I. The Italian Peninsula shares much of its weather with. a. Surrounded by water from the, and. b. North is blocked by. Italy is divided in half by

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1 Ancient Rome Geography I. The Italian Peninsula shares much of its weather with Like Greece, Italy is a a. Surrounded by water from the, and b. North is blocked by I Italy is divided in half by IV. Area on the west side of the mountains is known as a. Large hilly area fed by b. Fertile ground, easy to grow crops of all kinds V. Because the largest civilization sprung up in, they and their language were called Foundation of Rome I. The Legend (2 slides) 1

2 A tribe of Latins chose for the site of the Capital, area offered several advantages a. Rome was surrounded by, made it easy to b. Situated on the, which provides access to c. Surrounded by good I Romans and Greeks a. Between settlers from established colonies on Italy, known as. b. Early Romans learned about Greek society and began to c. Roman gods were essentially copies of Greek gods with different names i. Examples: IV. Structure of Government a. Early Romans ruled by b. Advised by a made up of c. Senate chosen from 2

3 d. To maintain control of the religion, Rome established the office of i. In charge of ii. Was to serve on a basis The Etruscans I. Around, a tribe known as the Etruscans moved into Northern Italy a. Believed to have come from i. Legends claim they were fleeing destruction of b. Etruscans merged with the Romans, Etruscan ruled Rome for Etruscans brought similar to and adapted it to fit I Knew advanced a. Turned Rome from into IV. Etruscan Buildings a. The Circus Maximus: 3

4 b. The Temple of Jupiter: c. The Cloaca Maxima: d. The Forum: V. End of the Kings a. Last king of Rome was i. Son attacked ii. Father chose to protect his son from punishment iii. People so outraged they iv. Replace king with 4

5 Roman Republic I. The term Republic comes from two Latin words, meaning Society divided into three major classes a. : b. : c. : 5

6 Roman Government I. Roman government known as, which stands for, or Symbol of Rome was the, a bundle of to symbolize and an to symbolize. a. Armies bearing it were supposed to before entering the city to I Consuls: IV. Senate V. Other Offices a. The Assemblies 6

7 i. Below the Senate were local governments known as 1. Made up of organized into to handle local law b. The Censors i. Two censors were to run and 1. Could Roman citizens c. Praetors i. Acted as, interpreted and decided on VI. Dictator V Roman law was kept on a. Displayed in the b. Each dealt with a different subject such as VI Roman Philosophers a. Upon conquering the Romans adopted most of the and opened their own b. Purely Roman tended to reject the ideas of i. Philosophy was based on the idea that c. Stoicism 7

8 i. Created by during the 1. Believed most important thing about a human being was 2. Held that was sufficient for life 3. Most famous proponent was who wrote a book called a. Argued d. Epicurianism i. Created by ii. Held that finding should be the primary pursuit of mankind 1. Also known as 2. Motto: Early Trials I. 390BCE: A group of warriors from, led by attack Rome a. They the city i. Definition: b. Surviving Romans forced to pay to get them to leave c. Romans move to ensure city never attacked again Pyrrhic Wars a. Rome begins to expand defeating tribes and taking territory b. Greeks in the South, fearing attack demand Romans c. Romans refuse, Greeks send to defeat them d. He wins every battle he fights against Romans 8

9 i. But he ii. Forced to iii. Roman conquers I Punic Wars a. Rome faces direct competition from b. Fight three long bloody wars against them i. 1 st Punic War ii. 2 nd Punic War (2 slides) 9

10 iii. 3 rd Punic War Rome Expands I. After defeating Carthage, Rome began conquering and Used professional army of a. Could field thousands of highly trained soldiers b. Used conquered lands as a form of, granting it to and taking c. Those who showed loyalty to Rome could become and be treated equally I Slave Rebellion a. As number of slaves increase, poor farmers forced b. Efforts to help poor blocked by c. In, a named leads a rebellion of that nearly destroys the city d. Eventually he is captured and he and 6,000 allies are e. Led to Rise of Julius Caesar 10

11 I. By Roman army had swelled with a. Wealthy generals paid b. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into i. Joined the army at, won the the highest c. Rose through military and was eventually elected i. Used position to spread d. Returned to military in i. Created secret ii. Joined by two wealthiest men in the city 1. Known as the Death of Crassus a. Crassus leads men to in to capture the city i. Arrogant but inept military leader repeatedly ii. Is captured and b. Pompey and Caesar I Julius Caesar a. Now one of the wealthiest men in Rome he is elected in i. Took command of Roman troops to conquer 1. Became b. Pompey worries that i. Manipulates Senate into c. Believing he will be, Caesar marches his army into i. Starts a civil war ii. Pompey flees to and then 11

12 iii. Caesar conquers Egypt with help of who has d. Caesar declares himself i. After being cornered, Pompey ii. Caesar writes new and declares himself IV. Caesar s brief rule a. Rebuilds a new larger b. Reforms the calendar i. Adds three new months to make it more in-line with 1. Including for his and named after ii. Moves from a to a calendar iii. Creates a in the month of V. Assassination a. Senators see their powers, plot to before he can become a new i. Plot led by, one of Caesar s ii. On the Caesar enters Senate and is VI. Aftermath a. Touches off between the and the, and then between 12

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