FROM RELATIONAL TO OBJECT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

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1 FROM RELATIONAL TO OBJECT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS V. CHRISTOPHIDES Department of Computer Science & Engineering University of California, San Diego ICS - FORTH, Heraklion, Crete 1 I) INTRODUCTION 2 1 1

2 What is a DBMS? : Logically coherent collection of computerized data Stored Data: Persistent facts with some inherent meaning Accessible Data: Extracted and derived facts for a specific purpose Management System: General purpose software that facilitates the process of defining, constructing and manipulating database for various applications. It offers the following services: Data Persistence Disk Management Data Sharing Data Reliability Ad hoc Queries 3 DBMS Applications Administration & Management Bank Accounts Company Stocks & Personal Airline Reservation University Courses and Notes Library Books Borrowing Media & Net-centric Applications Engineering (CAD/CAM/CIM/CAE) Scientific Applications Genome s, Environmental Applications (GIS) Telecommunications + s Network management, Telemedicine, Info Brokering Multimedia, Entertain., Visualization Interactive, Virtual Reality based Software Design and Management Data Warehouses Web Site Management Electronic Commerce 4 2 2

3 DBMS vs. other types of software Effective Manipulation of Persistent Data recovery from failures concurrent access security & integrity controls data independence physical & logical & user Efficient Access to Large Data Volumes buffer management indexing/clustering query optimization distribution 5 Example: Phone Directory One file: first and last name, address, profession, telephone number Two type of access: Direct by first/last name (white pages) Sequential by profession headings (yellow pages) Implementation without a DBMS: Hashing on first/last name (key) and linked lists of profession headings Change of the access mode implies PROGRAM RERWITING Implementation with a DBMS: Choice of a physical structure Choice of a logical structure Application programs are build on the top of data logical structuring 6 3 3

4 The ANSI-SPARC Architecture External Level: What actually seen by users (not necessary the whole database) Conceptual Level: Modeling of the real-word data, independent from the underlying DBMS Internal Level: How data is physically stored Logical-schema: Logical organization of data using the DBMS data model (tables, etc.) Physical-schema: Physical organization of data in the secondary memory (files, records, etc.) The ability to modify a scheme definition in one level without affecting a scheme definition in a higher level is called data independence 7 Three Level Architecture VIEW 1 VIEW 2 VIEW 3 INTEGRATION LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL SCHEMA 8 4 4

5 The Data Independence issue Physical (for optimization) Changes of physical structures doesn t affect data logical organization EXAMPLE: Addition/Suppression of indices in a DBMS Logical (for maintainability) Modifications of data logical structure should not affect programs EXAMPLE: New Relations/Attributes in the logical schema of a DBMS User (for flexibility) Multiple views on the same logical organization of data EXAMPLE: Secretary and Professor views on a University database Data independence is achieved by inter-level mappings Queries are translated between levels automatically 9 Mappings in DBMS User A Host Language + DSL User B Host Language + DSL External Schema A External View A Schemas and mapping built and maintained by the database administrator (DBA) Conceptual Schema Conceptual/ External Mapping A Conceptual View Conceptual/ Internal Mapping Management Systems (DBMS) Stored database (internal View) Strorage structure definition (Internal Schema) USER INTERFACE

6 DBMS Components Data Collections: Minimizing data redundancy Enabling multi-user access People: Designer Administrator Application Programmers End-Users Hardware: Processor(s) Main Memory Secondary Storage (e.g., disks, CD-ROMs, etc.) Software The Storage Manager: buffer and file manager The Transaction Manager: locking, logging, and transaction commitment (ACID) The Query Processor: parsing, optimization, execution Various Automated Tools: Development and Design aids, Report writers, etc. 11 Typical Architecture of a DBMS Schema Modifications Queries Query Processor Data Modifications Transaction Manager Storage Manager Data & Metadata

7 Application Development: Backend vs. Frontend Backend the DBMS Frontends Applications which run on top of the DBMS Examples of vendor-provided applications or tools Query language processor Business graphics sub-systems Spreadsheet Statistical packages Application generators CASE Tools Report writer Web-DBMS Gateways Examples of typical utilities to help DBAs in various tasks Load routines Unload/Reload routines Reorganization routines Statistic routines Analysis routines End User Applications Programming Interface DBMS Frontend Backend 13 Application Development: Client/Server Architecture Partition of programs between client et server processes, communicating via queries Hierarchical partition of functions data at the servers are shared by several clients graphical interfaces at the enduser workstations communication through standardized protocols distribution of application programs in order to minimize transfer costs End User Applications Transparent remote access DBMS Frontend Backend

8 Client/Server Architecture: First Generation DBMS SERVER NT, UNIX, NOVELL GCOS, VMS, MVS rules Data Queries Results Windows NT UNIX APPLICATION APPLICATIONS CLIENTS APPLICATIONS G. Gardarin 15 Client/Server Architecture: Second Generation Stored Procedures Procedure accomplice a service function on data Service-oriented architecture rather than query-oriented Distribution of data manipulation Extensibility and Scalability Possibility to have several, eventually redundant, servers Possibility to have private data on clients Application Application Tool Connectivity Tool Network Protocol Service Requests SERVER CLIENTS Results Network Protocol Connectivity Tool DB Server Application Application Tool Connectivity Tool Network Protocol Service Requests Stored Procedures G. Gardarin

9 Client/Server Architecture: Third Generation Integration of the Web with the client-server Use Web browsers for a standard presentation to the client Possibility to run small client application (applets) Significant portability (Virtual Private Network, Intranet, Internet) Three(or Multi)-tiered Architectures s with stored procedures Shared application services Hypermedia support Various media types which can be extended (text, image, video) Navigation between documents and applications URL HTTP Server Files or CGI ORACLE Browser HTML Web Request Broker Cartridges PL/SQL C Java Perl JCORBA Web Request Broker Oracle 17 Technology Timeline Simple Data Management Global Enterprise Management Early 80s Late 80s Early - Mid 90s Late 90s - 21st C Prerelational Early Relational Client-server Relational Enterprise -capable Relational Internet Computing Simple OLTP Active Data Warehouse & Hi-end OLTP Packaged & Vertical Applications Simple transactions, on-line backup & recovery Stored procedures, triggers Scaleable OLTP, parallel query, partitioning, cluster support, row-level locking, high availability Support for all types of data, extensibility, objects Middleware (messaging, queues,events) Java, CORBA, Web interfaces

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