SENTENCE FAULTS T.Reawadee Anghcuan

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1 SENTENCE FAULTS T.Reawadee Anghcuan

2 SENTENCE FAULTS Common problems: - fragment - faulty parallelism - run-on sentence & comma splice - misplaced modifier

3 FRAGMENT A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may be a phrase or a clause punctuated as if it were a complete sentence. Fragments are often broken off from preceding or succeeding sentences. Avoid fragments by making certain that each sentence contains a subject and a verb and makes sense by itself. You can remedy fragments by (1) joining them to complete sentences or (2) adding appropriate subjects and verbs.

4 Phrase Fragments: This type of fragment lacks a subject (person, place, or thing), a verb (action/state of being), or both. This error often occurs when the fragment is actually an extension of a previous or following sentence. Fragment: George skips lunch everyday. To go swimming. ( To go swimming is a fragment because it does not have a subject or a true verb. ) Revised: George skips lunch every day to go swimming.

5 Fragment: Also needs a family counselor. (Missing Subject) Revised: (Who or What needs a family counselor?) The Johnson family also needs a family counselor. Fragment: The new policy of health care coverage on the basis of hours worked each week. (Missing verb) (What does the new policy do?) Revised: The new policy provides health care coverage on the basis of hours worked each week.

6

7 Fragment: When the cat ran under the car. (This dependent clause is a fragment because the word when makes the statement unable to stand on its own.) Revised: The cat ran under the car. or When the cat ran under the car, it got squashed. Fragment: I didn't want to wait. Because it is getting time for me to go home. ( Because it is getting time for me t go home. is a fragment because it is a dependent clause. It needs to be joined to an independent clause to be part of a complete sentence.) Revised: I didn't want to wait because it is getting time for me to go home.

8 FRAGMENT T ext T ext

9 FRAGMENT

10 Faulty Parallelism What is faulty parallelism? Look out for faulty parallelism whenever you use one of the following constructions: a and b a, b, and c a or b a, b, or c not only a but also b The clauses or phrases joined by the conjunctions should have similar grammatical structures to ensure that your reader can follow the logic of your sentence and to avoid awkwardness.

11 Consider the sentence, Faulty Parallelism - My first-year philosophy professor was informative, lively, and a source of inspiration. Notice that the first two phrases in the a, b, and c construction are is a noun phrase. This sentence suffers from faulty parallelism. To repair the faulty parallelism here, you will have to change the elements a and b into noun phrases or the element c into an adjective. Always choose the simplest option. In this case it is easiest to change the final element, c, into an adjective: - My first-year philosophy professor was informative, lively, and inspiring.

12 Faulty Parallelism Often faulty parallelism can be repaired by paying close attention to where you place your verbs. The faulty parallelism in the following sentence is easy to detect once you place boxes around the two elements of the not only...but also construction: My philosophy professor not only demonstrated how to reason persuasively a but also how to avoid logical fallacies b. Revision: My philosophy professor demonstrated not only how to reason persuasively a but also how to avoid logical fallacies b.

13 Faulty Parallelism Problems with parallelism often arise from the careless use of clauses beginning with the subordinating conjunction that: - He warned me to revise my essay a and that I should pay close attention to parallel structures b. To repair the problem, choose either an infinitive (to + verb) or a that clause on both sides of the a and b construction. In this example, the infinitive provides the more elegant solution: - He warned me to revise my essay a and to pay close attention to parallel structures b.

14 Practice: For each "non-parallel" sentence, replace the underlined portion with the choice that creates a parallel structure. If the sentence is fine, choose "no change."

15 Practice: For each "non-parallel" sentence, replace the underlined portion with the choice that creates a parallel structure. If the sentence is fine, choose "no change."

16 Practice: Identify the revision that correctly edits the given sentence. Autumn means not only that leaves fall by the thousands but also snow falling when you least expect it. A) Autumn means not only that leaves fall by the thousands but also that snow falls when you least expect it. B) Autumn means not only that leaves fall by the thousands but also falling snow when you least expect it. C) Autumn means not only that leaves are falling by the thousands but also snow falls when you least expect it.

17 Run-ons and comma splices are incorrectly joined independent clauses.

18 RUN-ON SENTENCE A run-on sentence joins two complete thoughts without proper punctuation. Run-on sentences can usually be repaired by (1) separating into two sentences, (2) adding a comma and a conjunction, or (3) adding a semicolon.

19 RUN-ON SENTENCE - Getting married is easy staying married is another matter. Solution: - Getting married is easy, but staying married is another matter. Text

20 RUN-ON SENTENCE - Getting married is easy staying married is another matter. Solution: - Getting married is easy, but staying married is another matter.

21 COMMA SPLICE A comma splice results when two sentences are incorrectly joined or spliced together with a comma. Remember that commas alone cannot join two sentences. Comma splices can usually be repaired by (1) adding a conjunction, (2) separating into two sentences, or (3) changing the comma to a semicolon.

22 COMMA SPLICE

23 COMMA SPLICE Text Text one had computer training. (Change the comma to a semicolon.)

24 COMMA SPLICE one had computer training. (Change the comma to a semicolon.)

25 Misplaced Modifiers LEARN TO SPOT MODIFIERS

26 Misplaced Modifiers

27 Misplaced Modifiers Do not place a modifier so far from the word it modifies as to cause confusion. Faulty: We were told at midnight the concert would begin. Revised: We were told the concert would begin at midnight. Faulty: The committee said not all of the staff was cooperating with its work at its last meeting. Revised: At its last meeting, the committee said not all of the staff was cooperating with its work.

28 Misplaced Modifiers Tip: Place the clause next to the noun it modifies. Faulty: A piano fell out the window weighing 300 pounds. Explanation: The window does not weigh 300 pounds. Revised: A piano weighing 300 pounds fell out the window. Explanation: Weighing 300 pounds correctly modifies piano. Faulty: I threw my book in the trash with the missing pages. Explanation: The trash does not have missing pages. Revised: I threw my book with the missing pages in the trash. Explanation: With the missing pages correctly modifies the book.

29 Misplaced Modifiers Faulty: Further analyses were performed between group and time to clarify the interaction. Explanation: The verbal phrase to clarify the interaction modifies time. Revised: Faulty: A spokesman acknowledge that some of its finest countryside will be at stake yesterday. Explanation: Yesterday modifies will be. That s incorrect. Revised:

30 Misplaced Modifiers Faulty: Further analyses were performed between group and time to clarify the interaction. Explanation: The verbal phrase to clarify the interaction modifies time. Revised: Further analyses were performed to clarify the interaction between group and time. Explanation: To clarify the interaction correctly modifies were performed. Faulty: A spokesman acknowledged that some of its finest countryside will be at stake yesterday. Explanation: Yesterday modifies will be. That s incorrect. Revised: Yesterday A spokesman acknowledged that some of its finest countryside will be at stake. Explanation: Yesterday correctly modifies acknowledged.

31 Misplaced Modifiers 1) Choose the item that has no misplaced modifiers. a. In the summer of 2006, Donna, a graduate of my high school, made a film about hurricanes. b. Donna, a graduate of my high school, made in the summer of 2006 a film about hurricanes. c. Donna, a graduate of my high school, made a film about hurricanes in the summer of ) Choose the item that has no misplaced modifiers. a. Bought by his wife, he found it hard to program the DVD player. b. His DVD player, which his wife had bought him, proved hard to program. c. His DVD player proved hard to program, which his wife had bought him.

32 References Kanyarat Ketkham English for Research Writing. Chulalongkorn University Press. Bangkok www2.fiu.edu/~brownj/com /misplaced%20modifiers.pdf

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