# Financial Reporting and Analysis Chapter 4 Solutions Structure of the Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows Exercises

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1 Financial Reporting and Analysis Chapter 4 Solutions Structure of the Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows Exercises Exercises E4-1.Determining collections on account (AICPA adapted) Cash receipts from sales include cash sales plus collections on account computed as follows: Cash sales \$ 200,000 Beginning accounts receivable 400,000 Credit sales 3,000,000 Less: Ending accounts receivable (485,000) Total Cash receipts from sales \$3,115,000 Alternative Solution: T-account analysis of accounts receivable Accounts Receivable Beginning balance \$ 400,000 X Collections on account Sales on account 3,000,000 Ending balance \$ 485,000 \$485,000 = \$400,000 + \$3,000,000 X X = \$2,915,000 Total cash receipts from sales: Cash sales \$ 200,000 Collections on accounts receivable _2,915,000 Total cash collected on sales \$3,115,000 E4-2.Determining cash from operations (AICPA adapted) Cash flows from operations: Cash received from customers \$870,000 Rent received 10,000 Taxes paid (110,000) Cash paid to employees and suppliers (510,000) Cash flows from operations \$260,000 Notice that cash dividends paid arises from the issuance of stock, a financing activity, and thus is not included in cash flows from operations. 4-1

2 E4-3. Determining cash collections on account (AICPA adapted) The provision for bad debts and write-off for uncollectible credit sales are non-cash expenses so they do not enter into the computation of cash receipts. To compute cash receipts, we need only sum the cash collected in May, as follows: Collections of May credit sales (est.) 20% of \$200,000 = \$ 40,000 Collections of April credit sales (est.) 70% of \$150,000 = 105,000 Collections of pre-april credit sales 12,000 Total cash receipts from accounts receivable in May \$157,000 E4-4. Determining ending accounts receivable (AICPA adapted) This problem tests students understanding of the interrelationships between various balance sheet and income statement accounts. To solve for the ending accounts receivable (A/R) balance, one needs to determine both sales on account (debit to A/R) and total purchases from an analysis of accounts payable. Once these two amounts are determined, one can conduct an analysis of the A/R T-account to deduce the ending A/R balance. Step 1 : To determine sales on account, one must first determine cost of goods sold as follows: Beginning inventory (given) Purchases 1 \$ 240,000 = Total cost of goods available for sale 240,000 - Ending inventory (given) (60,000) = Cost of goods sold \$180,000 1 Total purchases is determined from T-account analysis of accounts payable. Accounts Payable -0- Beginning balance Payments on account (given) \$200,000 X Solve for: Purchases on account \$40,000 Ending balance X = \$240,000 for purchases Step 2: Sales on account = 130% of cost of goods sold \$234,000 = 1.3 \$180,

3 Step 3 : T-account analysis of accounts receivable to deduce ending balance: Accounts Receivable Beginning balance \$0 \$170,000 Collections on account (given) Sales on account (step 2) 234,000 Solve for: Ending balance X X = \$234,000 - \$170,000 = \$64,000 Ending balance of A/R. E4-5. Determining cash disbursements (AICPA adapted) To answer this question, one needs to first determine the accrual basis expenses and then (1) subtract from this figure expenses not paid in cash; and (2) add amounts paid out in cash not recorded as accrual expenses. Total accrual basis expenses: Cost of goods sold = 70% of sales = 70% \$700,000 \$490,000 Selling, general, & administrative expense Fixed portion 71,000 Variable portion = 15% of sales = 15% \$700,000 _105,000 Total accrual basis expenses \$666,000 Subtract: Noncash expenses Depreciation expense (40,000) Charge for uncollectible accounts (1% x \$700,000) (7,000) Add: Increase in inventory which represents a net noncash deduction in determining cost of goods sold (see below) 10,000 Total cash disbursements for June \$629,000 Cost of Goods Sold Beginning Inventory + Purchases - Ending Inventory = Cost of Goods Sold increase by \$10,000 If inventory increases by \$10,000, this means that the non-cash subtraction from cost of goods sold was bigger than the non-cash addition. Therefore, we 4-3

4 need to add this inventory increase to the accrual basis expenses to get cash basis expenses. E4-6. Determining cash collections on account (AICPA adapted) Cash collected from customers can be determined by finding the change in accounts receivable. Beginning accounts receivable \$ 21,600 Sales 438,000 Ending accounts receivable (30,400) Cash collections from customers for 2001 \$429,200 Notice that no accounts were written off during the year so there was no credit to accounts receivable for the \$1,000 uncollectible accounts. E4-7. Determining cash received from customers (AICPA adapted) Collections from customers equal sales revenue minus the increase in accounts receivable, or \$70,000 (\$75,000 - \$5,000). E4-8. Determining cash from operations and reconciling with accrual net income (CW) Requirement 1: Cash provided by operating activities: Net income \$100,000 Noncash expenses: Depreciation _ 30, ,000 Changes in working capital accounts: Increase in accounts receivable (110,000) Decrease in inventories 50,000 Increase in prepaid expenses (15,000) Decrease in accounts payable (150,000) Increase in salaries payable 15,000 Decrease in other current liabilities _(70,000) (280,000) Cash provided by operating activities (\$150,000) 4-4

