WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? ARGUMENTATIO N. Intro to Philosophy, Summer 2011 Benjamin Visscher Hole IV


 Morgan Townsend
 10 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? ARGUMENTATIO N Intro to Philosophy, Summer 2011 Benjamin Visscher Hole IV
2 PHILOSOPHY CONSISTS IN CRITICAL ENGAGEMENT The philosophers we re reading have developed arguments to try to convince you that some proposition is true. Your job is to fight back!
3 SO HOW SHOULD YOU READ? Your goal is to: (A) understand the argument(s), and then (B) critically evaluate the argument(s).
4 SO HOW SHOULD YOU READ? Jim Pryor s threepass method: 1. Find its Conclusion(s) and Get a Sense of its Argumentative Structure 2. Go Back and Read It Carefully 3. Evaluate the Author's Arguments
5 What is an argument? An argument is a pattern of reasoning in which premises are offered as reasons to believe in the truth of a conclusion. conclusions.
6 What is an argument? An argument is a pattern of reasoning in which premises are offered as reasons to believe in the truth of a conclusion. f conclusions. 1. Premises: reasons (propositions) offered to support the conclusion.
7 What is an argument? An argument is a pattern of reasoning in which premises are offered as reasons to believe in the truth of a conclusion f conclusions. 1. Premises: reasons (propositions) offered to support the conclusion. 2. Conclusion: what the premises are supposed to provide reason to believe.
8 Examples 1. The steps are wet and the sky is grey. 3. All the other times I ve seen that, it s been raining. 2. Therefore, it s probably raining.
9 Examples 1. The steps are wet and the sky is grey. 3. All the other times I ve seen that, it s been raining. 2. Therefore, it s probably raining. 1. All bachelors are unmarried men. 2. John is a bachelor. 3. Therefore, John is an unmarried man.
10 1. Deductive argument. The premises intend to guarantee the conclusion. 2. Inductive argument. The truth of the premises gives us probabilistic reason to believe in the truth of the conclusions. TWO KINDS OF ARGUMENT
11 Two Kinds of Argument: Deductive argument. The premises intend to guarantee the conclusion. Example: 1. Socrates is a man 2. All men are mortal 3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal This is a good deductive argument; if you grant premises, you can t avoid the conclusion.
12 Two Kinds of Argument: Inductive argument. The truth of the premises gives us probabilistic reason to believe in the truth of the conclusions. Example: 1. Every January I ve seen in Seattle has been rainy. 2. This January in Seattle will probably be rainy. This is a good inductive argument. It s evidence for the conclusion, but not a proof of that the conclusion.
13 Deductive arguments What makes a deductive argument a good one? FORM & CONTEN
14 Deductive arguments What makes a deductive argument a good one? Form. Is it impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false? If so, this is a valid argument. An argument is valid if and only if the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. FORM & CONTEN
15 Deductive arguments What makes a deductive argument a good one? Is it impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false? If so, this is a valid argument. Example: 1. If Socrates is a Martian, then Socrates has green skin. 2. Socrates is a Martian. 3. Therefore, Socrates has green skin. What s wrong with this argument? It s valid, but the premises aren t true. FORM & CONTEN
16 Deductive arguments What makes a deductive argument a good one? Content. The second requirement is that the argument be valid and the premises true. That makes the argument sound. An argument is sound if and only if it is valid and has all true premises. FORM & CONTEN
17 Deductive arguments What makes a deductive argument a good one? So the second requirement is that the argument be valid and the premises true. That makes the argument sound. Example (once again): 1. If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal 2. Socrates is a man 3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal FORM & CONTEN
18 What do we do when we argue? We ask people to grant our premises, and then try to demonstrate that they are thereby committed to our conclusions. If we make sound arguments, they ll have no choice. FORM & CONTEN
19 When you read philosophy: (1)Evaluate the argument s form. Reconstruct the argument. Are the premises and conclusion connected in the right way? (2)Evaluate the argument s content. Are the premises true? FORM & CONTEN
20 1. Modus Ponens 2. Modus Tollens 3. Disjunctive Syllogism IMPORTANT FORMS OF ARGUMENT
21 Important forms of argument If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is mortal We can formalize this, to show the structure: A => B A Therefore B This is called modus ponens. MoPo
