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1 Afterburning Cycle for 21st Century Stirling Engine Cycle Comparison Leakage Makeup Gas Supply EXTERNAL HEAT SOURCE (IE SOLAR) COMPRESSOR HEAT REGENERATOR EXPANDER Stirling Engine Diagram Page 1

2 Engines Convert Energy To Make it Useable Input Energy: Non Combustion -Solar - Nuclear - Geothermal - Engine Useable Energy: Rotating Shaft Electrical Generation Combustion - Dedicated Combustion - Waste Heat from Industrial Combustion - Waste Heat from other Engine Exhaust Page 2

3 Efficiency Determines the Cost of Conversion Efficiency = Useable Energy Input Energy The Higher the Efficiency, the better the engine Page 3

4 Time Out for Some Thermodynamics Carnot Efficiency : The maximum possible for an engine operating between two temperature reservoirs T h 2 Heat In 3 The Carnot Cycle: The Perfect Engine Temperature 1-2 Compression without heating (ds=0) 2-3 Constant Temperature Expansion (dt=0) 3-4 Expansion without heating (ds=0) 4-1 Constant Temperature Compression (dt=0) Heat In = Q in = T h ΔS Heat Out = Q out = T c ΔS Work = Q in Q out = (T h -T c )ΔS T c 1 4 ΔS Entropy Heat Out Efficiency = η = Work/Heat In = (T h -T c )ΔS/ThΔS η = 1-T c /T h Page 4

5 A Practical Approach to Carnot Efficiency: the Non Combustion Stirling Cycle Leakage Makeup Gas Supply EXTERNAL HEAT SOURCE (IE SOLAR) COMPRESSOR HEAT REGENERATOR EXPANDER Stirling is the Only Way to Go for Non-Combustion Generation: Simple and Efficient Page 5

6 In a Perfect World, The Stirling Engine Has Carnot Efficiency Heat In Heat Recovered 1-2 Constant Temperature Compression from v0 to v1with Heat Removal 2-3 Constant Volume Heat Addition (Regenerator) 3-4 Constant Temperature Expansion from v1 to v0 with Heat Addition 4-1 Constant Volume Heat Removal (Regenerator) Heat Out Heat In = Q in = T h ΔS Heat Out = Q out = T c ΔS Work = Q in Q out = (T h -T c )ΔS Efficiency = η = Work/Heat In = (T h -T c )ΔS/ThΔS η = 1-T c /T h Page 6

7 And, In the Real World, Non-Combustion (i.e. Solar) Stirling Engines Can Achieve Excellent Efficiency Typical Performance Envelope Page 7

8 BUT.The Combustion Stirling Cycle Faces A Burner Barrier To High Efficiency Leakage Makeup Gas Supply SECONDARY BURNER FUEL CONTROL VALVE FUEL COMPRESSOR HOT BURNER EXHAUST EXPANDER PRIMARY BURNER HEAT REGENERATOR AIR Page 8 The Stirling s Hot Burner Exhaust Throws Heat Energy Away

9 The Stirling Cycle with a Burner Cannot Approach Carnot Efficiency Closed cycle engines are constrained by burner efficiency η b = Heat Transferred to Engine Heat of Combustion η b = (H f -H exit )/(H f -H amb ) Where H f = flame enthalpy H exit = exhaust exit enthalpy H amb = Burner entrance enthalpy Δ Q 3-4 = Δ Q 6-7 Overall Cycle Efficiency is: η = η b η Carnot η = η b (1-T c /T h ) Heat is wasted in the burner exhaust Page 9

10 Actual Combustion Fired Stirling Cycle Engines are Greatly Disappointing Burner Penalty Many Would Be Manufacturers Even Aggravate the Problem by Using Too High a Head Temperature! Page 10

11 Recuperated Combustion Stirling Cycle Functional Block Diagram HEAT COMPRESSOR Leakage Makeup Gas Supply REGENERATOR BURNER EXHAUST SECONDARY BURNER EXPANDER FUEL FUEL CONTROL VALVE PRIMARY BURNER R E C U P E R A T O R Page 11 Adding a Burner Exhaust Recuperator & Blower Can Recover Wasted Heat But Add Cost & Complexity AIR BLOWER

12 The Stirling Cycle with a Recuperated Burner Still Faces an Efficiency Barrier 85% Recuperated Burner Efficiency Burner Penalty Page 12

13 Combustion Water Heater with Stirling Cycle Functional Block Diagram Leakage Makeup Gas Supply Hot Water Out HOT BURNER EXHAUST Cold Water In SECONDARY BURNER FUEL FUEL CONTROL VALVE COMPRESSOR EXPANDER PRIMARY BURNER HEAT Page 13 REGENERATOR Most Current Commercial Applications are to Augment a Water Heater by Providing a Small Output AIR

14 A Practical Approach to Carnot Efficiency with a Combustion Engine: the Afterburning Engine Cycle Legend Low Pressure Air High Pressure Air Fuel Combustion Products Heat Transfer Mechanical Work EXHAUST 90 tm Gas Turbine Recuperator AFTERBURNER FUEL CONTROL VALVE FUEL AIR COMPRESSOR EXPANDER HEAT Afterburning is the Only Way to Go for Combustion Generation: Simple and Efficient Page 14

15 The Afterburning Engine can Approach Carnot Efficiency with a Combustion Engine Heat In 1-2 Constant Temperature Compression from Po to P1 with Heat Removal 2-3 Constant Pressure Heat Addition (Recuperator) 3-4 Expansion from P1 to Po without Heat Addition 4-5 Constant Pressure Heat Addition (Combustor) 5-4 Constant Pressure Heat Removal (Recuperator) Heat Recovered T* h η= 1-T c / T* h T* h is the Mean Upper Temperature as Shown Heat Out Page 15

16 There is No Contest in the Combustion Engine Efficiency Race Page 16

17 So Why Not A Stirling Engine Instead? Why an Afterburning Ericsson Engine Stirling Cycle is Outstanding for Non-Combustion Heat Source - Very simple closed cycle - In Theory, Can approach Carnot Cycle Efficiency limit - Has been very successful in solar and nuclear applications (Also extremely successful when run backwards as a refrigerator cycle) But the Stirling Cycle Consistently Fails as a Combustion Engine - Cannot integrate the combustion and engine processes - The burner is always a separate, counter-productive, process - Burner air must be heated from room temperature to flame temperature - Hot Burner air only can give heat to the engine as it is cooled from flame temperature to expander temperature - Energy is wasted as the burner exhaust cools from expander to room temperature - Or: Burner heat can be recovered but only with additional complexity - Requires a burner recuperator and blower (A leading Stirling developer has approached to use our 90 Ericsson Recuperator for their Stirling Engines) - The Stirling engine then incurs the cost and heat and flow losses of two heat exchangers, both a regenerator and a recuperator Page 17

18 Heat Source Conclusion: Why an Afterburning Ericsson Engine The Heat Source Determines the Engine Non-Combustive Heat Sources: Solar Nuclear - Radioisotope Geothermal Air Combustion Heat Sources: Best Engine Match Closed Cycle (Stirling) Open Cycle ( Afterburning Engine) Combustion of Fossil Fuel Gases, Liquids or Solids Combustion of Biowaste Gas (methane etc.) Combustion of Biowaste Liquid (corn oil, waste cooking oil etc.) Combustion of Biowaste Solids (wood chips, corn etc.) Combustion of Village Fuels (solid waste, dung etc.) Waste Heat from Industrial Combustion Processes Waste Engine Exhaust Heat ( HRPG Heat Recovery Generator) Page 18

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