The Africa Infrastructure

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1 AIDI May Chief Economist Complex Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Background 1. Introduction and Background 2. The AIDI 2016 Highlights 3. Main Results 4. Conclusions References Annexes Charles Leyeka Lufumpa Director, Statistics Department ESTA Maurice Mubila OIC, Social & Economic Statistics Division ESTA 1 Fessou Lawson OIC, Statistical Capacity Building Division ESTA Development Index (AIDI) is produced by the African Development Bank and serves a number of key objectives, principally: (i) to monitor and evaluate the status and progress of infrastructure development across the continent; (ii) to assist in resource allocation within the framework of ADF replenishments; and (iii) to contribute to policy dialogue within the Bank and between the Bank, RMCs and other development organizations. The AIDI also serves as a key tool in evaluating and monitoring the continent s progress toward attainment of the High 5s, the number one priority being to light up and power Africa. The indicators produced by the AIDI also generate other indices relating to High 5s, namely the Feed Africa Index, Industrialize Africa Index, and Integrate Africa Index. The methodology on which the AIDI is based, and the background and rationale for its development, are expounded in an earlier brief, namely The Africa Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI), May Readers are requested to refer to that document for full details. A revision of the original methodology is currently underway as more data are collected under the auspices of the Africa Infrastructure Knowledge Program (AIKP). The current AIDI covers the latest data collected by the Bank over the period under the infrastructure statistics component of its Statistical Capacity Building program in African countries. The AIDI is updated and released annually. The annual update presents selected indicators that comprise the Index s major components, namely: (i) Transport; (ii) Electricity; (iii) ICT; and (iv) Water and Sanitation. This brief charts the progress made by African countries over the period and discusses the reasons behind the latest trends. Layout and production by 1 Available online at: Economic_Brief_-_The_Africa_Infrastructure_Development_Index.pdf This AIDI update was prepared by Nirina Letsara, Senior Statistician and Désiré Lakpa, Assistant Statistician, under the supervision of Charles Leyeka Lufumpa, Director, Statistics Department,.

2 Development Index The AIDI 2016 Highlights A marked overall improvement in AIDI 2016 scores: In general, AIDI scores are improving for all countries, although the rate of progress for some nations has been insufficient to gain promotion in the AIDI rankings. The top winners in terms of rankings: Mali gained 9 positions (owing to fast ICT growth), followed by Kenya and Mauritania (5 positions due to ICT and transportation improvements), Ghana (4 positions due to ICT growth), Nigeria (3 positions thanks to ICT growth), Gambia, Senegal, Tanzania, and Madagascar (2 positions each due to improvements in ICT, water supply & sanitation, and transport - the latter to a lesser degree). The main losers in terms of rankings: Zimbabwe lost 5 positions (owing to slower growth in the sectors of transport and water supply & sanitation), followed by Burundi and Djibouti (4 positions owing to slow growth in ICT), and Lesotho (3 positions owing to slower growth in the power sector). Subregional rankings remain stable: The best performing subregion to emerge was North Africa, followed by Southern Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and East Africa. ICT emerges as the main driver of AIDI improvements: The ICT sector has driven the greatest improvements in the AIDI ratings over the past decade, compared to all other sectors. It is no coincidence that the top ten ranked countries in the latest AIDI were those with the highest growth in their ICT sectors. According to the report African Telecom Infrastructure Investment Needs, April 2015, the period was a period of very high growth for mobile telephony, marked by the emergence of new operators in the market, massive growth in coverage extensions, broadband speeds, as well as user subscriptions. The period also witnessed the development of new submarine and regional overland cables, which provided huge new capacity around coastal Africa, as well as facilitating mobile operator consolidation. This period also saw large investments by the private sector and the emergence of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in some countries, which has been a major factor behind the growth. Over the next few decades, there will be a need to upgrade and modernize the mobile networks to support the shift to smartphones. The need for fiber broadband networks and the demand by both corporations and the general public for superfast fiber access at national levels have emerged as urgent priorities to keep pace with global developments, and this will require major financial investment. It is anticipated that in the near to medium term, ICT will continue to lead the growth and improvement in infrastructure development, as captured by the AIDI scores. Transport and power sectors remain crucial to infrastructure development, though recording slower growth: The transport and power sectors require a much higher level of investment to fuel their growth. Although these sectors are crucial components of the AIDI, their impact in terms of boosting the rankings of African countries has of much lesser significance than that of the ICT sector. Although progress has been made in both sectors across the continent, the rate of that growth has not been great enough to affect individual country rankings in the AIDI. As the Bank s first objective over the next decade, in terms of the High 5s, is to Light up and Power Africa, investments by the targeting this sector should eventuate in major improvements in the AIDI rankings. The Bank s key role in catalyzing resources from development partners and from the private sector through its own participation in projects and programs in this sector, will also boost investment levels. Water supply and sanitation disappointing progress for many countries: Slower progress in water supply and sanitation can be observed in many African countries, compared to developing countries in other global regions. Surprisingly, some countries that ranked in the top ten according to the AIDI scores still lack improved sanitation facilities, particularly in rural areas. In about half of the countries that make up the African continent, less than 35% of their populations have access to improved sanitation facilities and less than 76% have access to improved water sources. The progress made in this area still lags well below the targets set by the UN s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This needs to be addressed urgently, given the massive impact of this sector on the quality of life of Africans and its linkages to other sectors such as health particularly in rural areas. Clearly, policies and investments targeting this sector are imperative to drive up overall AIDI scores and to achieve many of the SDGs. 2