22 Important forms of argument If Socrates is a Martian, then Socrates has green skin. Socrates does not have green skin. Therefore, Socrates is not a Martian We can formalize this, to show the structure: A => B Not B Therefore not A This is called modus tollens. MoTo
23 Important forms of argument Either Socrates is dead, or he has mystic powers of survival. Socrates does not have mystic powers of survival. Therefore, Socrates is dead. A or B Not B Therefore A This is called the disjunctive syllogism. DS
24 1. Affirming the consequent 2. Denying the antecedent 3. False dilemma 4. Post hoc ergo propter hoc 5. Equivocation 6. Argument ad hominem 7. Begging the question 8. Complex question FALLACIES
25 These are the first two fallacies we re looking at: 1. Affirming the consequent 2. Denying the antecedent
26 Affirming the Consequent If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal Socrates is mortal Therefore, Socrates is a man A => B B Therefore A This is called affirming the consequent. AtC
27 I ve just read about a disease that has absolutely no symptoms, and kills you within the day. I feel fine, so I m going to be dead by this evening. AtC
28 Denying the Antecedent If Socrates is an American citizen, then Socrates is a human. Socrates is not an American citizen. Therefore, Socrates is not a human A => B Not A Therefore not B This is called denying the antecedent. DtA
29 People who eat broken glass get sick and die. I don t eat broken glass, so I guess I m immortal. DtA
30 What s wrong with this? I don t know why you won t watch Transformers 3 with me. I never knew you hated watching movies!
31 What s wrong with this: I don t know why you won t watch Transformers 3 with me. I never knew you hated watching movies! This is an example of a false dilemma. 1.Either you want to watch Transformers 3. or you hate watching movies. 2. You don t want to watch Transformers Therefore, you hate watching movies. False Dilemma
32 Another false dilemma exposed False Dilemma
33 What s wrong with this exchange? Homer: Not a bear in sight. The Bear Patrol must be working like a charm. Lisa: That's specious reasoning, Dad. Homer: Thank you, dear. Lisa: By your logic I could claim that this rock keeps tigers away. Homer: Oh, how does it work? Lisa: It doesn't work. Homer: Uhhuh. Lisa: It's just a stupid rock. Homer: Uhhuh. Lisa: But I don't see any tigers around, do you? [Homer thinks of this, then pulls out some money] Homer: Lisa, I want to buy your rock. [Lisa refuses at first, then takes the exchange]
34 This is the fallacy of post hoc, ergo propter hoc. (Latin for: after this, therefore because of this.) It asserts a causal relationship between things which just happen to come after one another.
35 This is the fallacy of post hoc, ergo propter hoc: It asserts a causal relationship between things which just happen to come after one another. Another example: The Cargo Cults built replica airplanes and landing strips to attract airplanes and their cargo.
36 What s wrong with this? The Archchancellor is going to send the Dean to the counterweight continent, where foreigners are killed on sight. Dean: You re sending me to the counterweight continent? But they hate foreigners! Archchancellor: So do you. You should get along famously.  Terry Pratchett, Interesting Times
37 This is an example of equivocation. It uses words to mean different things at different parts of the argument, with the result that an incorrect conclusion is inferred. To make it explicit here: 1. The Dean hates foreigners. 2. The inhabitants of the counterweight continent hate foreigners. 3. Therefore, the Dean and the inhabitants of the counterweight continent will hate the same people.
38 This is an example of equivocation. It uses words to mean different things at different parts of the argument, with the result that an incorrect conclusion is inferred. Further example: 1. A feather is light. 2. What is light cannot be dark. 3. Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.
39 What s wrong with this? Johnny Depp says that quantum mechanics might be successfully combined with relativity via string theory. He s pretty ugly, though, so I don t think he s right.
40 This is the fallacy of arguing ad hominem: against the person, rather than the argument.
41 What s wrong with this? Of course the Bible is God s word. The Bible says so, and God wouldn t lie.
42 What s wrong with this: Of course the Bible is God s word. The Bible says so, and God wouldn t lie. This is the fallacy known as begging the question. It means to assume as a premise what is being argued for in the conclusion.
43 * Note that begging the question isn t the same as asking for a question, in philosophical terms  despite the use of the phrase in ordinary language. Begging the question means that you ve used what you re trying to argue for as a premise in your argument. Further Example: Why should we give criminals the right to a fair trial? When they committed crimes, they showed us that they don t care about our rights!
