# Section 9: Resistors in Series and Parallel

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1 Section 9: esistors in Series and Parallel In other words, if resistors are connected in series the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors. If all resistors have the same value (i.e. 1 = 2 = 3 =... n ), then the total resistance may be found using T = n.

2 When resistors are connected in parallel, their equivalent resistance is ALWAYS less than the value of the lowest resistance. If all resistors have the same value (i,e. 1 = 2 = 3 =... n ), then the equivalent resistance may be found using T n Examples 1 In order for a certain series circuit to work properly a resistor of 1.2 kω is required. In your junk drawer you find two resistors with values of 350 Ω and 450 Ω respectively. What is the size of a third resistor that would provide the required 1.2 kω? 2 a) Calculate the total resistance of three 120 Ω resistors connected in series. b) Calculate the total resistance of three 120 Ω resistors connected in parallel. c) Calculate the total resistance of three 120 Ω resistors connected in parallel which are then connected to three 120 Ω resistors that are connected in series. 3 A string of eight lights connected in series has a total resistance of 120 Ω. If the lights are identical, what is the resistance of each light bulb? 4 The above string of lights is connected in parallel. What is the resistance of each light bulb if the total resistance is still 120 Ω?

3 5 Find the total resistance of three resistors having values 5.0 Ω, 10 Ω, an 30 Ω when they are connected in series and when they are connected in parallel. 6 What resistance would have to be added in parallel with a 40 Ω hair dryer to reduce the equivalent resistance to 8 Ω? 7 A toaster draw a current of 6.0 A from a 120 V source. What resistance would have to be added in series with the same toaster to reduce its current to 4.0 A? 8 How many 160 Ω resistors must be connected in parallel to draw a current of 6.0 A from a 120 V source? 9 Each resistor in the picture to the right has a resistance of 15 Ω. What is the total resistance between A and B. 10 A technician requires a 3Ω resistor for an electronic project. However, all that is available in the supply room is a box of 12 Ω resistors. Are these any good to him? Explain.

4 11 Three resistors of 12 ohms each are connected in series, and three resistors of 108 ohms each are connected in parallel. If these arrangements are connected across identical 1.5 V cells, which cell will be drained first? 12 Find the total resistance between points A and B in the drawing to the right. Each resistor has a value of 10 Ω. For esistors in Series: Consider 3 resistors in series If one of the resistors is shut off so that there is a break in the circuit, there will be no current passing through the remaining resistors. Hence, for light bulbs, if one of the lights go out, they all go out. If a fourth resistor is added in series, the total resistance of the circuit increases ( T = ) which means that the total current in the circuit will decrease. (From Ohm s Law, current is inversely proportional to the resistance when the voltage remains constant.) As a result, the voltage drop across each resistor will also be less. This means that the lights will become dimmer as more and more lights are added in series. (NOTE: it it the voltage drop across the bulb that determines the brightness; the greater the voltage drop across the bulb the bright the bulb.)

5 For esistors in Parallel: Consider 3 resistors in parallel If one of the resistors is shut off so that there is a break in the circuit, the remaining branches will not be affected. For lights bulbs, this means that if one of the lights go out, the others will be unaffected. The brightness of the remaining bulbs does not change because the voltage across each bulb stays the same, even though one of the bulbs burnt out. If a fourth resistor (or bulb) is added in parallel, the resistors (or bulbs) will still have the same voltage drop across it. For light bulbs this means that the bulbs maintain a constant brightness no matter how many resistors (or bulbs) are added. However, adding too many resistors (or bulbs) in parallel can be dangerous. As more and more resistors are added in parallel, the total resistance of the circuit decreases, which means the total current increases. ( I V ; Current is inversely proportional to the resistance when the voltage remains constant.) This is called overloading a circuit. If the current becomes too great, it will trip a breaker or blow a fuse and the circuit will cease to operate. However, if there is no fuse or circuit breaker to protect the circuit, the increase current would damage the appliances or resistors. (Too much current can cause overheating and may result in a fire.) Do questions 1 4, p. 609, 3-6 and 29 34, p. 620

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