1 18 The Lymphatic System (Immune System) Nonspecific Resistance, Specific Immunity Taft College Human Physiology
2 O 2 Diagram of Lymphatic and Cardiovascular Systems Lungs Heart Arteries w/ Plasma Arterioles CO 2 Tissue Fluid w/ Cardiovascular Water Veins w/ Plasma System Capillaries w/ Plasma Oxygen Nutrients Hormones Body Tissues Venules Lymph ducts w/ Lymph Lymph nodes Lymphatic System Lymph vessel Wastes CO2 Tissue Fluid Lymph capillaries w/ Lymph
3 Lymph Another body fluid in addition to the blood (plasma) and interstitial fluid. The Nature of Lymph As blood makes its way through the capillaries, the heart exerts enough pressure to force blood plasma out through the capillary walls. At this point, the fluid is called tissue fluid or interstitial fluid. Body Fluid Lymph Location Lymph Vessel Tissue Fluid Body Tissues Plasma Tissue Fluid Blood Vessel Body Tissues
4 Tissue fluid is similar in function to blood in that the fluid baths the cells in a medium full of nutrients and oxygen. Tissue fluid returns back through the venous side capillary walls and into general circulation. The excess interstitial fluid that does not return directly into the blood capillaries will enter the lymph system through the porous walls of the lymph capillaries. It is now called lymph. Lymph and plasma are very similar, the major difference being that plasma contains more protein.
5 In the lymphatic system, the lymph makes its way back toward the heart through progressively larger lymph vessels through lymph nodes that serve to filter the lymph. The lymph nodes contain: mature lymphocytes which recognize foreign proteins (non-self antigens) that are carried by lymph fluid from tissues or blood. Foreign antigens in the lymph will trigger an immune response.
6 From the lymph nodes the lymph passes through progressively larger lymphatic ducts that empty the filtered lymph into some large veins associated with the heart. Lymph movement is relatively slow as there is no dedicated organ pump such as the heart.
7 The Flow of Lymph The lymph vessels generally follow the surface veins or deep arteries on their path to the heart. The surface lymph vessels become visible as red streaks when there is inflammation with an aggressive pathogen.
8 Lymph Flow Back To General Circulation Five things serve to return lymph back in the direction of the heart. 1. Skeletal muscle pump - Lymph is circulated by skeletal muscle action, that squeezes the vessels and move the lymph along. 2. One-way valves - The lymphatic vessels contain one-way valves. Once lymph is moved past a valve, it cannot move backwards, and thus is kept moving towards the heart. 3. Thoracic pump - Inhaling also aids in lymphatic circulation by creating negative pressure. As the thorax expands, so do the large veins within the thoracic region which act like a suction pump to draw venous blood and lymph toward the heart. 4. Gravity aids the return of lymph for vessels above the heart. 5. Ventricular relaxation creates suction (negative pressure) along with the thoracic pump. Skeletal Muscle Pump w/ One-way valves
9 Functions of The Lymphatic System 1. Aids in the return of tissue fluid back into blood vessel circulation. 2. The lymphatic system carries out the immune response. It defends against foreign (non-self) antigens (organisms, toxins, etc.) A. Lymphocytes recognize foreign cells and substances. B. Serves as a major immunological activity center with two lymphocyte populations: 1. Some lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies specific to foreign organism and macromolecules). 2. Other lymphocytes (T cells = killers) destroy the foreign organisms by causing them to rupture and by releasing cytotoxic chemicals.
10 Functions of The Lymphatic System 2. The lymphatic system carries out the immune response. C. Lymph nodes filter foreign materials (e.g. bacteria) from the blood. The lymph nodes are the focus of this activity where the majority of lymphocytes reside. D. Produces clones (multiple identical copies) of activated lymphocytes when stimulated by a foreign antigen. Fats 3. Absorbs fats from the small intestine.
11 Body Defense Mechanisms Against Disease The body s defenses against disease has 2 major categories: 1. Nonspecific Defenses Represents the body s 1st and 2 nd Line of Defense. Nonspecific means they are designed to work on any invader. 2. Specific Immunity Represents the body s 3 rd Line of Defense. Specific means they target a specified or particular invader. Nonspecific defense mechanisms Specific defense mechanisms (Immune system) 1st line of defense 2nd line of defense 3rd line of defense Skin Mucous membranes Secretions of skin and mucous membranes Phagocytic white blood cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response Lymphocytes Antibodies
12 Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms Against Disease Nonspecific Defenses offer immediate protection against a variety of pathogens and foreign substances. The 1st line of defense is the use of physical or mechanical barriers to attempt to prevent initial invasion or access into the body. If invasion occurs, the 2 nd line of defense includes chemicals, heat, and killer cells that make survival conditions difficult for the invader.