5 Requirement 2: Net income is \$100,000, yet cash used by operating activities is (\$150,000). There are several reasons for the difference. Accounts receivable increased by \$110,000 (i.e., not all of the sales reported in the 2001 income statement were collected in cash in 2001). Inventories decreased by \$50,000 (i.e., part of the cost of goods sold appearing in the 2001 income statement consists of inventory that was paid for in an earlier year (i.e., 2000). Accounts payable decreased by \$150,000 (i.e., the firm paid cash for all of its 2001 purchases of merchandise from suppliers, as well as \$150,000 for purchases made in 2000). Other current liabilities decreased by \$70,000 (i.e., the firm paid cash for the various operating expenses it incurred in 2001 as well as \$70,000 of operating expenses that were incurred, but not paid in cash in 2000). The changes in the prepaid expenses and the salaries payable accounts, along with the depreciation expense, explain the remaining difference between the firm s net income and its cash flow from operating activities. Note: This problem demonstrates that a firm can be profitable under the accrual basis even though it does not generate positive cash flow from operating activities. E4-9. Determining cash from operations and reconciling with accrual net income (CW) Requirement 1: Cash provided by operating activities: Net income (loss) (\$200,000) Noncash expenses: Depreciation 50,000 (150,000 ) Changes in working capital accounts: Decrease in accounts receivable 140,000 Increase in inventories (25,000) Increase in other current assets (10,000) Increase in accounts payable 120,000 Decrease in accrued payables (25,000) Increase in interest payable 50,000 _ 250,000 Cash provided by operating activities \$100,

6 Requirement 2: Net income (loss) is (\$200,000), yet cash provided by operating activities is a positive \$100,000. There are several reasons for the difference. Accounts receivable decreased by \$140,000 (i.e., the firm collected all of 2001 s sales in cash as well as some of the sales made in 2000, but not collected in 2000). Inventories increased by \$25,000 (i.e., the acquisition of merchandise inventory in 2001 exceeded the amount reported in the income statement for cost of goods sold). Accounts payable increased by \$120,000 (i.e., the firm did not pay for all of the merchandise purchases made from suppliers during 2001, thus the amount reported in the income statement for cost of goods sold is an overstatement of cash payments for purchases in 2001). Interest payable increased by \$50,000 (i.e., the amount of interest paid in cash in 2001 is less than the amount of interest expense reported in the firm s 2001 income statement). The changes in the other current assets and accrued payables accounts, along with the depreciation expense explain the remaining difference between the firm s net income and its cash flow from operating activities. Note: This problem demonstrates that a firm can be unprofitable under the accrual basis even though it generates positive cash flow from operating activities. 4-6

7 E4-10. Determining amounts shown on statement of cash flows Treatment in Statement of Cash Flows Cost of goods sold Not part of the cash flow statement Acquisitions of property, plant, and equipment Cash flows from investing activities Decrease in inventories Cash flows from operating activities Repayments of obligations under long-term lease obligations Cash flows from financing activities Decrease in salaries payable Cash flows from operating activities Gain on sale of land Cash flows from operating activities Increase in receivables Cash flows from operating activities Purchases of long-term investment securities Cash flows from investing activities Repayments of long-term borrowings Cash flows from financing activities Increase in accrued payables Cash flows from operating activities Proceeds from short-term borrowings Cash flows from financing activities Decrease in accounts payable Cash flows from operating activities Sales of property, plant, and equipment Cash flows from investing activities Proceeds from the sale of long-term borrowings Cash flows from financing activities Proceeds from sales of long-term investment securities Cash flows from investing activities Decrease in other current assets Cash flows from operating activities Purchases of common stock for treasury Cash flows from financing activities Increase in prepaid expenses Cash flows from operating activities Dividends paid Cash flows from financing activities Sales Not part of the cash flow statement Depreciation and amortization Cash flows from operating activities Repayments of shorter-term borrowings Cash flows from financing activities Increase in current assets Cash flows from operating activities Proceeds from the exercise of executive stock options Cash flows from financing activities 4-7

8 Problems Financial Reporting and Analysis Chapter 4 Solutions Structure of the Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows Problems P4-1.Preparing income statement and statement of cash flows Requirement 1: Accrual Accounting Cash Flow Accounting Sales revenue \$115,000 Cash collected from customers - Cost of goods sold -90,000 - Cash paid to suppliers Net income \$25,000 Cash flow from operations \$115,000-85,000 \$30,000 Computation of cash flow from operations under the indirect method: Net income (sales - cost of goods sold) \$25,000 - Increase in inventory (10,000) + Increase in accounts payable _15,000 Cash flow from operations (sales - cash paid to suppliers) \$30,000 Requirement 2: Since all sales are cash sales, sales revenue equals cash collected from customers. Consequently, the adjustments made for changes in inventory and accounts payable must convert the accrual accounting expense of cost of goods sold to its cash flow counterpart, i.e., cash paid to suppliers. The following table illustrates that adjusting for change in inventory converts cost of goods sold to cost of purchases, and further adjusting for change in accounts payable converts the cost of purchases to cash paid to suppliers. 4-8

9 Computation of Cash Flow from Operations under the Direct Method Sales (= cash from customers) \$115,000 Cost of goods sold -\$90,000 - Increase in inventory -10,000 Cost of purchases -100,000 + Increase in accounts payable +15,000 Cash paid to suppliers -85,000 Cash flow from operations \$ 30,000 P4-2. Explaining differences between cash flow from operations and accrual net income (CFA adapted) Requirement 1: Net income reflects (1) accrual accounting, (2) estimates of certain expenses, (3) and management discretion in certain items. Net income is not necessarily correlated to cash flows from operations because of accrual accounting. The recording of revenues when earned, and not received in the form of cash, and the recording of expenses in one period, but actually paid in another, are examples of how accrual accounting can result in net income figures that have no correlation to cash flows from operations. Charges for noncash items (depreciation expense and amortization of goodwill) will affect net income but have no effect on cash flows from operations. Estimates for items such as bad debts expense, depreciation expense and the amortization of intangible assets are largely up to management to determine. These items all lower net income but have no effect on cash flows from operations. Examples include: restructuring of debt, gains and losses on the sale of assets, discontinued operations, extraordinary items, and changes in accounting principles. All of these items affect net income, but not cash flows from operations. Requirement 2: The cash flow from operations (CFO) focuses on the liquidity aspect of operations and not on measuring the profitability. If used as a measure of performance, the CFO is less subject to distortion than the net income figure. Analysts use the CFO as a check on the quality of earnings. The CFO then is acting as a check on the reported net earnings figure but not as a substitute for net earnings. Firms with high net earnings and low CFO may be using income recognition techniques that are suspect. The ability for a firm to 4-9