3 AIDI. May 2016 Development Index (AIDI) 3. Main Results The AIDI 2016 results are presented in the form of scores and rankings using data collected by the Bank for the period In general, scores are improving for all African countries, although not necessarily at a sufficient rate to boost the rankings of many countries. Figure 1 shows the status of all African countries according to the 2016 scores. Figure 1. AIDI 2016, Country Scores was due to progress made by Libya with faster growth in international internet bandwidth (cf. Figure 2) and by Egypt in respect of its growth in road density per capita (Figure 3) compared to South Africa. Figure 2. ICT Growth - Libya vs South Africa - 250% Seychelles Egypt, Arab Rep. Libya South Africa Mauritius Tunisia Morocco Algeria Cabo Verde Botswana Namibia Gabon Gambia Sao Tome and Principe Ghana Swaziland Senegal Zimbabwe Kenya Djibouti Comoros Zambia Nigeria Rwanda Uganda Cameroon Cote d'ivoire Malawi Equatorial Guinea Angola Burkina Faso Lesotho Benin Mauritania Burundi Sudan Mali Congo Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Togo Tanzania Central African Republic Mozambique Sierra Leone Eritrea Madagascar Congo, Dem. Rep. Ethiopia Chad Niger South Sudan Somalia The AIDI 2016 shows that the top ten ranked countries remained the same as in the AIDI 2013, namely Seychelles, Egypt, Libya, South Africa, Mauritius, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Cabo Verde, and Botswana (cf. Table 1), although their specific rankings sometimes changed. These top ten countries are characterized principally by a robust performance in the following sectors: ICT, transport and power. It is worth noting that within this top performance group, Egypt and Libya rose respectively one position in the rankings, against South Africa which lost two positions. This 50% 40% 200% 150% 200% 100% 150% 50% 100% 50% 30% 40% 20% 30% 10% 20% 0% 10% -10% 0% 0% 50% -10% 250% 140 0% Interna onal Internet bandwidth (Mbit/s) (% change; annual; period ) Libya South Africa The bottom ten countries in the rankings are Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Madagascar, Eritrea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Chad, 100 Niger, South Sudan, and Somalia. Notably, this group is characterized 40 by low performance in ICT, transport and power. 60 It is evident 20 that these three sectors are responsibly primarily for 40 0 Interna onal Internet bandwidth (Mbit/s) (% change; annual; period ) Libya Total Paved Roads per capita (% change; annual; period ) Egypt South Africa Total Paved Roads per capita (% change; annual; period ) the wide 20 differentiation between the most advanced countries ver- 0 Phone (mobile & fixed line) subscrip on (% of popula on; 2013) Mali Phone Top (mobile of bo om & fixed ten line) countries subscrip on (Somalia) (% of popula on; 2013) Mali Top of bo om ten countries (Somalia) - South Africa Figure 3. Transport Growth - Egypt vs South Africa Egypt South Africa 3 0,12 0,10,12 0,08 0,1 0,060,08 0,040,06

