories for BLOBs with Maximum Lengths Positional B Trees Multiattribute and Spatial Indexing of Multimedia Objects Dimensionality and Locality Multidimensional Search Structures Indexing for Content Retrieval Inverted Indexes Signature Indexes Clustering Object Size Sets with Large Cardinalities Long Tuples Large Atoms Large Graphics Alternative Storage Strategies Direct Storage Model Normalized Storage Model Decomposed Storage Model Summary 449 Chapter 10 Multimedia Storage Management Introduction 453

8 XI 10.2 Magnetic Storage Systems RAID Technologies Optical Storage Systems WORM The Technology Optical Media Erasable Optical Technologies Magneto-Optic Phase Change Multifunction Drives CD-ROM OpticalJukeboxes File Systems for Optical Media Directory Structures Allocation Methods Caching Algorithms Software Optimization of the Hardware Other Considerations Volume Managementfor Removable Optical Media Hierarchical Storage Management IEEE Mass Storage Systems (MSS) Reference Model Epoch Systems Infinite Storage Architecture Model R-Squared IFS-2 HSM System Multimedia Requirements and Enhancements for HSM Summary 507 Ctapfer 7 7 Multimedia Networking sos 11.1 Introduction Requirements for Multimedia Networking LAN Multimedia Networks Local Area Networks Network Cabling Ethernet Token Ring Bridges, Routers, and Gateways OSI/ISO Network Standard Model FDDI High-Speed Ethernet 527

9 XII CONTENTS 11.4 WAN Multimedia Networking Asynchronous Transfer Mode Integrated Services Digital Network Frame-Relay Service Switched Multimegabit Data Service SONET Bandwidth Optimization Summary 543 Chapter 12 Summary Overview of the Book Multimedia Interfaces: Chapter Multimedia Devices and Peripherals: Chapter Object Orientation: Chapter Client/Server Architectures: Chapter Database Managers for Multimedia Database Applications: Chapter Querying: Chapter Transactions, Concurrency, and Recovery: Chapter Indexing and Clustering: Chapter Multimedia Storage: Chapter Multimedia Networking: Chapter Epilogue 555

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