10 generate CFO on a consistent basis is an indication of the financial health of the firm. For most firms, CFO is the lifeblood of the firm. Analysts search for trends in CFO to indicate future cash conditions and the potential for cash flow troubles. P4-3. Common-size financial statements Company C has a high amount of its assets in cash and marketable securities. It has no accounts receivable and the smallest proportion of property, plant and equipment (PP&E). In addition, it is the only organization with a deficit in retained earnings. The lack of inventory, accounts receivable and small amount of PP&E rules out Alcoa as a possibility. Moreover, one would expect Delta or Wendy's to have significantly more fixed assets, which suggests that Company C is Amazon.Com. This can be confirmed when we realize that Amazon.Com is a relatively new company that has yet to post positive earnings, resulting in a retained earnings deficit. Companies A, B and D all have accounts receivable; however, Company A s balance is considerably higher than Companies B s or D s receivable balance. Company A s accounts receivable balances are more in line with a manufacturing firm that would be selling its product on credit. Whereas Companies B and D appear to sell their products primarily for cash or by accepting third party credit cards (Visa, Mastercharge). This denotes that Alcoa is Company A. In addition, Company A s higher inventory levels would be required to meet manufacturing operations and seems to further suggest that this is Alcoa. Companies B and D both have balances consistent with organizations that have high cash or third party credit card sales. Both companies have fairly large PP&E balances, which appear to be consistent with the capital requirements of major airlines or a chain of fast-food restaurants. However, Company B has more than double the long-term liabilities of Company D. This would be consistent with an airline that acquires its flight equipment through the use of capital leases (the long-term liabilities appear to be capital lease obligations), thus suggesting that Company B is Delta Air Lines and Company D is Wendy's. This is further confirmed when you look at inventory levels, Company B at zero and Company D at two percent. One would expect a fast food restaurant business, Wendy's Company D, to maintain inventory, but at minimal levels, while a service organization, Delta Company B, would require no investment in inventory. 4-10

11 P4-4. Common-size financial statements A quick review of the financials tells us that Companies A and B have a heavy investment in current assets with inventory making up a significant portion of Company A s position. Company A and Company C each has a significant investment in property, plant & equipment (PP&E). Company C appears to be highly leveraged when compared to the other three companies. Companies B and D are both reporting significant goodwill and intangibles and both have significantly higher retained earnings. Goodwill arises when one company acquires another and pays more than the fair market value of the net assets acquired. Likewise, intangible assets will increase by the direct purchase of intangibles. Gannett has a record of acquiring and disposing of newspapers and television companies. Consequently, one can assume that Gannett would have goodwill on its balance sheet. Similarly, Merck is a highly successful pharmaceutical company that also acquires organizations and purchases intangibles such as patents and customer relationships, so it appears likely that Merck will report intangible assets on its balance sheet. As a result, we can conclude that Gannett and Merck are either Company B or D. Looking closer at Company B, we see slightly higher accounts receivable than Company D which may be more indicative of a manufacturing and marketing operation whose customer base would include hospitals, drug retailers (pharmacies) and other trade customers who might need extended credit terms versus subscription services, newspaper and television advertisers. Further examination indicates that Company B has significantly higher inventory requirements than Company D. Since Merck is manufacturer and distributor of health related products, and as such, would require higher inventory levels, one can conclude that Company B is Merck and Company D is Gannett. One may argue that Gannett will need inventory to supports its publishing business; however, those requirements would be proportionally lower in total when combined with the broadcasting business, whose inventory requirements would be non-existent. As stated above, Companies A and C both have significant PP&E and that Company C is highly leveraged when compared to Company A. Utility companies are regulated and as such, have a fairly conventional earnings stream; as a result, utility companies tend to use long-term debt to finance their PP&E investments. It appears that Company C is Wisconsin Electric Power Company, while Company A is Target. This is further confirmed when inventory levels are examined. Company A s (Target) inventory levels are seven times higher than Company D (Wisconsin Electric Power). One can conclude that the higher inventory levels are necessary to support Company A s (Target) retail sales. 4-11

12 P4-5. Determining cash flows from operating and investing activities (AICPA adapted) Requirements 1 and 2: Cash flow from operations and investing activities are computed below. Karr Inc. Partial Statement of Cash Flows Operations Net income \$300,000 Depreciation 52,000 Decrease in inventory 20,000 Increase in accounts receivable (15,000) Decrease in accounts payable (5,000) Gain on sale of equipment (5,000) Cash flows from operations \$347,000 Investing activities Sales of equipment 18,000 Purchase of equipment _(20,000) Cash flows from investing ( \$2,000) Notice that the \$30,000 increase in Notes payable is not included in cash flows from investing activities. It is not a cash transaction if issued in exchange for asset purchases. In the actual cash flow statement, an exchange of notes payable for fixed assets may be included in the notes as a significant noncash transaction. If the notes payable were issued in exchange for cash, then it would be shown as a source of cash in the financing activities section of the cash flow statement. 4-12