13 Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms Against Disease 1st Line of Defense Denies Access 1. Mechanical Factors (skin, mucous membranes, mucous, hairs, cilia, lacrimal apparatus, saliva, urine, defecation and vomiting) 2nd Line of Defense Attacks with Chemicals, Killer Cells, and Heat if Foreign Invader Gains Access 2. Chemical Factors (ph of skin, unsaturated fatty acids, lysosome, hyaluronic acid, gastric juice) 3. Antimicrobial substances (interferons, complement system) 4. Natural killer cells nonspecific lymphocytes that can perforate foreign cells 5. Phagocytosis neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages 6. Inflammation confines and destroys microbes. Appear as redness, pain, heat, and swelling. 7. Fever inhibits some microbes, fever increases their metabolic rate and they die. Does your body take invasion seriously?
14 Specific Defense Mechanisms (Immunity) = 3rd Line of Defense Some Invaders get through the 1st line and 2 nd line of non-specific defense mechanisms!! It is now up to the 3rd line of defense, specific immunity to try to protect you. Nonspecific defense mechanisms Specific defense mechanisms (Immune system) 1st line of defense 2nd line of defense 3rd line of defense Skin Mucous membranes Secretions of skin and mucous membranes Phagocytic white blood cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response Lymphocytes Antibodies
15 Specific Defense Mechanisms (Immunity) = 3rd Line of Defense Specific Immunity is the immune response that is directed towards specific foreign invaders that include bacteria, toxins, viruses, or foreign tissues. This immune response is triggered by a substance that is part of the invader called a foreign antigen. The invading cell has cell identity markers foreign antigens that essentially state this cell is not you!!. There are 2 types of Specific Immunity. 1. Cellular Immunity administered by the T Lymphocytes 2. Antibody Immunity administered by the B Lymphocytes
16 Lymphocytes Role in Immunity Immunity is administered by T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells). These cells develop cell surface markers, some that act as antigen receptors that will recognize (specific) foreign antigens. During development, lymphocytes that mistakenly recognize self antigens are destroyed or inactivated to prevent unwanted attack of self tissue and proteins = an auto-immune disease in which the body is attacking it s own normal tissues..
17 Foreign Antigen A foreign antigen is a specific chemical that can provoke the lymphocytes to respond by reacting with their surface antigen receptors. An invader may have many different foreign antigens embedded in its cell surface (epitopes). Examples: Pollen, foreign proteins (chicken egg white), incompatible blood cells, bacteria, and transplanted tissues.
18 Cell mediated (cellular) immunity by T Lymphocytes = T cells Cell-mediated immunity starts with activation of a small number of T cells by a particular antigen. Once activated T cells will undergo cell division to form a clone (large population) of T cells that can recognize the foreign antigen.
19 Cell mediated (cellular) immunity by T Lymphocytes = T cells There are 2 types of T cells: TH (helper) cells and TC (cytotoxic) cells 1. TH Helper cells- regulate (control) the immune response of both T cells and B cells. They secrete chemicals (interleukin 2) that recruit other immune cells and attract phagocytes. TH Helper cells signal the alarm or invasion by foreign antigens. Example: IL-2 (interleukin 2) activates B cells to produce antibodies and TC to cells attack the foreign cells. IL-2 can be given as a drug to enhance the immune response to cancer cells. Without TH cells there is no effective immune response. The HIV virus specifically destroys the TH cells which weakens our immune response to the point that death may ensue from overwhelming infection as person can no longer signal the alarm that foreign invaders are present.
20 Cell mediated (cellular) immunity by T Lymphocytes = T cells There are 2 types of T cells: TH (helper) cells and TC (cytotoxic) cells Signal Alarm 2. TC (cytotoxic) cells are killer T cells that can kill (cells, microbes, foreign antigens) in 2 ways by 2 chemicals they produce. 1. perforin perforin punches holes in the cell membrane of the invader 2. lymphotoxinfragments DNA of the invader. Killer T Cells
21 Antibody mediated (humoral) immunity by B Lymphocytes = B cells B cells respond to a foreign antigen (extracellular = bacteria) by producing great amounts of antibody that will attach to the antigen and act in two ways: 1. Inactivate it (such as a toxin) 2. Mark it for destruction by phagocytosis or complement (as a bacteria or infected cell). Antibodies are proteins that can chemically bind to antigens and form a complex. It can only bind to the antigen that stimulated its production.