44 What s wrong with this? Doctor, have you stopped abusing drugs yet?
45 What s wrong with this? Have you stopped abusing drugs? This is the fallacy known as a complex question. It is a fallacy because either way you answer, you admit to having used drugs  even if you haven t!
46 Either you have used drugs before but now don t; or you have used drugs before and still use them now. Therefore, you have used drugs. The question is phrased in a way that hides the fact that the options aren t exclusive.
47 Get to know these fallacies: 1. Affirming the consequent 2. Denying the antecedent 3. False dilemma 4. Post hoc ergo propter hoc 5. Equivocation 6. Argument ad hominem 7. Begging the question 8. Complex question
48 Conclusion: 1. Remember these fallacies. 2. Remember what they all have in common: they involve arguments where the premises don t connect up with the conclusions in the right way. 3. Avoid these fallacies when making your own arguments. 4. Try to spot these fallacies when evaluating arguments.
def: An axiom is a statement that is assumed to be true, or in the case of a mathematical system, is used to specify the system.
Section 1.5 Methods of Proof 1.5.1 1.5 METHODS OF PROOF Some forms of argument ( valid ) never lead from correct statements to an incorrect. Some other forms of argument ( fallacies ) can lead from true
More informationPhilosophical argument
Michael Lacewing Philosophical argument At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons.
More informationHypothetical Syllogisms 1
Phil 2302 Intro to Logic Dr. Naugle Hypothetical Syllogisms 1 Compound syllogisms are composed of different kinds of sentences in their premises and conclusions (not just categorical propositions, statements
More informationLogical Fallacies. Common Mistakes in Reasoning
Logical Fallacies Common Mistakes in Reasoning Fallacy A fallacy is an error in reasoning. Some fallacies are so common that they have names of their own. This workshop will examine the most common fallacies,
More informationA. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements?
Critical Thinking University of St Andrews March 2007 Bullet point material is not on the students copies. Feel free to use the material as you see fit, depending on timing, ability, enthusiasm etc. Good
More informationChapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015
Chapter 5: Fallacies 23 February 2015 Plan for today Talk a bit more about arguments notice that the function of arguments explains why there are lots of bad arguments Turn to the concept of fallacy and
More informationDeductive reasoning is the application of a general statement to a specific instance.
Section1.1: Deductive versus Inductive Reasoning Logic is the science of correct reasoning. Websters New World College Dictionary defines reasoning as the drawing of inferences or conclusions from known
More informationKnowledge empiricism
Michael Lacewing Knowledge empiricism The syllabus defines knowledge empiricism as the claim that all synthetic knowledge is a posteriori, while all a priori knowledge is (merely) analytic. This definition
More informationLecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories
Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories I. Introduction In this ethics course, we are going to avoid divine command theory and various appeals to authority and put our trust in critical
More informationCHAPTER 3: MAKING SENSE OF ARGUMENTS
CHAPTER 3: MAKING SENSE OF ARGUMENTS Exploring in more depth the nature of arguments Evaluating them Diagramming them ARGUMENT BASICS Arguments allow us to support claims and to evaluate claims 2 Forms:
More information1.2 Forms and Validity
1.2 Forms and Validity Deductive Logic is the study of methods for determining whether or not an argument is valid. In this section we identify some famous valid argument forms. Argument Forms Consider
More informationCHAPTER 3. Methods of Proofs. 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs
CHAPTER 3 Methods of Proofs 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs 1.1. Basic Terminology. An axiom is a statement that is given to be true. A rule of inference is a logical rule that is used to deduce
More information1.5 Arguments & Rules of Inference
1.5 Arguments & Rules of Inference Tools for establishing the truth of statements Argument involving a seuence of propositions (premises followed by a conclusion) Premises 1. If you have a current password,
More informationWhat is logic? Propositional Logic. Negation. Propositions. This is a contentious question! We will play it safe, and stick to:
Propositional Logic This lecture marks the start of a new section of the course. In the last few lectures, we have had to reason formally about concepts. This lecture introduces the mathematical language
More informationA Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox
1 Grappling with Good Arguments A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox We ve seen that if we decide that an argument is good then we should be inclined to believe that the ultimate conclusion is true.
