2 10-2 Liquidity and Working Capital Basics Liquidity - Ability to convert assets into cash or to obtain cash to meet short-term obligations. Short-term - Conventionally viewed as a period up to one year. Lack of liquidity can limit: Severe illiquidity often precedes: Advantages of discounts Lower profitability Profitable opportunities Restricted opportunities Management actions Loss of owner control Coverage of current obligations Loss of capital investment Insolvency and bankruptcy Working Capital - The excess of current assets over current liabilities.
3 10-3 Liquidity and Working Capital Basics Current Assets - Cash and other assets reasonably expected to be (1) realized in cash, or (2) sold or consumed, during the longer of one-year or the operating cycle. Current liabilities - Obligations to be satisfied within a relatively short period, usually a year. Working Capital - Excess of current assets over current liabilities Widely used measure of short-term liquidity Constraint for technical default in many debt agreements Current Ratio Ratio of Current Assets to Current Liabilities Relevant measure of current liability coverage, buffer against losses, reserve of liquid funds. Limitations A static measure
4 10-4 Liquidity and Working Capital Current Ratio Relevance of the Current Ratio Current liability coverage Buffer against losses Reserve of liquid funds
5 10-5 Liquidity and Working Capital Current Ratio Numerator Considerations Adjustments needed to counter limitations such as: Failure to reflect open lines of credit Adjust securities valuation since the balance sheet date Reflect revolving nature of accounts receivable Recognize profit margin in inventory Adjust inventory values to market Remove deferred charges of dubious liquidity from prepaid expenses Denominator Considerations Payables vary with sales. Current liabilities do not include prospective cash outlays.
6 10-6 Liquidity and Working Capital Current Ratio Liquidity depends to a large extent on prospective cash flows and to a lesser extent on the level of cash and cash equivalents. No direct relation between balances of working capital accounts and likely patterns of future cash flows. Managerial policies regarding receivables and inventories are directed primarily at efficient and profitable asset utilization and secondarily at liquidity. Two elements integral to the use of current ratio: Quality of both current assets and current liabilities. Turnover rate of both current assets and current liabilities.
7 10-7 Liquidity and Working Capital Your decision on IMC s one-year loan application is positive for at least two reasons. First, your analysis of IMC s short-term liquidity is reassuring. IMC s current ratio of 4:1suggests a considerable margin of safety in its ability to meet short-term obligations. Second, IMC s current assets of $1.6 million and current ratio of 4:1 implies current liabilities of $400,000 and a working capital excess of$1.2 million. This working capital excess totals 60 percent of the loan amount. The evidence supports approval of IMC s loan application. However, if IMC s application is for a 10-year loan, our decision is less optimistic. While the current ratio and working capital suggest a good safety margin, there are indications of inefficiency in operations. First, a 4:1 current ratio is in most cases too excessive and characteristic of inefficient asset use. Second, IMC s current ratio is more than double that of its competitors. Our decision regarding a long-term loan is likely positive, but substantially less optimistic than a short-term loan.
8 10-8 Liquidity and Working Capital Comparative Analysis Trend analysis Good But be careful Current Ratio - Applications Ratio Management (window dressing) Toward close of a period, management will occasionally press the collection of receivables, reduce inventory below normal levels, and delay normal purchases.
9 10-9 Liquidity and Working Capital Current Ratio - Applications Rule of Thumb Analysis (2:1) Current ratio above 2:1 - superior coverage of current liabilities (but not too high - inefficient resource use and reduced returns) Current ratio below 2:1 - deficient coverage of current liabilities Note of caution Quality of current assets and the composition of current liabilities are more important in evaluating the current ratio. Working capital requirements vary with industry conditions and the length of a company s net trade cycle.