4 (% change; annual; period ) 50% Libya South Africa Development Index % 30% 50% sus the less developed countries 20% in Africa, according to the AIDI. plus mobile) subscriptions for Mali (cf. Figure 4), and in wired 40% broadband internet subscriptions for Tanzania (cf. Figure 5) compared The AIDI 2016 results reveal 10% an improvement in the bottom ten to the bottom ten countries. The accelerated growth was countries compared to the AIDI 30% 2013 rankings. The two countries already evident for these two countries over the period that elevated themselves 0% out of the 2010 bottom ten were 2010 (cf. the previous AIDI brief dated May 2013; see footnote 1) 20% Mali and Tanzania. Mali gained nine positions (from rank 44th to due to their progress in ICT improvements. However, the Central 35th) and Tanzania two positions -10% (from rank 45th to 43th) (cf. African Republic and Mozambique have slipped in their rankings 10% Table 1). This was due to accelerated progress in phone (landline Total Paved to join Roads the bottom per capita ten group of countries. (% change; annual; period ) 0% Egypt South Africa -10% ,12 0,1 0,08 0,12 0,06 0,1 0,04 0,08 0,02 0,06 0,04 0 0,02 0 Phone (mobile & fixed line) subscrip on (% of popula on; 2013) Mali Top of bo om ten countries (Somalia) Top of bo om ten countries (Mozambique) Fixed (wired) Broadband Internet Subscribers (per 100 inhabitants; 2013) Tanzania Total Paved Roads per capita (% change; annual; period ) Egypt South Africa Phone (mobile & fixed line) subscrip on (% of popula on; 2013) Mali Top of bo om ten countries (Somalia) Fixed (wired) Broadband Internet Subscribers (per 100 inhabitants; 2013) Tanzania Figure 4. ICT: Mali vs Bottom Ten Figure 5. ICT: Tanzania vs Bottom Ten Top of bo om ten countries (Mozambique) 4

5 AIDI. May 2016 Development Index (AIDI) Figure 6 below shows in the form of scatterplot the differentiation between the top ten and the bottom ten clusters of countries. Figure 6. Principal Component Analysis Scatterplot Axis 2 (correlated with Water Supply & Sanitation) Axis 1 (correlated with Transport, ICT and Power) Axis 1 characterizes the top ten and the bottom ten clusters. This axis is correlated with Transport, ICT and Power. The countries in green are the top ten countries according to the AIDI index (best performers in the above sectors) while those in yellow represent the bottom ten. Axis 2 differentiates the performance of countries mainly in terms of their development in Water Supply and Sanitation. 5

6 Development Index 2016 In terms of a comparison of overall infrastructure development across the five subregions of the continent, North Africa emerges as the top performer followed by Southern Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and East Africa (cf. Figure 7 and Table 2). North and Southern Africa demonstrate higher performance in the following areas: ICT (mobile phone and internet subscription with greater international internet bandwidth), improved sanitation facilities, and transport. On the other hand, West Africa performs well in terms of fixed line phone subscriptions, number of internet users, paved road density, and electricity generation to a lesser degree. Central Africa and East Africa have moderate and sometimes low performance in terms of water supply, international internet bandwidth, paved road density, and phone subscriptions (both mobile and fixed). These subregions still have considerable potential for growth in these areas. Figure 7. AIDI 2016: Africa Subregional Comparison North Africa Southern Africa West Africa Central Africa East Africa 6

7 AIDI. May 2016 Development Index (AIDI) Table 1. Africa Infrastructure Rank Country 2013 Rank Country 2014 Rank Country 2015 Rank Country Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles South Africa Egypt. Arab Rep Egypt. Arab Rep Egypt. Arab Rep Egypt. Arab Rep South Africa Libya Libya Libya Libya South Africa South Africa Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Botswana Botswana Botswana Botswana Namibia Namibia Namibia Namibia Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Sao Tome and Principe Gambia Gambia Gambia Zimbabwe Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Gambia Zimbabwe Ghana Ghana Djibouti Ghana Swaziland Senegal Swaziland Djibouti Senegal Swaziland Senegal Swaziland Zimbabwe Kenya Ghana Senegal Kenya Zimbabwe Comoros Kenya Djibouti Djibouti Zambia Comoros Comoros Comoros Rwanda Zambia Zambia Zambia Kenya Rwanda Nigeria Nigeria Uganda Nigeria Rwanda Rwanda Cote d'ivoire Uganda Uganda Uganda Nigeria Cameroon Cameroon Cote d'ivoire Equatorial Guinea Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Cameroon Cameroon Malawi Malawi Malawi Malawi Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Burkina Faso Angola Angola Burkina Faso Lesotho Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Angola Angola Lesotho Lesotho Mauritania Burundi Benin Benin Benin Benin Burundi Mauritania Lesotho Sudan Mauritania Burundi Mali Congo. Rep Sudan Sudan Sudan Mauritania Congo. Rep Mali Burundi Guinea Guinea Congo. Rep Congo. Rep Liberia Mali Guinea Guinea Togo Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Liberia Liberia Liberia Central African Republic Togo Togo Togo Mozambique Central African Republic Tanzania Tanzania Mali Mozambique Central African Republic Central African Republic Tanzania Tanzania Mozambique Mozambique Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Eritrea Eritrea Eritrea Madagascar Congo. Dem. Rep Congo. Dem. Rep Madagascar Eritrea Madagascar Madagascar Congo. Dem. Rep Congo. Dem. Rep Chad Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia Chad Chad Chad Niger Niger Niger Niger Somalia South Sudan South Sudan South Sudan South Sudan 54 Somalia Somalia Somalia Note: The results for are based on data collected for the period