More informationDiscrete Mathematics Lecture 1 Logic of Compound Statements. Harper Langston New York University
Discrete Mathematics Lecture 1 Logic of Compound Statements Harper Langston New York University Administration Class Web Site http://cs.nyu.edu/courses/summer05/g22.2340001/ Mailing List Subscribe at
More informationA Few Basics of Probability
A Few Basics of Probability Philosophy 57 Spring, 2004 1 Introduction This handout distinguishes between inductive and deductive logic, and then introduces probability, a concept essential to the study
More informationLikewise, we have contradictions: formulas that can only be false, e.g. (p p).
CHAPTER 4. STATEMENT LOGIC 59 The rightmost column of this truth table contains instances of T and instances of F. Notice that there are no degrees of contingency. If both values are possible, the formula
More informationThe Foundations: Logic and Proofs. Chapter 1, Part III: Proofs
The Foundations: Logic and Proofs Chapter 1, Part III: Proofs Rules of Inference Section 1.6 Section Summary Valid Arguments Inference Rules for Propositional Logic Using Rules of Inference to Build Arguments
More informationFallacies are deceptive errors of thinking.
Fallacies are deceptive errors of thinking. A good argument should: 1. be deductively valid (or inductively strong) and have all true premises; 2. have its validity and truthofpremises be as evident
More informationINTRODUCTION TO LOGIC
INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC A. Basic Concepts 1. Logic is the science of the correctness or incorrectness of reasoning, or the study of the evaluation of arguments. 2. A statement is a declarative sentence,
More informationDEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE REASONING
DEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE REASONING Expectations 1. Take notes on inductive and deductive reasoning. 2. This is an information based presentation  I simply want you to be able to apply this information to
More informationPropositional Logic and Methods of Inference SEEM
Propositional Logic and Methods of Inference SEEM 5750 1 Logic Knowledge can also be represented by the symbols of logic, which is the study of the rules of exact reasoning. Logic is also of primary importance
More informationSome Basic Reasoning Skills. E.J. Coffman The University of Notre Dame
I. Introduction Some Basic Reasoning Skills E.J. Coffman The University of Notre Dame II. Finding Arguments III. Reconstructing an Argument A. Identify the Conclusion B. Identify Explicit Premises C. Add
More information1.5 Rules of Inference
1.5 Rules of Inference (Inference: decision/conclusion by evidence/reasoning) Introduction Proofs are valid arguments that establish the truth of statements. An argument is a sequence of statements that
More informationReview Name Rule of Inference
CS311H: Discrete Mathematics Review Name Rule of Inference Modus ponens φ 2 φ 2 Modus tollens φ 2 φ 2 Inference Rules for Quantifiers Işıl Dillig Hypothetical syllogism Or introduction Or elimination And
More informationBASIC COMPOSITION.COM USING LOGIC
BASIC COMPOSITION.COM USING LOGIC As we have noted, Aristotle advocated that persuasion comes from the use of different kinds of support, including natural and artificial forms of support. We have discussed
More information8 THE TWISTED THINKING OF LOGICAL FALLACIES (CHAPTER 5)
8 THE TWISTED THINKING OF LOGICAL FALLACIES (CHAPTER 5) Overview Statement: To be good critical thinkers, leaders must study logical fallacies, both so they can avoid using them and spot them in others.
More informationInference Rules and Proof Methods
Inference Rules and Proof Methods Winter 2010 Introduction Rules of Inference and Formal Proofs Proofs in mathematics are valid arguments that establish the truth of mathematical statements. An argument
More informationDefinition 10. A proposition is a statement either true or false, but not both.
Chapter 2 Propositional Logic Contrariwise, continued Tweedledee, if it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isn t, it ain t. That s logic. (Lewis Carroll, Alice s Adventures
More informationCS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 5. Predicate logic. CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS. Negation of quantifiers
CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 5 Predicate logic Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square Negation of quantifiers English statement: Nothing is perfect. Translation: x Perfect(x)
More informationDeductive versus Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Arguments 1 Deductive versus Inductive Reasoning Govier has pointed out that there are four basic types of argument: deductive, inductive generalization, analogical, and conductive. For our purposes,
More informationParaphrasing Arguments
1 Paraphrasing Arguments Department of Philosophy Middlebury College Written August, 2012 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 1. Common argument patterns... 2 1.1. Modus ponens... 3 1.2. Modus tollens...
