# INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

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1 INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING DUNDIGAL , HYDERABAD COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING TUTORIAL QUESTION BANK Name : FORMAL LANGUAGES AND AUTOMATA THEORY Code : A40509 Class : II B. Tech II Semester Branch : Computer Science Engineering Year : Faculty : Mr N. V. Krishna Rao, Associate Professor Mr Ch. Suresh Kumar Raju, Associate Professor OBJECTIVES To meet the challenge of ensuring excellence in engineering education, the issue of quality needs to be addressed, debated taken forward in a systematic manner. Accreditation is the principal means of quality assurance in higher education. The major emphasis of accreditation process is to measure the outcomes of the program that is being accredited. In line with this, Faculty of Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Hyderabad has taken a lead in incorporating philosophy of outcome based education in the process of problem solving career development. So, all students of the institute should underst the depth approach of course to be taught through this question bank, which will enhance learner s learning process. Group - A (Short Answer Questions) UNIT - I 1. Explain transition diagram, transition table with example. Underst 1 2. Define transition function of DFA. Remember 2 3. Define ε transitions. Remember 2 4. Construct a DFA to accept even number of 0 s. Apply 2 5. Define Kleene closure. Remember 1 6. Construct a DFA to accept empty language. Apply 2 7. Explain power of an alphabet ( *)? Underst 1 8. Write transition diagram for DFA accepting string ending with 00. Apply 2 9. Write transition diagram for DFA to accept exactly one a. Apply Define the language of NFA. Remember Explain the different Operations on the languages. Underst 12. Construct a finite automaton accepting all strings over {0, 1} having Apply 2 even number of 0 s 13. Define Moore Machines. Remember Define Mealy Machines. Remember Write DFA for odd number of 1 s. Apply Write NFA for (0+1)*101(0+1)*. Apply Write DFA for (0+1)*10(0+1)*. Apply Define ɛ - closure. Remember Write NFA for (0+1)*001(0+1)*. Apply Write DFA for (0+1)*00(0+1)*. Apply 2 UNIT II 1. Define Regular Languages. Remember 7 2. Define Pumping Lemma for Regular Languages. Remember 7 3. Write the applications of pumping lemma for regular languages.

2 4. List any two applications of regular expression. Remember 7 5. Define Context Free Grammars. Remember 8 6. Define Left linear derivation. Remember 7. Write regular expression for denoting language containing empty string. 8. Differentiate left linear right linear derivations. Underst 8 9. Write the Context free grammar for palindrome. Remember Define right linear grammars. Remember Define Regular grammars. Remember Write regular expressions for the Set of strings over {0, 1} whose last two symbols are the same. 13. Define right linear derivation. Remember Define left linear grammars. Remember Write the regular language generated by regular expression (0+1)*001(0+1)*. 16. Write the Regular Expression for the set of binary strings. 17. Write the derivation of the string aaaa from CFG S a S/A A a 18. Write the derivation of the string 110 from CFG S A0/B A 0/12/B B A/ Write the Regular Expression to generate atleast one b over Σ ={a,b} 20. Write the Context free grammar for equal number of a s b s. UNIT III 1. Define Greibach normal form. Remember 9 2. Define nullable Variable. Remember 8 3. Write the minimized CFG for the following grammar Remember 9 S ABCa bd A BC b B b ε C Đ ε D d 4. Convert the grammar to CNF - S ba/ab A as/a B bs/b. Underst 8 5. Explain the elimination of UNIT production. Underst 8 6. Explain the elimination of useless symbols in productions. Underst 8 7. Define CNF. Remember 9 8. Write the minimization of CFG S a S/A A a B aa Underst 8 9. Define the ambiguity in CFG. Remember What is the use of CNF GNF Write the minimization of CFG - S as1b S1 as1b/ɛ. Underst Write the minimization of CFG - S A A aa/ ɛ. Underst Write the minimization of CFG - S AB / a A a. Underst Write the minimization of CFG - S as/a/c A a B aa C acb. Underst Write the minimization of CFG - S AbA A Aa/ ɛ. Underst Write the minimization of CFG - S asa S bsb S a/b/ ɛ. Underst Write the minimization of CFG - S A0/B A 0/12/B Underst 8 B A/ Convert the grammar to CNF - S asa/aa S bsb/bb S a/b. Underst Convert the grammar to CNF - S aabb A aa/a B bb/a. Underst Define PDA. Remember Define NPDA. Remember Differentiate between deterministic nondeterministic PDA. Underst Define the language of DPDA. Remember List the steps to convert CFG to PDA. Remember Explain acceptance of PDF by final state. Underst Explain acceptance of PDF by empty stack. Underst Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0,b,z0)={q0,zz0)