8 Development Index 2016 Table 2. Infrastructure Development Index by Region, 2016 Rank Country 2013 Rank Country 2014 Rank Country 2015 Rank Country North Africa North Africa North Africa North Africa Southern Africa Southern Africa Southern Africa Southern Africa West Africa West Africa West Africa West Africa Central Africa Central Africa Central Africa Central Africa East Africa East Africa East Africa East Africa Note: The results for are based on data collected for the period Conclusions All countries improved their scores in the AIDI 2016, though at different rates. The top ten countries remained constant over the period but with slight changes in their rankings. It is noteworthy that any significant improvement in the rankings of countries was mainly due to progress in the ICT sector and, to a lesser degree, in transport. No significant improvements were shown in the AIDI rankings as a result of progress in the power sector or in water supply and sanitation. This is because African countries have made a similar rate of progress in these sectors. At the subregional level, the ranking has not changed over the period. Although Central and East African countries (accounting for about 0.4 billion people) have maintained their 4th and 5th position, these subregions have great potential to improve their scores and rankings in the future. If real improvements are made in Africa in the near term in the power sector, the AIDI index will surely capture this and we can expect to see significant changes in the rankings and scores. 8

9 AIDI. May 2016 Development Index (AIDI) References 1. Anyanwu, J. C. and Erhijakpor, A. E.O. (2009). The Impact of Road Infrastructure on Poverty Reduction in Africa. In T. W. Beasley (ed.), Poverty in Africa. New York: Nova Science Publishers. 2. Cadima, J. and Jolliffe, I. T. (1995). Loadings and Correlations in the Interpretation of Principal Components. Journal of Applied Statistics, 22 (2): Reconstruction and Development, World Bank. 7. Égert, B., Kozluk, T., and Sutherland, D. (2009). Infrastructure and Growth: Empirical Evidence, Working Paper 685. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 8. Jolliffe, I. T. (2002). Principal Component Analysis. Second edn. New York: Springer-Verlag. 3. Canning, D. and Pedroni, P. (2008). Infrastructure, Long- Run Economic Growth and Causality Tests for Cointegrated Panels, Manchester School, 76 (5): Cattell, R. B. (1966). The Scree Test for the Number of Factors, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1: Cooley, W. W. and Lohnes, P. R. (1971). Multivariate Data Analysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 6. Commission on Growth and Development (2008). The Growth Report: Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development. Washington, DC: International Bank for 9. Jolliffe, I. T., Trendafilov, N. T., and Uddin, M. (2003). A Modified Principal Component Technique based on the LASSO, Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 12(3): Stern, N. (1991). The Determinants of Growth, Economic Journal, 101 (404): , January. 11. World Economic Forum (2012). The Global Competitiveness Report , New York: WEF. 12. s Draft Report African Telecom Infrastructure Investment Needs, April