More informationReviewfrom Last Class
Reviewfrom Last Class The most used fallacy on Earth! Ad Hominem Several Types of Ad Hominem Fallacies 1. Personal Attack Ad Hominem 2. Inconsistency Ad Hominem 3. Circumstantial Ad Hominem 4. Poisoning
More informationWRITING PROOFS. Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology
WRITING PROOFS Christopher Heil Georgia Institute of Technology A theorem is just a statement of fact A proof of the theorem is a logical explanation of why the theorem is true Many theorems have this
More informationFormal Logic Lecture 2
Faculty of Philosophy Formal Logic Lecture 2 Peter Smith Peter Smith: Formal Logic, Lecture 2 1 Outline Validity again Systematicity and formality Modality and the invalidity principle The counterexample
More informationDISCRETE MATH: LECTURE 3
DISCRETE MATH: LECTURE 3 DR. DANIEL FREEMAN 1. Chapter 2.2 Conditional Statements If p and q are statement variables, the conditional of q by p is If p then q or p implies q and is denoted p q. It is false
More informationA Short Course in Logic Example 8
A Short ourse in Logic xample 8 I) Recognizing Arguments III) valuating Arguments II) Analyzing Arguments valuating Arguments with More than one Line of Reasoning valuating If then Premises Independent
More informationHello God? #3  How to Screw Up Your Prayers. Matthew 6: Lifepath Church. October 25, 2015
1 Hello God? #3  How to Screw Up Your Prayers Matthew 6: 913 Lifepath Church October 25, 2015 There are many startling promises about prayer in the Bible. Here is what we are told in 1 John 5: And we
More informationChapter I Logic and Proofs
MATH 1130 1 Discrete Structures Chapter I Logic and Proofs Propositions A proposition is a statement that is either true (T) or false (F), but or both. s Propositions: 1. I am a man.. I am taller than
More informationWhat Is Circular Reasoning?
What Is Circular Reasoning? Logical fallacies are a type of error in reasoning, errors which may be recognized and corrected by observant thinkers. There are a large number of informal fallacies that are
More informationWhat is a fallacy? Fallacies of Relevance Defective Induction Fallacies of Presumption Ambiguity Summary. Logic 2: Fallacies Jan.
Logic 2: Fallacies Jan. 17, 2014 Overview I What is a fallacy? Definition Formal and Informal Fallacies Fallacies of Relevance Appeal to Emotion Appeal to Pity Appeal to Force Argument Against the Person
More informationLOGICAL INFERENCE & PROOFs. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay Dept of CSE, IIT Madras
LOGICAL INFERENCE & PROOFs Debdeep Mukhopadhyay Dept of CSE, IIT Madras Defn A theorem is a mathematical assertion which can be shown to be true. A proof is an argument which establishes the truth of a
More informationSAMPLE ASSESSMENT TASKS PHILOSOPHY AND ETHICS ATAR YEAR 11
SAMPLE ASSESSMENT TASKS PHILOSOPHY AND ETHICS ATAR YEAR 11 Copyright School Curriculum and Standards Authority, 2014 This document apart from any third party copyright material contained in it may be freely
More informationCHAPTER 1 The Foundations: Logic and Proof, Sets, and Functions
Section 1.5 Methods of Proof 1 CHAPTER 1 The Foundations: Logic and Proof, Sets, and Functions SECTION 1.5 Methods of Proof Learning to construct good mathematical proofs takes years. There is no algorithm
More informationSpeaking Persuasively
1 Persuasive Speaking Chapter 19 Speaking Persuasively 2 Persuasive speaking goal is to change or reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, values, and/or behaviors of receivers Purpose of Persuasion 3 Proposition
More informationIntro to Logic Fallacies Study Guide
1 Name Intro to Logic Fallacies Study Guide 1. Two types of fallacies a. Formal b. Informal 2. A fallacy is 3. Equivocation i. The same word is used with two different meanings i. Jesus is the Word of
More informationGlossary of Logical Fallacies (Unsound Arguments)
Glossary of Logical Fallacies (Unsound Arguments) Glossary of Logical Fallacies 1 Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that undermine the validity of an argument. You need to be aware of these types
More informationRules of Inference Friday, January 18, 2013 Chittu Tripathy Lecture 05
Rules of Inference Today s Menu Rules of Inference Quantifiers: Universal and Existential Nesting of Quantifiers Applications Old Example ReRevisited Our Old Example: Suppose we have: All human beings
More informationCRITICAL THINKING: THE VERY BASICS  NARRATION Dona Warren, Philosophy Department, The University of Wisconsin Stevens Point