13 P4-6. Determining operating cash flow components (AICPA adapted) Requirement 1: Cash collected during 2002 can be shown by a T-account analysis: Accounts Receivable Beginning balance \$ 84,000 Sales on account in ,200,000 \$5,000 Accounts written off X Cash collections on account Ending balance \$ 78,000 \$78,000 = \$84,000 + \$1,200,000 - \$5,000 X X = \$1,201,000 cash collections on account Requirement 2: Cash disbursed for purchases of merchandise can be derived by using two T-accounts, inventory and accounts payable. Inventory Beginning inventory \$150,000 \$840,000 Cost of goods sold Purchases (plug to balance) 830,000 Ending inventory \$140,000 Using the purchases on account we can analyze accounts payable to determine cash disbursed for merchandise purchases. Solve for: Payments Accounts Payable \$ 95,000 Beginning balance 830,000 Purchase account X \$ 98,000 Ending balance \$98,000 = \$95,000 + \$830,000 X X = \$827,000 So cash disbursed for the purchase of merchandise is \$827,

14 Requirement 3: Cash Disbursed for general and administrative expenses in 2002 is computed below. For expenses incurred in 2001 Variable G&A (\$110,000 X 50% in 2002) \$55,000 Fixed G&A: \$100,000 Less Depreciation (35,000) Bad debts (5,000) 60,000 Amount paid in 2002 X 20% 12,000 For expenses incurred in 2002 Variable G&A (\$120,000 X 50% paid in 2002) 60,000 Fixed G&A: 100,000 Less Depreciation (35,000) Bad debts (5,000) 60,000 Amount paid in 2002 X 80% 48,000 Cash disbursement for G&A in 2002 \$175,

15 P4-7. Understanding the relation between income statement, cash flow statement, and changes in balance sheet accounts Requirement 1: Income statement Sales: Cash collections from customers \$16,670 + Increase in accounts receivable + 3,630 \$20,300 Cost of goods sold: Cash payments to suppliers \$19,428 - Increase in inventory (3,250) - Decrease in accounts payable (3,998) (12,180) Gross Profit \$8,120 Operating expenses: Cash payments for operating expenses \$7,148 - Decrease in accrued operating expenses (2,788) (4,360) Depreciation of equipment (2,256) Amortization of patents (399) Loss on sale of equipment (169) Income before taxes 936 Income tax expense: Cash payments for current income taxes \$200 + Increase in deferred taxes payable (327) Net income \$609 Requirement 2: Cash provided by operating activities: Net income \$609 Plus/minus noncash items: + Depreciation of equipment \$2,256 + Amortization of patents Loss on sales of equipment Increase in deferred taxes payable 127 2,951 Plus/minus changes in current asset and liability accounts: - Increase in accounts receivable (3,630) - Increase in inventory (3,250) - Decrease in accounts payable (3,998) - Decrease in accrued operating expenses (2,788) _(13,666) Cash provided by operating activities (\$10,106) 4-15

16 Requirement 3: Explanation for differences between accrual earnings and operating cash flows: Net income is \$609, yet cash provided by operating activities is (\$10,106). There are several causes of the difference. Accounts receivable increased during the year (i.e., not all 2001 sales were collected in cash in 2001), inventories increased in 2001 (i.e., more inventory was purchased than is reported as cost of goods sold in the income statement), accounts payable decreased in 2001 (i.e., cash paid to suppliers covered 2001 purchases as well as some purchases that were made, but not paid for, in 2000), and accrued operating expenses decreased in 2001 (i.e., cash paid for operating expenses in 2001 included all the expenses incurred in 2001 as well as some that were incurred, but not paid, in 2000). 4-16

17 P4-8. Understanding the relation between income statement, cash flow statements, and changes in balance sheet accounts Requirement 1: Income statement. Sales: Cash collections from customers \$72,481 - Decrease in accounts receivable _(4,603) \$67,878 Cost of goods sold: Cash payments to suppliers 51,768 - Increase in inventory (7,400) + Increase in accounts payable _3,146 47,514 Gross profit \$20,364 Selling and administrative expenses: Cash payments for selling and administrative expenses 9,409 + Increase in the accrued selling and administrative expenses account ,181 Depreciation of equipment 7,380 Interest expense: Cash payments for interest 1,344 + Increase in accrued interest payable 117 1,461 Gain on sale of equipment 327 Income before taxes \$1,669 Income tax expense: Cash payments for current income taxes Decrease in deferred taxes payable (87) 584 Net income (given) \$1,

18 Requirement 2: Cash provided by operating activities: Net income \$1,085 Plus/minus noncash items: + Depreciation of equipment 7,380 - Gain on sale of equipment (327) - Decrease in deferred taxes payable (87) \$8,051 Plus/minus changes in current asset and liability accounts: + Decrease in accounts receivable 4,603 - Increase in inventory (7,400) + Increase in accounts payable 3,146 + Increase in accrued selling and administrative expenses 72 + Increase in accrued interest payable 117 \$1,238 Cash provided by operating activities \$9,289 Requirement 3: Explanation for difference between accrual and cash flow from operations: Net income is \$1,085, while cash provided by operating activities is much larger \$9,289. There are several causes of the difference. First, \$7,380 of depreciation expense reduced income, but it did not reduce cash flow, so it is added back to net income to obtain cash from operations. Accounts receivable decreased during the year (i.e., all 2001 sales were collected in cash in 2001 as well as some sales made in 2000, but not collected in 2000), accounts payable increased in 2001 (i.e., cash paid to suppliers in 2001 was less than the cost of merchandise purchased and sold in 2001). These three items are more than enough to offset the increase in the inventory account of \$7,400 (i.e., more inventory was acquired in 2001 than was sold to customers). 4-18

