North Africa is separated from the rest of Africa by the Sahara Desert. The continent South of the Sahara is called Sub-Saharan Africa.

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1 Art History of Ancient Africa The modern day countries in the African continent often relate to European colonial political boundaries and not the cultures in them. North Africa is separated from the rest of Africa by the Sahara Desert. The continent South of the Sahara is called Sub-Saharan Africa. 1

2 Art History of Ancient North Africa Berbers ruled, AD/CE. Berber Clothes Pin, Silver & semi precious stones, Morocco, 19 th century CE. Colors & designs tell about who made the artwork. Kasbah of Ait Benhaddou Rammed earth with carved decorations. Morocco, 11 th century C.E., UNESCO World Heritage Site. A Kasbah is a walled city also called a medina. Only the wealthy would live inside the 2 safety of the Kasbah s walls.

3 Art History of Ancient N.E. Africa Ancient Kingdoms: Kerma, Kush & Nubia in the modern countries of: Sudan, Ethiopia, Eretria, Somalia & Kenya Meroe Pyramids, 4 BC/E -3 AD/CE, Sudan, Nubian Kingdom began 4000 BC. Nubia ruled Egypt BC/E Stelae at Aksum, 7 memorial obelisks, Ethiopia 3-4 AD/CE, carved solid stone, up to 27 tall (2.5 stories). Represent buildings built as Christianity was adopted. A stelae is a tall narrow memorial An obelisk is a stone pillar monument, with a square or rectangular cross section 3 and a pyramidal top

4 Art History of Ancient East Africa Curved Peaked Lidded Basket, 20 th century, plant fibers, Burundi Bag, 20th century, Cow hide, glass beads, iron & plant fiber, Maasai, Kenya, Makonde Helmet Mask, 20th Century A.D., Mozambique Tie on Skirt, early 20th century, animal skin, glass beads, sinew thread & metal bells, Iraqw, Tanzania 4

5 Art History of Ancient West Africa These sculptures were made before European contact. Their detailed natural look inspired the European Renaissance Ruler Spirit Head Shrine, Ife, Nigeria, 1000 A.D. Clay, 5 x12 Unbroken line of Ife kings/oni to present day. Tada Figure, Nigeria, AD/CE., Copper, H st to use naturalism. King/Oba, Edo, Nigeria, Brass, c H. 10. Roped Pot, Hausa/Fulani, Senegal. 9th 10th bronze, H.13, 5

6 Art History of Ancient West Africa Architecture & Textiles Akan & Ashanti Kente Cloth, Ghana, 1600 A.D., Meaning in pattern & color Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali, original 1300 A.D. rebuilt World Heritage Site. Resurfaced every year by the whole community. How long would a building survive in African Lompoc Art if it had to resurfaced by the whole community? Mud Cloth, dyed with minerals, Mali, 1900 s A.D. 6

7 Art History of Ancient Southern Africa Lydenburg Head with Lion, 500 AD/CE, h. 38cm South Africa, mask or helmet Great Zimbabwe, city walls, AD/CE, stone no mortar, h. 32 x 17 thick, 800 long, no straight lines, largest prehistoric sub-saharan building 7

8 Art History of Post Colonial Africa The stress of European colonialism (invasion & settlement) changes African art to make it less naturalistic and more geometric. Europeans steal ideas from African artists but give no credit. Ngombe Chair, Zair, 1900 A.D. wood, brass & iron Pierre Legrain, Tabouret, French, 1923 A.D., gives no credit to copied African artist Bwami Mask, 1900 s A.D. mixed materials, h. 44 Fiel Dos Santos, The Bird Wants to Survive, Mozambique, 1990 s A.D. Swords to Plowshares, turns guns 8 into art

9 Quiz 1. What are the names of the of the modern day countries that were in the ancient Nubian Empire? (3 pts.) 2. What are the name of the people who ruled Morocco from AD? (1 pt.) 3. What is the massive geographic formation that separates North Africa from Sub-Saharan Africa? (1 pt.) 4. What is the name of the civilization that created the Shrine Head of the Ruler 1000 AD and the Tada Seated Figure 1300 AD in what is modern day Nigeria and has an unbroken line of rulers for the last 1000 years? (1 pt.) 5. Name the World Heritage Site in Mali that needs to be resurfaced every few years and has existed for 700 years. (1 pt.) 6. Name the larges Sub-Saharan structure that is a walled city shaped like a maze. (1 pt.) 7. Is African artwork more detailed and naturalistic before after European or after and African why? Art (2 pts.) 9

10 Quiz pts. Sudan, Eretria, Ethiopia, Somalia and Egypt 1 pt. Berber 1 pt. The Sahara Desert 1 pt. Ife 1 pt. The Great Mosque at Djenne 1 pt. Great Zimbabwe 2 pt. less naturalistic because life was worse not better 10

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