10 10-10 Liquidity and Working Capital Net Trade Cycle Analysis Illustration Selected information from Technology Resources for the end of Year 1: Sales for Year 1 $360,000 Receivables 40,000 Inventories* 50,000 Accounts payable 20,000 Cost of goods sold (including depreciation of $30,000) 320,000 Then, the net trade cycle is computed as: *Beginning inventory is $100,000. These relate to purchases included in cost of goods sold. We estimate Technology Resources purchases per day as: Ending inventory $ 50,000 Cost of goods sold 320, ,000 Less: Beginning inventory (100,000) Cost of goods purchased and manufactured 270,000 Less: Depreciation in cost of goods sold (30,000) Purchases $240,000 Purchases per day = $240,000/360 = $ The longer the net trade cycle, the larger is the working capital requirement. Reduction in the number of days sales in receivables or cost of sales in inventories lowers working capital requirements. Comparisons using industry current ratios, and analysis of working capital requirements using net trade cycle measures, are useful in analysis of the adequacy of a company s working capital.
11 10-11 Liquidity and Working Capital Cash-Based Ratio Measures of Liquidity Cash to Current Assets Ratio Cash + Cash equivalents + Marketable securities Current Assets Larger the ratio, the more liquid are current assets Cash to Current Liabilities Ratio Cash + Cash equivalents + Marketable securities Current Liabilities Larger the ratio, the more cash available to pay current obligations
12 10-12 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Accounts Receivable Liquidity Measures Accounts Receivable Turnover Days Sales in Receivables Receivables collection period
13 10-13 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Interpretation of Receivables Liquidity Measures Accounts receivable turnover rates and collection periods are usefully compared with industry averages or with credit terms. Ratio Calculation: Gross or Net? Trend Analysis Collection period over time. Observing the relation between the provision for doubtful accounts and gross accounts receivable.
14 10-14 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Inventory Turnover Measures Inventories often constitute a substantial proportion of current assets. Inventories are investments made for purposes of obtaining a return through sales to customers. In most companies, a certain level of inventory must be kept. Our evaluation of short-term liquidity and working capital, which involves inventories, Illustration (Day s must include sales in an inventory) evaluation of the quality and liquidity of inventories. Measures of inventory turnover are excellent tools for this analysis.
15 10-15 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Inventory turnover ratio: Inventory Turnover Measures Measures the average rate of speed at which inventories move through and out of a company. Days Sales in Inventory: Illustration (Day s sales in inventory) Shows the number of days required to sell ending inventory An alternative measure - Days to sell inventory ratio:
16 10-16 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Inventory Turnover Measures Example: Illustration (Day s sales in inventory)
17 10-17 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Interpreting Inventory Turnover Quality of inventory Decreasing inventory turnover Analyze if decrease is due to inventory build-up in anticipation of sales increases, contractual commitments, increasing prices, work stoppages, inventory shortages, or other legitimate reason. Inventory management Effective inventory management increases inventory turnover.
18 10-18 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Interpreting Inventory Turnover Conversion period or operating cycle: Measure of the speed with which inventory is converted to cash
19 10-19 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Liquidity of Current Liabilities Current liabilities are important in computing working capital and current ratio: Used in determining whether sufficient margin of safety exists. Deducted from current assets in arriving at working capital. Quality of Current Liabilities Must be judged on their degree of urgency in payment. Ex: labor and similar expenses have the 1 st call, Trade payables and other liabilities are paid only after these outlays are met. Must be aware of unrecorded liabilities having a claim on current funds. Ex: purchase commitments and certain postretirement and lease obligations.
20 10-20 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Days Purchases in Accounts Payable Days Purchases in Accounts Payable Measures the extent accounts payable represent current and not overdue obligations. Accounts Payable Turnover Indicates the speed at which a company pays for purchases on account.
21 10-21 Operating Activity Analysis of Liquidity Cost savings are assumed to derive from paying off current liabilities with money not invested in inventory. Accordingly, cost savings equal (Inventory reduction * 10%). Under the old system, inventory equaled $5 million. This is obtained using the inventory turnover ratio: 20 = $100 million / Average inventory. With the new system, inventory equals $4 million; computed using the new inventory turnover: 25 = $100million / Average inventory. The cost savings are $100,000, computed from ($5 million - $4 million) * 10%
22 10-22 Additional Liquidity Measures Current Assets Composition Indicator of working capital liquidity Illustration Texas Electric s current assets along with their common-size percentages are reproduced below for Years 1 and 2: Cash $ 30, % $ 20, % Accounts receivable 40, , Inventories 30, , % Total current assets $100, % $100, An analysis of Texas Electric s common-size percentages reveals a marked deterioration in current asset liquidity in Year 2 relative to Year 1. This is evidenced by a 10% decline for both cash and accounts receivable.