19 P4-9. Understanding the relation between operating cash flows and accrual earnings Requirement 1: Sales 1 (\$28,000 + \$3,000) \$31,000 Less: Cost of goods sold 2 (\$13,000 + \$2,000 - \$3,000) (12,000) Operating expenses 3 (\$9,000 - \$2,000) (7,000) Depreciation expense (4,000) Income tax expense 4 (\$4,000 + \$1,000) (5,000) Amortization expense (1,000) Gain on sale of equipment 2,000 Net income \$ 4,000 1 Collections from customers + decrease in accounts receivable. 2 Payment to suppliers for purchases + increase in accounts payable increase in inventory. 3 Payments for operating expenses decrease in accrued payables. 4 Payment for taxes in current period + increase in deferred taxes payable. Requirement 2: Net income \$4,000 Plus/minus adjustments to reach cash flows Operating activities: (+) Depreciation 4,000 (+) Amortization of goodwill 1,000 (-) Gain on sale of equipment (2,000) (-) Increase in inventory (3,000) (+) Increase in accounts payable 2,000 (-) Increase in accounts receivable (3,000) (-) Decrease in accrued payables (2,000) (+) Increase in deferred income taxes payable 1,000 Cash flows from operating activities \$2,000 P4-10. Finding missing values on a classified balance sheet and analyzing balance sheet changes (CW) Requirement 1: Microsoft's Year 2 balance sheet appears on the following page. The Year 1 balance sheet is also included to facilitate responding to the remaining parts of the question. 4-19

20 Microsoft Corporation Consolidated Balance Sheet (\$ in Millions) June 30 Year 2 Year 1 Assets Current assets Cash and short-term investments \$ 13,927 \$ 8,966 Accounts receivable, net 1, Other Total current assets 15,889 10,373 Property, plant and equipment, net 1,505 1,465 Equity investment 4,703 2,346 Other assets Total assets \$ 22,357 \$ 14,387 Liabilities and stockholders' equity Current liabilities Accounts payable \$ 759 \$ 721 Accrued compensation Income taxes payable Unearned revenue 2,888 1,418 Other Total current liabilities 5,730 3,610 Stockholders' equity Convertible preferred stock: shares authorized 100; issued and outstanding Common stock and paid-in-capital: shares authorized 8,000; issued and outstanding 2,408 8,025 4,509 Retained earnings 7,622 5,288 Total stockholders' equity 16,627 10,777 Total liabilities and stockholders' equity \$ 22,357 \$ 14,

21 The unknowns in the Year 2 balance sheet are: Other current assets Equity investments Common stock and paid-in-capital Total stockholders' equity Unearned revenue Total assets They may be solved for as follows (all amounts in millions). a) Total assets: Since total liabilities and stockholders' equity is given (\$22,357), total assets is just this number, \$22,357. b) Other current assets: Total current assets is given as \$15,889 as all are of its components except other current assets. The sum of the given components is \$15,387 (cash and short-term investments is \$13,927 and accounts receivable (net) is \$1,460). Subtracting the sum of these components from total current assets leaves \$502 for other current assets. Total current assets = Cash and short-term investments + Accounts receivable + Other Current Assets \$15,889 = \$13,927 + \$1,460 + X X = \$502 = Other current assets c) Equity investments: To obtain equity investments, subtract total current assets of \$15,889, property, plant, and equipment of \$1,505 and other assets of \$260 from total assets of \$22,357. This yields \$4,703 for other equity investments. d) Unearned revenue: Total current liabilities is given as \$5,730 as is all of its components except unearned revenue. The sum of the given components is \$2,842 (accounts payable is \$759, accrued compensation is \$359, income tax payable is \$915, and other current liabilities are \$809). Subtracting the sum of these components from total current liabilities leaves \$2,888 for unearned revenues. Total current liabilities = Accounts payable + Accrued compensation + Income taxes payable + Unearned revenue + Other current liabilities \$5,730 = \$759 + \$359 + \$915 + X + \$809 X = \$2,888 = Unearned revenue 4-21

22 e) Total stockholder's equity: Since Microsoft has no long-term debt, total stockholders' equity is just total liabilities and stockholders' equity of \$22,357 minus total current liabilities of \$5,730. Doing the subtraction yields \$16,627 for total stockholders' equity. f) Common stock and paid-in-capital: It can be derived by subtracting retained earnings of \$7,622 and preferred stock of \$980 from total stockholders' equity of \$16,627. Doing so yields \$8,025 for common stock and paid-in-capital. Requirement 2: The firm appears to be in quite good financial health. Here are a couple of reasons why. a) The firm's current assets of \$15,889 are 2.77 times its current liabilities of \$5,730 (i.e., the firm's current ratio is about 2.77). Thus, the firm is unlikely to face any type of liquidity crisis. b) Related to (a), the firm's cash and short-term investments of \$13,927 far exceed its total current liabilities of \$5,730. This is further evidence that the firm has very good short-term liquidity. Requirement 3: In general, the changes in Microsoft's balance sheet from Year 1 to Year 2 are favorable. Several notable changes include (amounts in millions): a) Cash and short-term investments increased by about 55%. (\$13,927/\$ 8,966) b) Current assets increased by about 53% (\$15,889/\$10,373) c) Microsoft appears to have had a substantial increase in the equity investment account as evidenced by an increase of \$2,357 million. d) Retained earnings increased by about \$2,334 million. This suggests that the firm was quite profitable in Year 2 (the income statement could be examined to verify this). e) Microsoft had no long-term debt in Year 1 or Year 2. One might suspect that Microsoft's operations generate more than enough cash flow for the firm (the cash flow statement could be examined to verify this). 4-22

23 Requirement 4: Perhaps, the best answer to this question is to say that Microsoft's solid balance sheets provide no obvious reason not to invest in the firm. However, it would be unwise to base an investment recommendation solely on balance sheet information. Moreover, other information about Microsoft should be gathered and analyzed (see the next question). Requirement 5: At a minimum the following information should be obtained: a) The firm's income statements for the past 4-5 years. These data would be used to assess Microsoft's recent profitability and potential future profitability. b) The firm's cash flow statements for the past 4-5 years. These data would be used to assess Microsoft's recent cash-flow generating ability and what the cash flows were used for, as well as to help project the firm's potential future cash flow generating ability. c) Other information that the analyst might seek to obtain includes: projections of future earnings and/or sales made by Microsoft management, projections about future demand for Microsoft's products from the firm or from industry trade publication or other independent sources. information about new products that Microsoft has in development and the projected introduction dates for these products. Other student responses are possible. 4-23