22 Immunological Memory The immune system has a memory for what foreign antigens have been recognized and processed before so a second encounter will produce a quicker and stronger response. Primary response 1st or initial invasion or exposure It may take 3-6 days before the antibodies begin to appear in the body fluids. This lag phase is the time required for the few T and B cells with that antigen s receptor to multiply into clones of cells that can respond. Antibody will peak at about 10 days and then decline. The primary response is often too slow and weak to protect you, so you show the symptoms of the disease. If you survive, the sets of cloned lymphocytes persist and are known as memory cells. These cells form what is called immunological memory. You now have some protection against that specific invader if exposed again.
23 Secondary response- 2nd invasion by the same invader Upon a second (or any subsequent) encounter with the same antigen, a quick and vigorous response occurs. Within hours an army of plasma cells is generated from the memory cell clones and within 2-3 days the antibody concentration is much higher than the original response. This is why measles and mumps immunize us against a second infection. You typically do not show the symptoms of disease. You have immunity.
24 Types of Immunity There are 4 ways to acquire immunity: Terminology Naturally exposed in nature (normal) vs. Artificial exposure by medical injection Active immunity you produce antibodies/t cytotoxic cells vs. Passive immunity you receive antibodies from mother or from injection from other source (often a horse), you do not produce them. 1. Naturally acquired active immunity - the body encounters the antigen from nature by infection, ingestion, breathing, etc. As a result of the exposure, you start producing antibodies/cytotoxic T cells. 2. Naturally acquired passive immunity - The transfer of antibodies across the placenta of a mother to its fetus or through the breast milk to baby. 3. Artificially acquired active immunity - Foreign antigens from dangerous microbes are made into a non invasive vaccine that will stimulate a primary, protective response and protect against subsequent encounters with that pathogen. Vaccines may contain: 1. killed organisms, 2. weakened organisms or 3. similar organisms. 4. Artificially acquired passive immunity - Injection of pre-formed antibodies (often obtained from a horse) into a person without active immunity to an antigen that is very dangerous. Example: snake anti-venom contains (horse serum) antibodies produced by a horse that has been injected with the venom. You don t have time to wait for your body to produce it s own antibodies!!!! You may develop an immune reaction to the horse serum so only may be able to use this type of immunity one time safely.
25 Allergy (hypersensitivity) Sometimes the immune system overreacts to weak foreign antigen that most of us tolerate. These antigens are called allergens. E.g. foods (milk, peanuts, shellfish, eggs), antibiotics (penicillin), venoms (bee, wasp, ants), chemicals in plants (pollens, poison oak, dust mites, molds). The range of reactions can be from the local reactions/irritations to death, as the reaction escalates and becomes systemic. Respiratory allergy results as pollens trigger an immune response where an inflammation occurs. Fluid secretion (mucous and tears), smooth muscle contraction of bronchioles, swelling of soft tissue due to fluid accumulation closes off the airway.
26 Blood Groups & Transfusions Red blood cells have over 100 antigens on their surface, but only 2 of these make up your blood type. These antigens trigger such strong reactions in all people that we routinely test for their presence. The 2 major types of antigens important in blood type are: Antigen A and Antigen B. 4 possible blood types occur as result of the A and B antigens, each are determined by inheritance from your parents. These antigens make up the ABO Blood Grouping system.
27 Antigen(s) Present Determine Blood Type Antigens are found on the surface of the RBC. Antibodies are located in the plasma.
28 Antigen(s) Present Determine Blood Type Notice that the type O person has neither A or B antigen. A and B antigens are prevalent in nature and people are exposed to them frequently. So, when a person does not have A or B antigen, they will be immunized and make an antibody to the antigen(s) they do not have on their cells. A type O person will have both anti-a and anti-b antibodies. A or B type person will only have 1 antibody, the antibody opposite their antigen. AB type persons will have no Anti A or Anti B.
29 Blood types are of utmost importance in transfusions The mixing of red blood cells with a particular antigen with plasma with the antibody to that same antigen, results in an antibodyantigen reaction. When the cells are from the donor and the antibody from the recipient are incompatible, a life threatening immune reaction occurs. The antigen-antibody complexes first cause immediate, severe hemolysis of the red cells followed by tubular necrosis of the kidney, and wide spread clotting. The result is often death.
30 Remember that a type A, B, or O person will have antibodies in their plasma to antigens they do not possess. Donor Recipient A B AB O - = major side reaction A B = minor side reaction AB O = Perfect match AB = Universal Recipient as it has no antibodies to react against antigens O = Universal Donor as it has no antigens A major side reaction is not acceptable the antibodies of the recipient react against the antigens of the donor death may result A minor side reaction is acceptable only in emergency situations the antibodies of the donor react against the antigens of the recipient A perfect match is ideal no reaction.