23 10-23 Additional Liquidity Measures Acid-Test (Quick) Ratio - A more stringent test of liquidity Cash Flow Measures Cash Flow Ratio Overcomes the static nature of the current ratio since its numerator reflects a flow variable.
24 10-24 Additional Liquidity Measures Financial Flexibility - Ability to take steps to counter unexpected interruptions in the flow of funds. Ability to borrow from various sources; to raise equity capital; to sell and redeploy assets; to adjust the level and direction of operations to meet changing circumstances; levels of prearranged financing and open lines of credit Management s Discussion and Analysis MD&A requires a discussion of liquidity including known trends, demands, commitments, or uncertainties likely to impact the company s ability to generate adequate cash.
25 10-25 Additional Liquidity Measures What-if analysis Technique to trace through the effects of changes in conditions/ policies on cash resources of a company
26 10-26 Additional Liquidity Measures What-if analysis Illustration Background Data Consolidated Technologies at December 31, Year 1: Cash $ 70,000 Accounts receivable 150,000 Inventory 65,000 Accounts payable 130,000 Notes payable 35,000 Accrued taxes 18,000 Fixed assets 200,000 Accumulated depreciation 43,000 Capital stock 200,000 The following additional information is reported for Year 1: Sales $750,000 Cost of sales 520,000 Purchases 350,000 Depreciation 25,000 Net income 20,000 Anticipates 10 percent growth in sales for Year 2 All revenue and expense items are expected to increase by 10 percent, except for depreciation, which remains the same All expenses are paid in cash as they are incurred Year 2 ending inventory is projected at $150,000 By the end of Year 2, predicts notes payable of $50,000 and a zero balance in accrued taxes Maintains a minimum cash balance of $50,000
27 10-27 Additional Liquidity Measures What-if analysis - Illustration Case 1: Consolidated Technologies is considering a change in credit policy where ending accounts receivable reflect 90 days of sales. What impact does this change have on the company s cash balance? Will this change affect the company s need to borrow? Our analysis of this what-if situation is as follows: Cash, January 1, Year 2 $ 70,000 Cash collections: Accounts receivable, January 1, Year 2 $ 150,000 Sales 825,000 Total potential cash collections $ 975,000 Less: Accounts receivable, December 31, Year 2 ( 206,250)(a) 768,750 Total cash available $ 838,750 Cash disbursements: Accounts payable, January 1, Year 2 $ 130,000 Purchases 657,000(b) Total potential cash disbursements $ 787,000 Accounts payable, December 31, Year 2 ( 244,000)(c) $ 543,000 Notes payable, January 1, Year 2 $ 35,000 Notes payable, December 31, Year 2 ( 50,000) (15,000) Accrued taxes 18,000 Cash expenses(d) 203, ,500 Cash, December 31, Year 2 $ 89,250 Cash balance desired 50,000 Cash excess $ 39,250 (continued)
28 10-28 Additional Liquidity Measures Explanations: (a) What-if analysis - Illustration (b)year 2 cost of sales*: $520, = $ 572,000 Ending inventory (given) 150,000 Goods available for sale $ 722,000 Beginning inventory (65,000) Purchases $ 657,000 * Excluding depreciation. (c) (d) Gross profit ($825,000 $572,000) $253,000 Less: Net income $ 24,500* Depreciation 25,000 ( 49,500) Other cash expenses $203,500 *110 percent of $20,000 (Year 1 N.I.) + 10 percent of $ 25,000 (Year 1 depreciation).
29 10-29 Basics of Solvency Solvency long-run financial viability and its ability to cover long-term obligations Capital structure financing sources and their attributes Earning power recurring ability to generate cash from operations Loan covenants protection against insolvency and financial distress; they define default (and the legal remedies available when it occurs) to allow the opportunity to collect on a loan before severe distress
30 10-30 Basics of Solvency Equity financing Risk capital of a company Uncertain and unspecified return Lack of any repayment pattern Contributes to a company s stability and solvency Debt financing Must be repaid with interest Specified repayment pattern When the proportion of debt financing is higher, the higher are the resulting fixed charges and repayment commitments Capital Structure
31 10-31 Basics of Solvency Motivation for Debt From a shareholder s perspective, debt is a preferred external financing source: Interest on most debt is fixed Interest is a tax-deductible expense Financial leverage - the amount of debt financing in a company s capital structure. Companies with financial leverage are said to be trading on the equity.