3 28. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0, b, z)=(q0,zz) 29. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0, ϵ,z0)=(q0,ϵ) 30. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0,a,z) = (q1,z) 31. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q1,b,z)=(q1,ϵ) 32. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q1,a,z0)=(q0,z0) 33. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0,0,z0)={q0,xz0) 34. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0,0,x)=(q0,xx) 35. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0,1,x)=(q1,ϵ) 36. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q1,1,x) = (q1,ϵ) 37. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q1,ϵ,x)=(q1,ϵ) 38. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q1,ϵ,z0)=(q1,ϵ) 39. Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q1,ϵ,z)=(q0,ϵ) 40. Convert the following CFG to PDA S ABC BbB 41. Convert the following CFG to PDA A aa BaC aaa 42. Convert the following CFG to PDA B bbb a D 43. Convert the following CFG to PDA C CA AC 44. Convert the following CFG to PDA S a S/A UNIT - IV 1. Define Turing Machine 2. Explain the moves in Turing Machine. Underst Define an ID of a Turing Machine. Remember Define the Language of Turing Machine. Remember List types of TM. Remember Define Computable Functions by Turing Machines. Remember Write the difference between Pushdown Automata Turing Machine. 8. Explain Church s Hypothesis. Underst Define Context sensitive language. Remember Define multi head Turing Machine. Remember Define multi dimensional Turing Machine. Remember Define multiple tapes Turing Machine. Remember Define Recursive languages. Remember Define Recursively enumerable languages. Remember Define Two way infinite Turing Machine. Remember Define Non deterministic Turing Machine. Remember Define Counter machine. Remember Construct Turing Machine for (0+1)*. Remember Construct Turing Machine for 1 s complement for binary numbers. Remember Differentiate Recursive languages Recursively enumberable Remember 12 languages. UNIT - V 1. Define Chomsky hierarchy of languages. Remember 4 2. Define Universal Turing Machine Remember Define MPCP. Remember 5

4 4. Define decidability. Remember Define P problems. Remember Define Universal Turing Machines Remember Give examples for Undecidable Problems Underst Define Turing Machine halting problem. Remember Define Turing Reducibility Remember Define PCP. Remember Define Type 0 grammars. Remember Define Type 1 grammars. Remember Define Type 2 grammars. Remember Define Type 3 grammars. Remember Define NP problems. Remember Define NP complete problems Remember Define NP Hard problems Remember Define undecidability. Remember Define Reducibility. Remember List the types of grammars. Remember Group - II (Long Answer Questions) 10 Marks Questions UNIT - I 1. Construct a DFA to accept set of all strings ending with 010. Define language over an alphabet write for the above DFA. 2. Construct a Moore machine to accept the following language. Apply 2 Apply 3 L = { w w mod 3 = 0} on = { 0,1,2} 3. Write any four differences between DFA NFA Apply 2 4. Write NFA with Ɛ to NFA conversion with an example. Underst 2 5. Construct NFA for (0 + 1)*( )(0 + 1)* Convert to DFA. Apply 2 6. Construct NFA for (0 +1)*( )(0 + 1)* Draw the transition Apply 2 table transition diagram example strings. 7. Illustrate given 2 FA s are equivalent or not with an example. Apply 6 8. Construct Mealy machine for (0 + 1)*( ) convert to Moore Apply 3 machine. 9. Convert NFA with Ɛ a*b* to NFA. Underst Construct NFA for (0 + 1)*101 Convert to DFA. Apply Convert Moore machine to Mealy machine with an example. Underst 3

5 12. Explain with the following example the Minimize the DFA. Underst Construct a DFA, the language recognized by the Automaton being L Apply 2 {a n b/n 0}. Draw the transition table. 14. Construct the Minimized DFA Apply Construct the DFA that accepts/recognizes the language L(M) = {w Apply 2 w {a, b, c}* w contains the pattern abac }. Draw the transition table. 16. Construct NFA for given NFA with Є-moves Apply Differentiate between DFA NFA with an example. Underst Construct a finite automaton accepting all strings over {0, 1} having Apply 2 even number of 0 s even number of 1 s. 19. Construct a Moore Machine to determine the residue mod 5 for each Apply 3 binary string treated as integer. Sketch the transition table. 20. Convert Mealy machine for (0 + 1)*( ) to Moore machine. Underst 3 UNIT - II 1. Convert Regular Expression 01* + 1 to Finite Automata. Underst 7

