Client Server Computing

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1 Client Server Computing Architecture, Applications and Distribution System Devendra Kumar GLOBAL VISION PUBLISHING HOUSE 20, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi (INDIA)

2 Contents Acknowledgement (vii) Preface (ix) Chapter 1. Introduction to Client Server Computing Introduction Overview of Client Server Computing Evolution of Client-Server Computing Configurations in Client-Server Computing Butler Pyramid Model of Client-Server Computing Design Consideration of Client Server Fat vs Thin Client Stateful vs Stateless Authentication Fault Tolerance Client Server Computing Model Benefits of Client Server Model Database Concept Client Server Database Client Server Database Computing Client Server Database Computing vs Mainframe and PC/File Server Computing Three-Schema Architecture Client Server Database Architecture Types of Client Server Database Architecture Advantages of Client Server Database Disadvantages of Client Server Database 17

3 (xii) Client Server Computing 1.6. Client Server Architecture Types of Client Server Architectures Characteristics of Client Server Architecture Single System Image Types of Single System Image Single System Image Services and Benefits Mainframe Centric Client Server Computing Advantages of Mainframe-Centric Client-Server Computing Downsizing and Client-Server Computing Preserving Your Mainframe Applications Investment Through Porting Client Server Development Tools Advantages and Disadvantages of Client Server Computing Advantages of Client-Server Computing Disadvantages of Client-Server Computing Summary Study Questions 36 Chapter 2. Components of Client Server Application: The Client Introduction The Client The Clients'Role Client Services Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) Dyamic Data Exchange Functions Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) History of OLE Component Object Model (COM) Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) Object Request Broker (ORB) Object Request Broker Services Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Benefits ofcorba Drawbacks of CORBA Summary Study Questions 55

4 Contents (xiii) Chapter 3. Components of Client Server Application: The Server Introduction The Server The Server's Role Details Server Functionality or Services Network Operating Systems (NOS) Functions of NOSs Types of Network Operating System (NOS) Features of Network Operating System Network Administrator Banyan VINES Available Platform Workstation in LAN Configuration LAN-to-LAN/WAN Configuration LAN-to-Host Configuration OLTP on a LAN OLTP with UNIX Server Operating System (SOS) Netware OS/ Windows NT Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) Virtual Memory System (VMS) OpenVMS UNIX Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Distributed Computing Environment Services System Application Architecture (SAA) SAA Defined Three Layers of Service Client Server Security Summary Study Questions 71 Chapter 4. Client Server Network: Connectivity Introduction Peer-to-Peer Network 74

5 (xiv) Client Server Computing Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Network Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Network Client Server Network Advantages of a Client Server Network Disadvantages of a Client Server Network OSI Model Communication Interface Technology LAN Cabling Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) FDDI Frame Format FDDI Benefits Ethernet Ethernet Characteristics Ethernet Classes Token Ring Token Ring Frame Token Ring Operation Token Ring IEEE Advantages of Token Disadvantages of Token Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) TCP/IP Model File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Advantages of FTP Disadvantages of FTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Features of SMTP Applications of SMTP Advantages of SMTP 92

6 Contents (XV) Disadvantages of SMTP Simple Network Management ProtocoL (SNMP) SNMP Feature Advantages of Using SNMP Telnet Hubs Types of Hub Advantages of Hub Disadvantages of Hub Routers Advantages of Router Disadvantages of Router Bridge Three Basic Types of Bridges Advantages of Bridge Disadvantages of Bridge Network File System (NFS) NFS Offers a Number of Advantages Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Network Interface Card (NIC) Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Inter-Process Communication (IPC) Types of IPC Features of IPC IPC Services WAN Technologies Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) SMDS Network Connections Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Channels of ISDN Services of ISDN Advantages of ISDN Disadvantages of ISDN 110

7 Client Server Computing Frame Relay (FR) Frame Relay Structure Advantages of Frame Relay Network Topology Bus Topology Star Topology Tree Topology Ring Topology Mesh Topology Hybrid Topology Network Management Fault Management Performance Management Configuration Management Security Management Accounting Management Summary Study Questions 125 Chapter 5. Client Server System Development Software Introduction Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) Factor Driving Demand for Application Software Development Pressure to Build Competitive Advantage by Delivering Systems Faster Rising Technology Staff Costs Need for Platform Migration and Re-engineering of Existing Systems Need to Improve Technology Professionals' Productivity Need for a Common Interface Across Platforms Increase in Applications Development by Users Client Server Systems Development Methodology System Planning Project Initiation Architecture Definition Analysis Design Development 134

8 Contents (xvii) Facilities Engineering Implementation Post Implementation Support Project Management Plan the Project Manage and Control Project Execution Complete the Project Architecture Definition System Development Environment (SDE) Summary Study Questions 139 Chapter 6. Client Server System Development Hardware Introduction Hardware/Network Acquisition PC-Level Processing Units Macintosh Advantages Disadvantages Notebook Pen UNIX Workstation X-Terminal X-Server Server Hardware Summary Study Questions 146 Chapter 7. Data Storage Introduction Magnetic Tape Audio Recording Video Recording Magnetic Disk Hard Disk Floppy Disk 154

9 (xviii) Client Server Computing Removable Cartridge Optical Disk Read-Only Optical Disks Write Once and Read Many (WORM) Erasable Mirroring Disk Fault Tolerant Redundant Array of Independent Disk (RAID) RAID Levels Goals of Raid Technology Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Protection Device Power Protection Devices Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Surge Protector Summary Study Questions 163 Chapter 8. Client Server Systems Development Service and Support Introduction 164 Benefits of Client Server Applications System Administrator Database Administrator (DBA) Availability Reliability Serviceability Asset/License Management Change Management Problem Management Software Distribution Software Distribution Objects Network Management Help Desk Help Desk Team Remote Systems Management RSM Background Service 171

10 Contents (xix) RSM Benefits RSM Security LAN and Network Management Issues Summary Study Questions 173 Chapter 9. Client Server System Development: Training Introduction Training Graphical User Interface (GUI) Training Advantages of GUI Applications Reduced Training Cost Training the Technical Staff System Administrator Training LAN Administrator WAN Issue Operating System Issue PC/Workstation Issues Application Issues Database Administrator Training End User Training Workstation Operations Application and New Technologies Training Delivery Technology Future of Client Server Computing Enabling Technology Expert System Expert System Components Expert System Architecture Types of Expert System Expert System Advantages Expert System Disadvantages Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Advantages of Geographic Information System Disadvantages of Geographic Information System 187

11 Client Server Computing Point-of-service (POS) Imaging Electronic Document Management Multimedia Full-text Retrieval Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Advantages of EDI Disadvantages of EDI Summary Study Questions Previous Years Question Paper Bibliography 197 Index 199

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