32 10-32 Basics of Solvency Financial Leverage- Illustrating Tax Deductibility of Interest
33 10-33 Basics of Solvency Adjustments for Capital Structure - Liabilities Potential accounts needing adjustments Chapter reference Deferred Income Taxes - Is it a liability, 3 & 6 equity, or some of both? Operating Leases - capitalize non- 3 cancelable operating leases? Off-Balance-Sheet Financing 3 Contingent Liabilities 3 & 6 Minority Interests 5 Convertible Debt 3 Preferred Stock 3
34 10-34 Capital Structure Composition and Solvency Common-Size Statements in Solvency Analysis Composition analysis Performed by constructing a common-size statement of the liabilities and equity section of the balance sheet. Reveals relative magnitude of financing sources. Tennessee Teletech s Capital Structure Common-Size Analysis Current liabilities $ 428, % Long-term debt 500, Equity capital Preferred stock 400, Common stock 800, Paid-in capital 20, Retained earnings 102, Total equity capital 1,322, Total liabilities and equity $2,250, %
35 10-35 Capital Structure Composition and Solvency Capital Structure Ratios Total Debt to Total Capital Ratio Comprehensive measure of the relation between total debt and total capital Also called Total debt ratio Total Debt to Equity Capital Long-Term Debt to Equity Capital Measures the relation of LT debt to equity capital. Commonly referred to as the debt to equity ratio. Short-Term Debt to Total Debt Indicator of enterprise reliance on short-term financing. Usually subject to frequent changes in interest rates.
36 10-36 Capital Structure Composition and Solvency Interpretation of Capital Structure Measures Capital structure measures serve as screening devices. Further analysis required if debt is a significant part of capitalization.
37 10-37 Capital Structure Composition and Solvency Asset-Based Measures of Solvency Asset composition in solvency analysis Important tool in assessing capital structure risk exposure. Typically evaluated using common-size statements of asset balances.
38 10-38 Earnings Coverage Earnings to Fixed Charges Limitation of capital structure measures - inability to focus on availability of cash flows to service debt. Role of earnings coverage, or earning power, as the source of interest and principal repayments. Earnings to fixed charges ratio
39 10-39 Earnings Coverage Earnings to Fixed Charges
40 Earnings to Fixed Charges Ratio Calculation: 10-40
41 10-41 Earnings Coverage Times Interest Earned Times interest earned ratio Considers interest as the only fixed charge needing earnings coverage: Numerator sometimes referred to as earnings before interest and taxes, or EBIT. Potentially misleading and not as effective an analysis tool as the earnings to fixed charges ratio.
42 10-42 Earnings Coverage Relation of Cash Flow to Fixed Charges Cash flow to fixed charges ratio Computed using cash from operations rather than earnings in the numerator of the earnings to fixed charges ratio.
43 10-43 Earnings Coverage Earnings Coverage of Preferred Dividends Earnings coverage of preferred dividends ratio Computation must include in fixed charges all expenditures taking precedence over preferred dividends. Since preferred dividends are not tax deductible, after-tax income must be used to cover them.
44 10-44 Earnings Coverage Interpreting Earnings Coverage Earnings coverage measures provide insight into the ability of a company to meet its fixed charges High correlation between earnings-coverage measures and default rate on debt Earnings variability and persistence is important Use earnings before discontinued operations, extraordinary items, and cumulative effects of accounting changes for single year analysis but, include them in computing the average coverage ratio over several years
45 10-45 Earnings Coverage Capital Structure Risk and Return A company can increase risks (and potential returns) of equity holders by increasing leverage Substitution of debt for equity yields a riskier capital structure Relation between risk and return in a capital structure exists Only personal analysis can reflect one s unique risk and return expectations Return $ Risk?
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