24 P4-11. Finding missing values on a classified balance sheet and analyzing balance sheet accounts Requirement 1: HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY Consolidated Balance Sheet (\$ in millions) Assets Current assets Cash and cash equivalents \$ 625 Short-term investments 495 Accounts and notes receivable 2,976 Inventories: Finished goods 1,100 Purchased parts and fabricated assemblies 1,173 Other current assets 347 Total current assets 6,716 Property, plant, and equipment Land 390 Buildings and leasehold improvements 2,779 Machinery and equipment _2,792 5,961 Less Accumulated depreciation _(2,616 ) 3,345 Long-term receivables and other assets 1,912 Total assets \$11,973 Liabilities and shareholders equity Current liabilities Notes payable and short-term borrowings \$ 1,201 Accounts payable 686 Employee compensation and benefits payable 837 Taxes payable 381 Deferred revenues 375 Other accrued liabilities 583 Total current liabilities 4,063 Long-term debt 188 Other liabilities 210 Deferred taxes payable 243 Total liabilities 4,704 Shareholders equity Common stock and capital in excess of \$ 1 par value (authorized: 600,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding: 251,547,000) 1,010 Retained earnings 6,259 Total shareholders equity 7,269 Total liabilities and shareholders equity \$11,

25 The unknowns in the balance sheet are: Total liabilities and shareholders equity Land Long-term debt Notes payable and short-term borrowings Retained earnings Accounts and notes receivable They may be solved for as follows (amounts in millions). a) Total liabilities + Shareholders equity = Total assets (given) = \$11,973 b) Land: \$390 The following amounts, which are given in the problem, are needed to derive the balance in the land account: Total assets of \$11,973, total current assets of \$6,716, and the balances of all long-term asset accounts except land (buildings and leasehold improvements \$2,779, machinery and equipment \$2,792, accumulated depreciation (\$2,616), and long-term receivables and other Assets \$1,912). Thus, the balance in the land account is: Total assets = Current assets + Land + Buildings and leasehold improvements + Machinery and equipment - Accumulated depreciation + Long-term receivables and other assets \$11,973 = \$6,716 + land + \$2,779 + \$2,792 - \$2,616 + \$1,912. Land = \$390. c) Long-term debt: \$188 The following information (\$ in millions) in the problem can be used to derive the long-term debt: Total liabilities and shareholders equity (i.e., total assets) of \$11,973, total current liabilities of \$4,063, total shareholders equity of \$7,269, other liabilities of \$210, and deferred taxes payable of \$243. Long-term debt = Total liabilities and shareholders equity - Total shareholders equity - Other liabilities - Deferred taxes payable - Total current liabilities Long-term debt = \$11,973 - \$7,269 - \$210 - \$243 - \$4,063. Long-term debt = \$

26 d) Notes payable and short-term borrowings: \$1,201. The given information includes total current liabilities as well as all of its underlying components except for notes payable and short-term borrowings. To solve for notes payable and short-term borrowings simply subtract all of the given current liability components from total current liabilities. Specifically: Notes payable and short-term borrowings = Total current liabilities - Accounts payable - Employee compensation and benefits payable - Taxes payable - Deferred revenues - Other accrued liabilities Notes payable and short-term borrowings = \$4,063 - \$686 - \$837 - \$381 - \$375 - \$583. Notes payable and short-term borrowings = \$1,201. e) Retained Earnings: \$6,259 The following information given in the case can be used to derive the retained earnings balance: Total shareholders equity of \$7,269 and common stock and capital in excess of \$1 par value of \$1,010. The balance in the retained earnings account is just the difference between these two figures: Retained earnings = \$7,269 - \$1,010 Retained earnings = \$6,259. f) Accounts and notes receivable: \$2,976 The given information includes total current assets as well as all of its underlying components except for accounts and notes receivable. To solve for accounts and notes receivable, simply subtract all of the given current asset components from total current assets. Specifically: Accounts and notes receivable = Total current assets - Cash and cash equivalents - Short-term investments - Finished goods - Purchased parts and fabricated assemblies - Other current assets Accounts and notes receivable = \$6,716 - \$625 - \$495 - \$1,100 - \$1,173 - \$347. Accounts and notes receivable = \$2,

27 Requirement 2: One way to answer this question is to calculate the ratio of total Stockholders equity to total assets. Specifically: \$7,269/\$11,973 = 60.7%. This suggests that Hewlett-Packard finances itself by relying slightly more on investment by shareholders rather than creditors. Of note is that what financing that is provided by creditors is primarily shortterm. Moreover, current liabilities are \$4,063, while long-term liabilities are only \$641. Requirement 3: Hewlett-Packard s largest current asset is accounts and notes receivable of \$2,976. Requirement 4: Hewlett-Packard s largest current liability is notes and short-term borrowings of \$1,201. Requirement 5: Current ratio = Current assets/current liabilities. = \$6,716/\$4,063 = This means that Hewlett-Packard has \$1.65 of current assets for each \$1.00 of current liabilities. A simple rule of thumb for the current ratio is that it should be greater than one. Thus, Hewlett-Packard appears to have adequate shortterm liquidity. A better way to gauge the adequacy of a firm s current ratio is to compare it to prior years values for the firm, as well as with the values for other firms in the industry. Requirement 6: Other current assets may consist of items such as prepaid expenses like insurance, rent, advertising, etc. 4-27