10 Development Index 2016 Annexes 10

11 AIDI. May 2016 Development Index (AIDI) I. Transport Composite Index 2016 Rank Country 2013 Rank Country 2014 Rank Country 2015 Rank Country Egypt, Arab Rep Egypt, Arab Rep Egypt, Arab Rep Egypt, Arab Rep Seychelles Libya Libya Libya Libya Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Botswana Botswana Botswana Botswana Algeria Namibia Algeria Algeria Namibia Algeria Namibia Namibia Comoros Comoros Comoros Comoros Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Rwanda Lesotho Lesotho Lesotho Zimbabwe Rwanda Rwanda Rwanda South Africa South Africa South Africa South Africa Ghana Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Burkina Faso Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Kenya Kenya Kenya Tunisia Ghana Ghana Ghana Morocco Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Burundi Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Uganda Morocco Morocco Morocco Swaziland Zambia Zambia Zambia Gambia Burundi Burundi Burundi Zambia Uganda Uganda Uganda Lesotho Swaziland Swaziland Swaziland Togo Gambia Gambia Gambia Cote d'ivoire Togo Togo Togo Guinea Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Benin Guinea Guinea Guinea Nigeria Mauritania Mauritania Mauritania Malawi Benin Benin Benin Guinea-Bissau Malawi Malawi Nigeria Mauritania Nigeria Nigeria Malawi Kenya Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Senegal Tanzania Tanzania Tanzania Tanzania Cameroon Cameroon Cameroon Madagascar Senegal Senegal Senegal Liberia Central African Republic Madagascar Madagascar Cameroon Madagascar Central African Republic Central African Republic Equatorial Guinea Liberia Liberia Liberia Mali Mali Mali Mali Congo Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Central African Republic Congo Congo Congo Angola Angola Angola Angola Niger Niger Niger Somalia Somalia Somalia Somalia Niger Mozambique Mozambique Mozambique Mozambique Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia Congo, Dem. Rep Congo, Dem. Rep Congo, Dem. Rep Congo, Dem. Rep Eritrea Eritrea Eritrea Eritrea Chad Chad Chad Chad Sudan Sudan Sudan Sudan South Sudan South Sudan South Sudan South Sudan

12 Development Index 2016 II. Electricity Index 2016 Rank Country 2013 Rank Country 2014 Rank Country 2015 Rank Country South Africa South Africa Libya Libya Libya Libya South Africa South Africa Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Egypt, Arab Rep Egypt, Arab Rep Egypt, Arab Rep Egypt, Arab Rep Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Tunisia Gabon Gabon Gabon Gabon Zambia Zambia Zambia Morocco Mozambique Morocco Namibia Zambia Morocco Namibia Morocco Namibia Namibia Mozambique Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Zimbabwe Cabo Verde Mozambique Mozambique Cameroon Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Swaziland Ghana Ghana Ghana Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Congo Ghana Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Djibouti Cabo Verde Swaziland Swaziland Sao Tome and Principe Cote d'ivoire Lesotho Cote d'ivoire Swaziland Angola Congo Congo Cote d'ivoire Senegal Cote d'ivoire Cameroon Mauritania Botswana Cameroon Mauritania Cameroon Mauritania Mauritania Sudan Sudan Sudan Angola Angola Angola Sao Tome and Principe Sudan Lesotho Senegal Kenya Senegal Senegal Lesotho Nigeria Botswana Kenya Kenya Equatorial Guinea Kenya Nigeria Nigeria Congo Nigeria Malawi Malawi Gambia Malawi Gambia Equatorial Guinea Malawi Gambia Equatorial Guinea Gambia Congo, Dem. Rep Equatorial Guinea Tanzania Tanzania Guinea Congo, Dem. Rep Congo, Dem. Rep Congo, Dem. Rep Tanzania Tanzania Botswana Madagascar Lesotho Guinea Madagascar Uganda Liberia Liberia Uganda Ethiopia Uganda Uganda Guinea Guinea Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia Botswana Madagascar Eritrea Liberia Liberia Eritrea Comoros Eritrea Mali Comoros Mali Mali Eritrea Guinea-Bissau Madagascar Comoros Comoros Burkina Faso Central African Republic Central African Republic Central African Republic Central African Republic Guinea-Bissau Burkina Faso Somalia Mali Somalia Somalia Rwanda Somalia Burkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Burkina Faso Rwanda Rwanda Rwanda Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Togo Togo Niger Burundi Burundi Niger Burundi Niger Niger Chad Togo Chad Benin Burundi Chad Benin Chad Benin Benin Togo South Sudan 54 South Sudan 54 South Sudan 54 South Sudan 12