1 CRITICAL THINKING: THE VERY BASICS  NARRATION Dona Warren, Philosophy Department, The University of Wisconsin Stevens Point Critical Thinking Hello and welcome to Critical Thinking, the Very Basics,
More informationCriticalThinking Skills
CriticalThinking Skills Ethics and Computing Chapter 2 Summer 2001 CSE 4317: Critical Thinking 1 Motivation Good criticalthinking skills are essential for clearer thinking, better decisionmaking, and
More informationSorensen on Unknowable Obligations
Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Theodore Sider Utilitas 7 (1995): 273 9 1. Access principles Vagueness in the phrase can know aside, the principle of Access An act is obligatory only if its agent can
More informationEXERCISES, QUESTIONS, AND ACTIVITIES My Answers
1 EXERCISES, QUESTIONS, AND ACTIVITIES My Answers Exercises Identify the fallacies in the following passages. 1. If Satan existed then bad things would happen in the world. Bad things do happen in the
More informationThe Philosophical Importance of Mathematical Logic Bertrand Russell
The Philosophical Importance of Mathematical Logic Bertrand Russell IN SPEAKING OF "Mathematical logic", I use this word in a very broad sense. By it I understand the works of Cantor on transfinite numbers
More informationArguments and Methodology INTRODUCTION
chapter 1 Arguments and Methodology INTRODUCTION We should accept philosophical views in general, and moral views in particular, on the basis of the arguments offered in their support. It is therefore
More informationLecture Notes William L. Rowe, The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism (1979) Keith BurgessJackson 22 November 2015
Lecture Notes William L. Rowe, The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism (1979) Keith BurgessJackson 22 November 2015 Introduction. Rowe (19312015) asks and answers three interrelated questions
More informationn logical not (negation) n logical or (disjunction) n logical and (conjunction) n logical exclusive or n logical implication (conditional)
Discrete Math Review Discrete Math Review (Rosen, Chapter 1.1 1.6) TOPICS Propositional Logic Logical Operators Truth Tables Implication Logical Equivalence Inference Rules What you should know about propositional
More informationPHILOSOPHY 4360/5360 METAPHYSICS
PHILOSOPHY 4360/5360 METAPHYSICS Topic IV: The Nature of the Mind Arguments for (Persisting) Substance Dualism Argument 1: The Modal Argument from Personal Identity This first type of argument is advanced
More informationThe Fallacy Detective
The Fallacy Detective A study guide To accompany the book by: Nathaniel Bluedorn & Hans Bluedorn 2009 edition 38 Lessons on How to Recognize Bad Reasoning Brought to you by Amy Shepley Of 2 How To Use
More informationArgument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons
#2 Claims and Reasons 1 Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons We ll start with the very basics here, so be patient. It becomes far more challenging when we apply these basic rules to real arguments, as
More informationInductive Reasoning Page 1 of 7. Inductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning Page 1 of 7 Inductive Reasoning We learned that valid deductive thinking begins with at least one universal premise and leads to a conclusion that is believed to be contained in the
More informationReasoning in Research. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning and the process of research
Reasoning in Research Inductive and Deductive Reasoning and the process of research Hippocampal functioning A certain investigator hypothesized that the hippocampus (a part of the brain) is related to
More informationCONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT
Sloan Communication Program Teaching Note CONSTRUCTING A LOGICAL ARGUMENT The purpose of most business writing is to recommend some course of action ("we should open a branch office in Duluth"; "management
More informationIS HUME S ACCOUNT SCEPTICAL?
Michael Lacewing Hume on knowledge HUME S FORK Empiricism denies that we can know anything about how the world outside our own minds is without relying on sense experience. In IV, Hume argues that we can
More informationLecture 20 Popper s Deductive Method
Lecture 20 Popper s Deductive Method Patrick Maher Philosophy 270 Spring 2010 Karl Popper 1902: Born in Vienna. 1935: Logic of Scientific Discovery (in German). 1937 1945: Lecturer at Canterbury, New Zealand.