6 2. Convert given Finite Automata to Regular Expression using Arden s theorem with an example. Underst 7 3. Construct Right linear, Left linear Regular Grammars for 01* Explain Identity rules. Simplify the Regular Expression - Underst 7 Є + 1*(011)*(1*(011)*)* 5. Construct Regular grammar for the given Finite Automata. (a+b)*ab*. 6. Construct Leftmost Derivation., Rightmost Derivation, Derivation Tree for the following grammar S ab ba A a as baa B b bs abb For the string aaabbabbba. 7. Explain the properties, applications of Context Free Languages Underst 8 8. Construct right linear left linear grammars for given Regular Expression. 9. Construct a Transition System M accepting L(G) for a given Regular Grammar G. 10. Discuss the properties of Context free Language. Explain the pumping Underst 7 lemma with an example. 11. Write regular expressions for the given Finite Automata 12. Construct a NFA with Є equivalent to the regular expression 10 + (0 + 11)0*1 13. Construct Leftmost Derivation., Rightmost Derivation, Derivation Tree for the following grammar G = (V, T, P, S) with N = {E}, S = E, T = {id, +, *, (,)} E E+E E E*E E (E) E id Obtain id+id*id in right most derivation, left most derivation 14. Write a CFG that generates equal number of a s b s. 15. Convert G = ( {S},{a},{ S as /a},{s} ) into FA Underst Construct a Regular expression for the set all strings of 0 s 1 s with at least two consecutive 0 s 17. Construct context free grammar which generates palindrome strings ={a,b}

7 18. Construct equivalent NFA with є for the given regular expression 0*(1(0+1))*. 19. Construct the right linear grammar for the following 20. Write 12 identity rules for regular expressions UNIT III 1. Write a short notes on Chomsky Normal Form Griebach Normal Apply 9 Form. 2. Show that the following grammar is ambiguous with respect to the Underst 8 string aaabbabbba. S ab ba A as baa a B bs abb b 3. Use the following grammar : Apply 9 S ABC BbB A aa BaC aaa B bbb a D C CA AC D ε Eliminate ε-productions. Eliminate any unit productions in the resulting grammar. Eliminate any useless symbols in the resulting grammar. Convert the resulting grammar into Chomsky Normal Form 4. Illustrate the construction of Griebach normal form with an example. Apply 9 5. Show that the following CFG ambiguous. S icts ictses a C b 6. Discuss the Pumping lemma for Context Free Languages concept with Underst 9 example {a n b n c n where n>0} 7. Write the simplified CFG productions in S a S1b S1 a S1b/ Є 8. Convert the following CFG into GNF. Underst 8 S AA/a A SS/b 9. Explain unit production? Explain the procedure to eliminate unit Underst 8 production. 10. Explain the procedure to eliminate ϵ-productions in grammar. Underst Convert the following grammar into GNF Underst 8 G=({A1,A2,A3},{a,b},P,A) A1->A2A3 A2->A3A1/b A3->A1A2/a 12. Write simplified CFG productions from the following grammar A->aBb/bBa B->aB/bB/ϵ 13. Convert the following grammar into GNF S->ABA/AB/BA/AA/B A->aA/a B->bB/b Underst 8

8 14. Convert the following grammar into CNF S->aAbB A->aA/a B->bB/b 15. Write the GNF equivalent to the following grammar S->XA/BB B->b/SB X->b A->a 16. State the following grammar is ambiguous. S-> AB aab A-> a / Aa B->b 17. Construct NPDA for L = { W W R /W ϵ ( 0 + 1)*} M = ({q1,q2},{0,1}.{r,b,g},δ,q1,r,ϕ} 18. Write the procedure to convert from the given PDA to a CFG. Convert the following example. δ(q0,b,z0)={q0,zz0) δ(q0, b, z)=(q0,zz) δ(q0, ϵ,z0)=(q0,ϵ) δ(q0,a,z) = (q1,z) δ(q1,b,z)=(q1,ϵ) δ(q1,a,z0)=(q0,z0) Underst 8 Remember 8 Apply Write the procedure to convert CFG to PDA also convert the following CFG to PDA. S B aaa A abb a B bbb A C a 20. Construct a PDA to accept the language L ={ a n b n n >= 1} by a final state. Draw the graphical representation of the PDA. Also show the moves made by the PDA for the string aaabbb UNIT IV 1. Define a Turing Machine. With a neat diagram explain the working of a Turing Machine. 2. Construct a Transition table for Turing Machine which shift non block symbols 3 cells to the right. 3. Construct a Transition diagram for Turing Machine to accept the following language. L = { 0 n 1 n 0 n n 1} 4. Construct Transition diagram for Turing Machine that accepts the language L = {0 n 1 n n 1}. Give the transition diagram for the Turing Machine obtained also show the moves made by the Turing machine for the string Construct a Transition diagram for Turing Machine to accept the language L= { w#w R w ϵ ( a + b ) *} 6. Write short notes on Recursive Recursively Enumerable languages. 7. Write the properties of recursive recursively enumerable languages. 8. Construct a Turing Machine to accept strings formed with 0 1 having substring Construct a Turing Machine that accepts the language L = {1 n 2 n 3 n n 1}. Give the transition diagram for the Turing Machine obtained also show the moves made by the Turing machine for the string Construct a Transition Table for Turing Machine to implement Subtraction ( m-n ). 11. Design Turing machine to increment the value of any binary number by 1.The output should also be a binary number with value one more the number given. Apply 10 Remember 12 Create 12