28 P4-12. Analyzing the difference between operating cash flows and accrual earnings Requirement 1: (a) (b) (c) (d) Non-cash Accruals Prepayments/ (a+b+c) Accrual Revenue Earned or Buildups/Other Cash Received (+) Item: Income Expenses Incurred Adjustments or Paid (-) Operating Activities Sales \$6,438, \$20, \$6,418,362 3 Cost of goods sold - 5,102, \$170, , ,220,811 7 Selling and admin. expenses - 855, , , , Interest expense - 34, , , Depreciation expense - 104, , Provision for income taxes - 135, , , Net income 205, Operating cash flow Investing activities Capital expenditures Net investing cash flows + 216, , ,092 Financing activit ies Sale of stock + 100, Issuance of long-term debt + 89, Dividends - 48, Net financing cash flows +142,178 Net cash flow \$6,376 Beginning cash \$428 Ending cash _6,804 Change in cash \$6,

29 Notes: 1. Sales from the income statement. 2. The increase in the accounts receivable account (i.e., sales not collected in cash during the year), \$97,106 - \$76, Cash collected during the year. 4. Cost of goods sold from the income statement. 5. The increase in the inventory account (i.e., \$844,539 - \$673,606). 6. The increase in the accounts payable account for the year (i.e., \$343,163 - \$290,064). 7. Payments for inventory during the year. 8. Selling and administrative expenses from the income statement. 9. The increase in the accrued expenses account (i.e., \$184,017 - \$138,921). 10. The decrease in the prepaid expenses account for the year (i.e., \$16,684 - \$9,401). 11. Selling and administrative expenses paid in cash during the year. 12. Interest expense from the income statement. 13. The decrease in the accrued interest payable account for the year (i.e., \$1,067 - \$3,394). 14. Interest paid in cash during the year. 15. Depreciation expense from the income statement. Depreciation is a noncash expense. 16. Accrual accounting income tax expense from the income statement. 17. The decrease in the income tax payable account, (i.e., \$37,390 - \$42,958). 18. Cash paid for income taxes during the year. 19. From the income statement. 20. By calculation. 4-29

30 21. The change in the property account. 22. The change in the common stock account. 23. The change in the long-term debt account. 24. Given. Requirement 2: Food Tiger Statement of Cash Flows For the Year Ended December 31, 2001 Operating cash flows Net income \$205,171 Plus Depreciation 104,614 Increase in accounts payable 53,099 Increase in accrued expenses 45,096 Decrease in prepaid expenses _ 7, ,478 Minus Increase in accounts receivable 20,145 Increase in inventory 170,933 Decrease in accrued interest payable 2,327 Decrease in income taxes payable 5,568 (198,973) Net operating cash flows \$216,290 Investing cash flows Capital expenditures (352,092) Net investing cash flows (352,092) Financing cash flows Sale of stock 100,857 Issuance of long-term debt 89,352 Dividends (48,031) Net financing cash flows 142,178 Net cash flow \$6,376 Beginning cash balance \$428 Ending cash balance _6,804 Change in cash \$6,

31 P4-13 Preparing balance sheet and income statement (AICPA adapted) Requirement 1: Vanguard Corporation Balance Sheet December 31, 2001 Assets Current assets: Cash 1 \$ 3,566,040 Accounts receivable (given) \$3,350,000 Allowance for doubtful accounts (3% of \$3,350,000) (100,500) 3,249,500 Inventories (obtained from cost of sales section of the income statement) 2,750,000 Total current assets 9,565,540 Fixed assets 2 4,000,000 Accumulated depreciation 3 (1,774,500) 2,225,500 Total assets \$11,791,040 Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity Current Liabilities: Notes Payable due within one year 4 \$1,000,000 Accounts payable and accrued liabilities (given) 2,221,000 Federal income taxes payable 5 130,000 Total current liabilities 3,351,000 Notes payable due after one year 6 3,000,000 Stockholders' equity: Capital stock 7 \$1,050,000 Additional paid-in capital 8 1,800,000 Retained earnings (per statement of retained earnings) 2,590,040 Total stockholders' equity 5,440,040 Total liabilities and stockholders' equity \$11,791,040 1 Cash : Cash balance at December 31, 2000 \$4,386,040 Add: 2001 net sales \$15,650,000 Less: 12/31/01 accounts receivable (3,350,000) 12,300,000 Accounts receivable at 12/31/00 3,150,000 Less: accounts charged off in 2001 (50,000) 3,100,000 19,786,

32 Less: Purchases and freight-in 10,905,000 Other administrative, selling and general expenses 2,403,250 13,308,250 Less: 12/31/01 accounts payable and accrued liabilities 2,221,000 11,087,250 12/31/00 current liabilities 3,391,500 Interest expense Fixed assets purchased in 2001(\$4,000,000 less \$3,300,000) 700,000 Dividends paid (see statement of retained earnings) 410,000 Installment of 2001 tax paid prior to 12/31/01 400,000 16,220,000 Cash Balance at 12/31/01 \$ 3,566,040 2 Fixed assets: Depreciation expense in 2001 (given) \$ 474,500 Less: Depreciation on 12/31/00 fixed assets (13% of 3,300,000) (429,000) Depreciation on fixed asset additions in 2001 \$ 45,500 One-half year s depreciation taken in year fixed assets acquired. Full years depreciation = \$45,500 X 2 \$ 91,000 Depreciation rate 13% fixed asset additions (\$91,000.13) 700,000 Add: Fixed assets on 12/31/00 3,300,000 Fixed assets on 12/31/01 \$ 4,000,000 3 Accumulated depreciation: Balance 12/31/00 \$ 1,300,000 Add: Depreciation expense in 2001 (given) 474,500 Accumulated depreciation \$ 1,774,500 4 Notes payable due within one year: Face value of note \$ 5,000,000 Due in twenty equal installments 20 Quarterly installment \$ 250,000 Four installments due in 2002 X 4 Notes payable due within one year \$ 1,000,000 5 Federal income taxes payable: Provision for taxes on 2001 earnings per income statement \$ 530,000 Less: 2001 Estimated tax payment (400,000) Balance 12/31/01 \$ 130,000 6 Notes payable due after one year: Balance 12/31/00 \$ 4,000,000 Less: Amount due within one year at 12/31/01 (1,000,000) Balance 12/31/01 \$ 3,000,