More informationLESSON TITLE: The Beatitudes. THEME: Real happiness is found in Jesus. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 5:112 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: Him.
Devotion NT222 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: The Beatitudes Him. THEME: Real happiness is found in Jesus. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 5:112 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time for Kids! Bible
More informationNegative Automatic Thoughts
The Problem Negative Automatic Thoughts People who are depressed tend to think about themselves, the world and the future in a negative way. These negative thoughts are: AUTOMATIC DISTORTED UNHELPFUL PLAUSIBLE
More informationDescartes rationalism
Michael Lacewing Descartes rationalism Descartes Meditations provide an extended study in establishing knowledge through rational intuition and deduction. We focus in this handout on three central claims:
More informationCHAPTER 7 ARGUMENTS WITH DEFIITIONAL AND MISSING PREMISES
CHAPTER 7 ARGUMENTS WITH DEFIITIONAL AND MISSING PREMISES What You ll Learn in this Chapter In Chapters 5, we developed a skill set that s sufficient for the recognition, analysis, evaluation and construction
More informationThe argument from evil
The argument from evil Our topic today is the argument from evil. This is by far the most important argument for the conclusion that God does not exist. The aim of at least the simplest form of this argument
More informationOffice Hours: T Th 2:15 3:30pm. Fine Arts 102
Philosophy 6 (0449): T Th 11:10 12:35pm. NEA 101 Office Hours: T Th 2:15 3:30pm. Fine Arts 102 klyngj@lahc.edu Instructor: Jonathon Klyng Email: Textbook/Readings: 1. (Required)Patrick J Hurley. A Concise
More informationClaims of Fact, Value, and Policy. A multidisciplinary approach to informal argumentation
Claims of Fact, Value, and Policy A multidisciplinary approach to informal argumentation Claims of Fact A claim of fact posits whether something is true or untrue, but there must always be the potential
More informationExcerpts from Debating 101 Logic Fallacies
Excerpts from Debating 101 Logic Fallacies The following definition of a fallacy and all the other materials in this document are excerpts from the notes for a course entitled Debating 101 Logic Fallacies.
More informationEvidential Arguments from Evil
24.00: Problems of Philosophy Prof. Sally Haslanger September 26, 200 I. Reasons: Inductive and Deductive Evidential Arguments from Evil We ve been considering whether it is rational to believe that an
More informationTHE TRIANGLE OF THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, BEHAVIORS
THE TRIANGLE OF THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, & BEHAVIORS The triangle below illustrates the way in which how we think, feel, and behave all influence one another. THOUGHTS INFLUENCE FEELINGS After studying hard,
More informationProofs Crash Course. Winter 2011
Proofs Crash Course Winter 2011 Today s Topics O Why are Proofs so Hard? O Proof by Deduction O Proof by Contrapositive O Proof by Contradiction O Proof by Induction Why are Proofs so Hard? If it is a
More informationDEDUCTIVE REASONING 1
DEDUCTIVE REASONING 1 Deductive Reasoning Reaching a conclusion from some given premises. All popstars p are stupid Merve is a popstar Therefore, Merve is stupid 2 Conditional Reasoning Deductive validity
More informationAd hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion.
Glossary of Key Terms Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion. Agent: One who acts and is held responsible for those actions. Analytic judgment:
More informationThe Life of Jesus: Jesus Heals a Blind Man
The Life of Jesus: Jesus Heals a Blind Man Lesson 5 LESSON OVERVIEW Key Point: Jesus is the way, the truth, and the life Repeat this phrase throughout the lesson. Bible Story: Luke 18:3543 Challenge Verse:
More information1.5 Methods of Proof INTRODUCTION
1.5 Methods of Proof INTRODUCTION Icon 0049 Two important questions that arise in the study of mathematics are: (1) When is a mathematical argument correct? (2) What methods can be used to construct mathematical
More informationOVERCOMING THE FEAR OF REJECTION Series: Freedom From Your Fears  Part 7 of 10
Series: Freedom From Your Fears  Part 7 of 10 Proverbs 29:25 Fear of man is a dangerous trap, but to trust in God means safety. (Living Bible) INTRODUCTION Today we're looking at the Fear of Rejection.