13 AIDI. May 2016 Development Index (AIDI) III. ICT Composite Index 2016 Rank Country 2013 Rank Country 2014 Rank Country 2015 Rank Country Seychelles Seychelles South Africa South Africa Egypt Egypt Seychelles Seychelles Tunisia South Africa Mauritius Mauritius Morocco Mauritius Morocco Morocco South Africa Morocco Egypt Egypt Mauritius Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Libya Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Libya Cabo Verde Libya Libya Cabo Verde Algeria Algeria Algeria Gabon Botswana Kenya Kenya Kenya Namibia Botswana Botswana Botswana Nigeria Gabon Gabon Algeria Senegal Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Kenya Namibia Namibia Namibia Gabon Senegal Senegal Senegal Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Gambia Sudan Sudan Swaziland Sudan Ghana Ghana Ghana Zimbabwe Swaziland Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Congo Zimbabwe Swaziland Gambia Swaziland Gambia Gambia Sudan Ghana Angola Mauritania Mali Mauritania Uganda Zambia Equatorial Guinea Cote d'ivoire Equatorial Guinea Angola Angola Uganda Congo Congo Mauritania Angola Mauritania Equatorial Guinea Congo Benin Zambia Mali Zambia Equatorial Guinea Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Benin South Sudan Benin Uganda Cote d'ivoire Zambia Mali Benin Uganda Djibouti Lesotho Lesotho Lesotho Lesotho South Sudan Cameroon South Sudan Rwanda Djibouti Djibouti Cameroon Tanzania Tanzania Rwanda Djibouti Mali Cameroon Tanzania Rwanda Cameroon Rwanda Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Togo Burkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Togo Guinea-Bissau Liberia Liberia Tanzania Burkina Faso Togo Togo Liberia Mozambique Guinea-Bissau Comoros Comoros Liberia Comoros South Sudan Guinea Comoros Mozambique Guinea Mozambique Madagascar Guinea Mozambique Guinea-Bissau Guinea Madagascar Madagascar Somalia Sierra Leone Malawi Malawi Malawi Malawi Sierra Leone Chad Sierra Leone Chad Chad Sierra Leone Congo, Dem. Rep Central African Republic Niger Niger Ethiopia Niger Central African Republic Congo, Dem. Rep Madagascar Burundi Congo, Dem. Rep Ethiopia Niger Congo, Dem. Rep Ethiopia Somalia Chad Ethiopia Burundi Central African Republ Central African Republic Somalia Somalia Burundi Burundi Eritrea Eritrea Eritrea Eritrea

14 Development Index 2016 IV. Water & Sanitation Composite Index 2016 Rank Country 2013 Rank Country 2014 Rank Country 2015 Rank Country Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Mauritius Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Botswana Botswana Botswana South Africa South Africa Cabo Verde Cabo Verde Botswana Cabo Verde South Africa South Africa Gambia Gambia Gambia Gambia Morocco Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Cabo Verde Sao Tome and Principe Gabon Gabon Djibouti Gabon Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tome and Principe Libya Rwanda Rwanda Namibia Comoros Namibia Namibia Rwanda Malawi Comoros Swaziland Malawi Namibia Swaziland Comoros Comoros Equatorial Guinea Morocco Malawi Swaziland Cameroon Malawi Morocco Morocco Swaziland Burundi Senegal Senegal Gabon Senegal Burundi Burundi Senegal Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius Zimbabwe Cameroon Cameroon Cameroon Sao Tome and Principe Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Burundi Lesotho Lesotho Lesotho Rwanda Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Cote d'ivoire Lesotho Ghana Ghana Ghana Ghana Zambia Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Uganda Burkina Faso Zambia Zambia Zambia Benin Benin Uganda Burkina Faso Uganda Uganda Benin Angola Guinea Guinea Guinea-Bissau Central African Rep Nigeria Guinea-Bissau Mali Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mali Guinea Liberia Mali Nigeria Nigeria Benin Congo Congo Congo Congo Liberia Liberia Mauritania Kenya Central African Rep Mauritania Liberia Nigeria Mauritania Central African Rep Angola Mali Kenya Angola Central African Rep Guinea-Bissau Angola Kenya Kenya Sudan Sudan Sudan Sudan Eritrea Congo, Dem. Rep Congo, Dem. Rep Ethiopia Togo Togo Togo Congo, Dem. Rep Mauritania Eritrea Ethiopia Togo Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Congo, Dem. Rep Ethiopia Eritrea Eritrea Chad Mozambique Mozambique Mozambique Tanzania Tanzania Tanzania Tanzania Mozambique South Sudan South Sudan Niger Ethiopia Niger Niger South Sudan Madagascar Chad Chad Chad Niger Madagascar Madagascar Madagascar Somalia Somalia Somalia Somalia South Sudan 54 Libya 54 Libya 54 Libya 14

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