31 Rh Factor Another antigen, from the Rh antigen system, can frequently cause problems and must be monitored. The antigen known as the Rh Factor or D antigen appears on red cell surfaces of about 85% of people in the U.S. They are considered Rh+. If the Rh factor or D antigen is absent the person is Rh (15% of people in U.S.). Anti-D antibody is not normally present in the plasma of people without the D antigen. They must be exposed to the D antigen by transfusion or pregnancy to trigger the production of anti-d antibodies. When anti-d antibodies are present, they can react agains transfusions with Rh pos blood or with Rh pos fetus during a subsequent pregnancy.
32 HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn) When an Rh mother is exposed to the Rh+ antigen, usually by her 1 st Rh+ baby, she will develop anti-d antibody. She does not come in contact with the Rh+ antigen on the surface of the babies RBC s until the placenta tears and the baby bleeds into the mothers circulation causing immunization. This presents no problem for the first Rh+ child as the child is already born at this time. Remember, it takes 3-6 days to start to produce antibodies to the first exposure. Her 2 nd Rh+ baby s RBCs may be attacked and destroyed by antibodies in the mother s plasma that move across the placenta into the child s circulation. This leads to hypoxia, anemia, and brain damage and death may result. Prevention: give the mother anti-d antibodies that she would make when exposed. The injected anti-d will coat the baby s Rh+ cells in her circulation and prevent them from being exposed to her T and B cells. So, no immunization (exposure) occurs, and her next Rh positive baby is unharmed. The antibody given to these mothers is called Rh immune globulin or a RhoGAM injection. Rhogam serves as an immunosuppressive drug that prevents the production of anti-d antibodies.
33 Transfusion Reactions Since there are many antigens on rbcs other than A and B, a person who gets many transfusions could make antibodies to some of them and suffer from a transfusion reaction when getting more blood with that antigen. These reactions are not usually as severe as ABO transfusion reactions and may cause: 1. Hemolysis with anemia 2. Increase bilirubin with mild jaundice. 3. Fever 2 Tests to Prevent Transfusion Reactions 1. Antibody screening = blood typing test To prevent these consequences, a recipient s plasma can be screened for antibodies to the more common blood group antigens. This is done before each transfusion and is called an antibody screen test. 2. Crossmatch = more extensive testing for antigens other than A, B, and Rh Further testing can be done where the donor cells are mixed with recipient plasma, and donor plasma is mixed with recipient cells. This test called a crossmatch, will be positive if an antibody is present, indicating an incompatibility between donor and recipient.
Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,
The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability
Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive
Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting
Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide
Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides
AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,
Assignment Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity 1 The Immune System 2 I. Immunity A. defense against invading parasites and abnormal cells B. Types:
Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on
Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts
Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens
Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select
Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs
o The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses Lymphatic system Anatomy Non specific defenses o The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic
I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers
Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign
CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,
BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity
Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name: Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies,
Immune system Disorders Chapter 19 I. Hypersensitivity Definition Once sensitized with an antigen (allergen) the immune system responds to a subsequent exposure by reacting with it in a way that damages
The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic
CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport
Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes
The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune
Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins
AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL
Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability
AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and
Cardiovascular System Blood Groups and Blood Typing 1 Blood Transfusions Why? Whole blood or components? Although the human body is pretty good at preventing blood loss (hemostasis), there are times when
TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein
Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies
Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive
Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease Section 40 1 Infectious Disease (pages 1029 1033) This section describes the causes of disease and explains how infectious diseases are transmitted Introduction
Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 6 6.1 Blood: An overview What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens
Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.
The Circulatory System Chapter 17 Lesson 1 Functions of the Circulatory System Your circulatory system maintains an internal environment in which all the cells in your body are nourished. As your heart
WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph
Name: 8931-1 - Page 1 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. 5) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both A) are involved
Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets
Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Dr. Moattar Raza Rizvi NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237) Functions: Transports Excess Interstitial Fluid Back to Bloodstream Lymphatic vessels collect lymph from loose
Immune System and Disease Homeostasis Q: How does the body fight against invading organisms that may disrupt homeostasis? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 35.1 How do people catch infectious diseases? SAMPLE
Immune system. This is one of the more complex systems we re looking at, mostly because we need to look at the cellular level to really understand what's going on. First some definitions: Immune response
Immunity The immune system Vaccination Learning Objective Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; The following micrographs show as to how different types of phagocytes and lymphocytes
6.1 Blood: An overview BLOOD-Chp Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens Regulatory functions:
Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components
Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs
Immunity Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect
Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2
Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain
The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The
The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.
Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Page 1: Introduction Surface barriers (the skin, mucous membranes,
The Human Immune System What is the immune system? The body s defense against disease causing organisms, malfunctioning cells, and foreign particles The First Line of Defense Skin The dead, outer layer
Biology 2402 A & P II Exam 2 Notes - Cardiovascular System : Blood Ch 12 Cardiovascular system links all cells with the environment. Composed of 12.1 - heart, a pump that produces pressure to move fluid
Blood Physiology Practical 4 Contents Erythrocytes The blood types Practical tasks Determination of blood groups of the ABO system Determination of the Rhesus system (Rh factor) The cross matching test
Chapter 37 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Inquiry Activity Section 37-1 What Factors Affect Heart Rate? 1. While sitting still, measure your heart rate. To do this, find the pulse in one of your wrists
Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.
2. 2. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 12. 13. 14. 15. What is the lymphatic system and what are its functions? Detail the path followed by fluid entering lymphatic capillaries. What forces cause the fluid
14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain
The Specific/Adaptive Immune Response The Third Line of Defence Is called specific immunity The body s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a smart system
Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic
Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.
1 Introduction Immunity is the ability of the human body to protect itself from infectious disease. The defence mechanisms of the body are complex and include innate (non-specific, non-adaptive) mechanisms
Type II Antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity The four types of hypersensitive responses Kuby J et al., Immunology 2003 Type II hypersensitivity reactions (1) - Caused by antibody to cell surface
Chapter 3 Immunity and how vaccines work 3.1 Objectives: To understand and describe the immune system and how vaccines produce immunity To understand the differences between Passive and Active immunity
16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host SLOs Differentiate between innate and adaptive immunity. Define toll-like receptors. Differentiate physical from chemical factors, and list examples
Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM A group of organs and tissues that collect fluid that leaks from blood and returns it to the blood. The lymphatic system is also part of the body s defense against disease. The lymph capillaries
ME 411 / ME 511 Biological Frameworks for Engineers Class Organization Lab 1 due today Hw 3 due on Friday Lab 2 Lab-on-a-Chip Fri, More 320 Sign up for 2:00-3:15, 3:15-4:30 slots Read the pre-lab instructions
Name: 2161-1 - Page 1 1) Choose the disease that is most closely related to the given phrase. a disease of the bone marrow characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells A) meningitis B)
Immunity Unit Test Z Name MB Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the pathogens in Figure 31.1 cause disease by taking over healthy
Study Guide Answers: Blood and the Cardiovascular System A) Composition and Functions of Blood 1. Describe the composition and volume of whole blood. ~ 6 Liters 45% Formed Elements 55% Plasma 2. Describe
The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back
22. Immune System and the Body s Defense I. Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents Disease can be caused by a variety of factors, some have causes within our bodies (e.g., genetic disorders and
The Vertebrate Circulatory System Transportation Respiratory Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from lungs to tissues Hemoglobin of red blood cells is transporter CO 2 is released by cells
Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.
Fighting Disease Name Date Class Infectious Disease This section explains what kinds of organisms cause infectious disease and how infectious diseases are spread. Use Target Reading Skills Before you read,
Blood Practice Questions Student: 1. The hematocrit is the volume of a blood sample made up of A. white blood cells. B. platelets. C. red blood cells. D. plasma. 2. Fifty-five percent of blood is A. plasma.
(Students: Bolded, italicized, and underlined sections will be on the exam) The Circulatory System and Blood: I. Function of the System: A. To supply oxygen (for cell energy), nutrients (for cell energy,
Section 1 (The Body s Transport System) Chapter 16: Circulation 7 th Grade Cardiovascular system (the circulatory system) includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood carries needed substances to the cells
UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION The Immune System How your immune system works The immune system is a network of special cells, tissues, and organs that defend the body against attacks from foreign invaders,
http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/lymphatic/ WiRED International wishes to thank the National Cancer Institute for use of this information. SEER Training Modules Introduction to the Lymphatic System
What Causes Infectious Diseases Chapter 28 Lesson 1 Causes of Infectious Diseases Every infectious disease is caused by one of several types of small, microscopic organisms called pathogens. Most pathogens
Platelet Disorders Introduction Platelets are little pieces of blood cells that help wounds heal. They prevent severe bleeding by forming blood clots. Having too few platelets, too many platelets or platelets