More informationCSI 2101 / Rules of Inference ( 1.5)
CSI 2101 / Rules of Inference ( 1.5) Introduction what is a proof? Valid arguments in Propositional Logic equivalence of quantified expressions Rules of Inference in Propositional Logic the rules using
More informationThe Cosmological Argument
A quick overview An a posteriori argument Everything that exists in the universe exists because it was caused by something else. That something was caused by something else It is necessary for something
More information01  The minister is dead. The minister is dead Did you see it on the TV Did you hear it on the radio And do you care what so ever
01  The minister is dead The minister is dead Did you see it on the TV Did you hear it on the radio And do you care what so ever Did he attack our society Or did he just kill one person Did he just raise
More informationPROOF AND PROBABILITY(teaching notes)
PROOF AND PROBABILITY(teaching notes) In arguing for God s existence, it is important to distinguish between proof and probability. Different rules of reasoning apply depending on whether we are testing
More informationJesus is Coming Again!
Jesus is Coming Again! By: Julie Gallagher Text Acts 1; 1 Thessalonians 4:135:2; Matthew 24:3651 Key Quest Verse This same Jesus will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven (Acts
More informationTHEME: The Lord is our rock, our fortress and our deliverer.
Devotion NT211 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Escape to Egypt THEME: The Lord is our rock, our fortress and our deliverer. SCRIPTURE: Matthew 2:1323 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible
More informationKant s deontological ethics
Michael Lacewing Kant s deontological ethics DEONTOLOGY Deontologists believe that morality is a matter of duty. We have moral duties to do things which it is right to do and moral duties not to do things
More informationPropositional Logic. Definition: A proposition or statement is a sentence which is either true or false.
Propositional Logic Definition: A proposition or statement is a sentence which is either true or false. Definition:If a proposition is true, then we say its truth value is true, and if a proposition is
More informationComputing Science 272 Solutions to Midterm Examination I Tuesday February 8, 2005
Computing Science 272 Solutions to Midterm Examination I Tuesday February 8, 2005 Department of Computing Science University of Alberta Question 1. 8 = 2+2+2+2 pts (a) How many 16bit strings contain exactly
More informationSECRET LOVE. Wonderful Illusion
SECRET LOVE Wonderful Illusion Waiting for the moment to be right All I m asking for is a ray of light Wait and see Somewhere down the road You never know I don t wanna say goodbye It s hard to leave this
More informationChapter 4 Legal Ethics
Chapter 4 Legal Ethics Yes. You read that right legal ethics. Har de har. Go ahead. Get it out of your system. How about this one? Why do scientists prefer using lawyers over lab rats? There are some things
More informationSlippery Slopes and Vagueness
Slippery Slopes and Vagueness Slippery slope reasoning, typically taken as a fallacy. But what goes wrong? Is it always bad reasoning? How should we respond to a slippery slope argument and/or guard against
More informationVerb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition
Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds Principles of Composition Verbs Followed by an Infinitive agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condescend consent continue dare decide
More informationInvalidity in Predicate Logic
Invalidity in Predicate Logic So far we ve got a method for establishing that a predicate logic argument is valid: do a derivation. But we ve got no method for establishing invalidity. In propositional
More informationModal verbs are a special group of auxiliary verbs. They don t express facts, we use them before other verbs to
MODAL VERBS 1º Bachillerato Modal verbs are a special group of auxiliary verbs. They don t express facts, we use them before other verbs to express attitudes, opinions and judgements of events: permission,
More informationBBC Learning English Funky Phrasals Dating
BBC Learning English Funky Phrasals Dating Grammar auction You are going to buy correct sentences. First, read the sentences below and decide whether they are correct or incorrect. Decide what your maximum
More informationMath 55: Discrete Mathematics
Math 55: Discrete Mathematics UC Berkeley, Fall 2011 Homework # 1, due Wedneday, January 25 1.1.10 Let p and q be the propositions The election is decided and The votes have been counted, respectively.
More informationMORALITY AND RELIGION: I
MORALITY AND RELIGION: I Anna Kalypsas: Mel Etitis: Kathy Merinos: Theo Logos: a philosophers and teacher one of her best students a student of more average ability a religious believer with philosophical
More information1.6 Rules of Inference
1.6 Rules of Inference An Inference Rule is a pattern establishing that if we know that a set of premise statements of certain forms are all true, then we can validly deduce that a certain related conclusion
More information