33 7 Capital stock: Balance 12/31/00 \$1,000,000 Add: Stock dividend of 5% 50,000 Balance 12/31/01 \$1,050,000 8 Additional paid-in capital: Balance 12/31/00 \$1,500,000 Add:[ 50000, sh. x\$7 = \$350, 000- ( 50, 000sh. x\$1) = \$300, 000increase] 300,000 Balance 12/31/01 \$1,800,000 Requirement 2: Vanguard Corporation Income Statement Year ended December 31, 1999 Net sales (given) \$15,650,000 Cost of sales Beginning inventory (given) \$ 2,800,000 Purchases & freight (given) 10,905,000 13,705,000 Less: Ending inventory (plug necessary for 30% gross profit) (2,750,000) 10,955,000 Gross profit (30% of \$15,650,000) 4,695,000 Operating and other expenses Interest 1 231,250 Depreciation and amortization (given) 474,500 Provision for doubtful accounts 2 56,000 Other administrative, selling, and general expenses (given) 2,403,250 3,165,000 Net income before income taxes 1,530,000 Income tax expense (given) ( 530,000 ) Net income \$ 1,000, % per year on notes adjusted for four 2001 quarterly payments of \$250,000. (\$62,500 + \$59,375 + \$56,250 + \$53,125) 2 Balance at 12/31/01 (3% of \$3,350,000) \$100,500 Balance at 12/31/00 (given) \$94,500 Amounts written off (given) (50,000) 44,500 Amount required \$ 56,

34 Vanguard Corporation Statement of Retained Earnings Year Ended December 31, 1999 Beginning retained earnings (given) \$2,350,040 Net earnings for the year (from Income Statement) 1,000,000 \$3,350,040 Less cash dividends paid: 1st quarter 1,000,000 \$100,000 2nd quarter 1,000, ,000 3rd quarter 1,050, ,000 4th quarter 1,050, ,000 Total cash dividends paid 410,000 Fair value of 50,000 shares of common stock issued as stock dividend (50,000 \$7) 350, ,000 Ending retained earnings \$2,590,

35 Financial Reporting and Analysis Chapter 4 Solutions Structure of the Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows Cases Cases C4-1. Debbie Dress Shops: Determining cash flow amounts from comparative balance sheets and income statement (AICPA adapted) Requirement 1: Cash collected during 2001 from accounts receivable is calculated below. Beginning accounts receivable \$ 580,000 Net credit sales 6,400,000 Ending accounts receivable _(840,000) Cash collected during 2001 \$6,140,000 Requirement 2: To find cash payments during 2001 on accounts payable to suppliers, we first must compute purchases. Beginning inventory \$ 420,000 + Purchases (plug figure) 5,240,000 - Ending inventory _(660,000) = Cost of goods sold (given) \$5,000,000 We then use the purchases amount to compute cash payments made to suppliers. Ending accounts payable (530,000) Purchases 5,240,000 Beginning accounts payable 440,000 Cash payments to suppliers \$5,150,

36 Requirement 3: Cash provided by operations can be seen by looking at the 2001 statement of cash flows for Debbie Dress Shops. Debbie Dress Shops Statement of Cash Flows Net income \$400,000 Depreciation (\$110,000 - \$50,000) 60,000 Increase in accounts payable 90,000 Increase in accrued expenses 10,000 Increase in accounts receivable (260,000) Increase in inventory (240,000) Increase in prepaid expenses (50,000) Cash flows from operating activities \$10,000 Purchase of land, buildings, and fixtures (530,000) Purchase of long-term investment (80,000) Cash flows from investing activities (\$610,000) Issuance of common stock 300,000 Issuance of long-term debt 500,000 Payment of cash dividends** (100,000) Cash flows from financing activities \$700,000 Net cash flows for 2001 \$100,000 ** The amount listed for payment of cash dividends can be computed using T-account analysis as follows: 4-36

37 Retained Earnings \$330,000 Beginning balance 400,000 Net income Dividends declared \$170,000 \$560,000 Ending balance Using the dividends declared amount we found above, we can find the actual cash paid out for dividends by looking at the dividends payable account. Cash paid out in dividends Dividends payable Beginning balance \$170,000 Dividends declared \$100,000 \$70,000 Ending balance Requirement 4: see above Requirement 5: see above C4-2. Snap-on-Tools Corp. (CW): Determining missing amounts on cash flow statement Required: Snap-on-Tool s 19X2 cash flow statement appears below. The unknowns are: net cash provided by operating activities, net cash used in investing activities, net cash provided by (used in) financing activities, increase in cash and cash equivalents, and cash and cash equivalents at end of year. These amounts may be solved for as follows (all in thousands). a) Net cash provided by operating activities: Cash provided by operating activities = Net earnings + Depreciation + Amortization - Decrease in deferred income taxes - Gain on sale of assets - Increase in receivables + Decrease in inventories - Increase in prepaid expenses - Decrease in accounts payable + Increase in accruals, deposits, and Other Liabilities. Cash provided by operating activities (\$ in 000) = \$65,975 + \$25,484 + \$3,973 - \$ 6,005 - \$250 - \$5,458 + \$5,928 - \$4,829 - \$8,202 + \$23,330 Cash provided by operating activities = \$99,

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