# Energy Efficiency in Steam Systems

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1 Energy Efficiency in Steam Systems Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency: An Introductory Workshop April 2008 John S. Raschko, Ph.D. Mass. Office of Technical Assistance (617)

2 Steam Systems have Four Basic Components Generation, Distribution, End Use, Recovery Source DOE

3 Steam System Components Fuel Storage and handling equipment Boiler Boiler auxiliaries Steam piping Water treatment equipment Heat exchangers Pressure reducing stations Steam traps Condensate recovery Turbines

4 Boiler Configurations Fire-tube Boiler

5 Boiler Configurations Water-tube tube Boiler

6 Establishing Boiler Cost and Operations Data Determine the total cost of fuel supplied to the boilers (\$/year, \$/month, and \$/season). Calculate the unit cost of fuel based on energy (\$/MMBtu). Compare the unit cost of fuel to other available fuel supplies. Determine the unit cost of electricity supplied to the facility (\$/MMBtu).

7 Establishing Boiler Cost and Operations Data Compare the unit cost of fuel to the cost of electricity supplied to the facility. Determine the typical steam production for the facility (lb/hr and lb/day). Determine the production cost of steam for the facility (\$/lb). Determine the amount of steam required to produce a product (lb steam/lb product).

8 Boiler Performance Objective maximize efficiency Major sources of energy losses Stack Gas Losses Radiation and Convection Losses Blow-down Losses Design Factors Stack Gas Temperature Boiler Excess Air Radiation Losses Fuel Properties Operating Practices

9 Stack Losses Temperature and Combustion Losses Combustion Efficiency is the method used to determine stack losses Combustion Efficiency is determined by a chemical analysis of the flue gas and flue gas temperature measurement

10 Measuring Boiler Efficiency The basic unit measures O 2, CO 2, and ambient and stack temperatures Optional sensors: NO, NO 2, SO 2 and high CO concentrations

11 Methods to Improve Boiler Some examples Efficiency Install economizer Reduce boiler pressure Preheat combustion air Automatic boiler combustion controls Proper boiler water treatment

12 Install Economizer

13 Install Economizer - Example 600 hp boiler (~26 MMBtu/hr) Fuel cost: \$4.50/MMBtu (#2 fuel oil) Annual fuel use: 126,000 MMBtu (900,000 gal) Efficiency increased from 78% to 82% Energy savings: 6,146 MMBtu/yr Cost savings: ~\$27,000 Implementation cost: ~\$47,000 Simple payback period: 1.8 years

14 Reduce Boiler Pressure

15 Reduce Boiler Pressure Saturated steam boiler pressure reduced from 54 psig (301 F) to 30 psig (274 F) Flue gas temperature decreased by 38 F (which reduced the combustion loss approximately 1.5%) Potential steam leak would be reduced by 30% Heat transfer loss from properly insulated pipe should decrease by more than 10%

16 Preheat Combustion Air A 40 F rise in combustion air temperature yields ~1% increase in boiler efficiency

17 Boiler Combustion Control (Semi-automatic) Adjustable Cam Steam Header Pressure Control Fuel Valve Combustion Air Fan Steam Header

18 Boiler Combustion Control (Automatic) Adjustable Cam Steam Header Pressure Control Fuel Valve Combustion Air Fan Oxygen Sensor In Flue Gas Steam Header

19 Proper Boiler Water Treatment Hardness precipitates as a solid scale or solid sludge. Scale - a continuous layer of material deposited on the water side of the boiler tubes that acts as an insulating material and a barrier to heat transfer. Scale must be mechanically or chemically removed offline. Sludge - a general term applied to loose solid material found in boiler water. Sludge contributes to tube plugging and is removed by blowdown. Bottom line scale and sludge reduce heat transfer (and efficiency)

20 Scale Effect 1/16 thick scale deposit reduces heat transfer coefficient by 6% As a result flue gas temperature will increase

21 Steam Distribution System Steam leaks Heat transfer loss through insulation Condensate loss

22 Steam Trap Operation Three types of steam traps Mechanical or Density Thermostatic or Temperature Controlled Thermodynamic or Velocity Controlled

23 Steam Loss Can Be Expensive

24 Testing Steam Traps Visual testing Ultrasonic trap testing Temperature testing Conductivity testing Recommended Testing Intervals High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to Monthly Medium-Pressure (30 to 150 psig): Monthly to Quarterly Low-Pressure (below 30 psig): Annually

25 Condensate Recovery Why it Matters - The energy contained in the condensate Water commodity cost Water treatment cost Wastewater charges

26 Condensate Recovery Flash Steam

27 Additional Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Consider steam turbine drives for rotating equipment Replace pressure-reducing reducing valves with backpressure turbogenerators (i.e., install Combined Heat and Power [CHP]) Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Efficient Burners Cover Heated, Open Vessels Install an Automatic Blowdown Control System Use Low Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers

28 DOE Steam Tools LOT of resources available - Software Steam System Scoping Tool, Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT), 3E Plus (insulation) Publications guides, Tip Sheets, case studies

29 Contact John Raschko (617)

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