9 12. Construct Transition diagram for TM - L={a n b n c n /n>=1} 13. Construct a Transition diagram for Turing Machine to implement Subtraction ( m-n ). 14. Construct a Transition table for Turing Machine to accept the language L= { w#w R w ϵ ( a + b ) *} 15. Construct a Transition diagram for Turing Machine which shift non block symbols 3 cells to the right. 16. Construct Transition table for Turing Machine that accepts the language L = {0 n 1 n n 1}. Give the transition diagram for the Turing Machine obtained also show the moves made by the Turing machine for the string Construct a Transition table for Turing Machine to accept the following language. L = { 0 n 1 n 0 n n 1} 18. Construct a Transition diagram for Turing Machine to accept the language L= { ww R w ϵ ( a + b ) *} 19. Construct Transition table for TM - L={a n b n c n /n>=1} 20. Construct a Transition table for Turing Machine to accept the language L= { ww R w ϵ ( a + b ) *} UNIT V 1. Explain the concept of undecidability problems about Turing Underst 12 Machines. 2. Write a note on Modified PCP Multi tape Turing machine. Apply Explain individually classes P NP Underst Write a shot notes on post's correspondence problem check the following is PCP or not. Apply 13 I A B Explain the Halting problem Turing Reducibility. Underst Write a short notes on universal Turing machine. 7. Write a short notes on Chomsky hierarchy. Apply 4 8. Write a short notes on Context sensitive language linear bounded Apply 4 automata. 9. Write a short note on NP complete Apply Write a short note on NP hard problems. Apply Write a shot notes on post's correspondence problem check the following is PCP or not. Apply 13 I A B Write a shot notes on post's correspondence problem check the following is PCP or not. Apply 13 I A B

10 3. Group - III (Analytical Questions) S. No. Questions Blooms Taxonom y Outcom es PROBLEM SOLVING/ANALYTICAL/CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS UNIT - I 1 Construct NFA for (0 + 1)*0(0 + 1)0(0 + 1)* convert to DFA. Apply 2 2 Construct NFA for (0 + 1)*010(0 + 1)* Convert to DFA. Apply 2 3 Construct NFA with Ɛ for 0*1*12* Convert to NFA. Apply 2 4 Construct Mealy Machine for Residue Modulo of 5 for the ternary number Apply 2 system convert to Moore Machines. 5 Write the DFA that will accept those words from {a, b} where the number Apply 2 of a s is divisible by two the number of b s is divisible by three. Sketch the transition table of the finite Automaton M. 6 Construct DFA for the given NFA as shown in fig. below Apply 2 UNIT - II 1 Convert Regular Expression (11 + 0)*(00 + 1)* to NFA with Ɛ. Underst 7 2 Convert Regular Expression (a + b)*(aa + bb)(a + b)* to DFA. Underst 7 3 Construct Regular Grammars for Finite Automata 0*(1(0 + 1))*. 4 Construct Finite Automata for A0 a A1 A1 b A1 A1 a A1 ba0 5 Construct left linear grammar for the following UNIT - III 1 Construct PDA for equal number of x s y s Apply 10 2 Convert the following grammar into GNF Underst 9 A1 A2 A3 A2 A3 A1 /b A3 A1 A2 /a 3 Construct DPDA for L = { W#W R /W ϵ ( X + Y)*} Apply 10

11 S. No. 4 Convert the following PDA to CFG δ(q0,0,z0)={q0,xz0) δ(q0,0,x)=(q0,xx) δ(q0,1,x)=(q1,ϵ) δ(q1,1,x) = (q1,ϵ) δ(q1,ϵ,x)=(q1,ϵ) δ(q1,ϵ,z0)=(q1,ϵ) Questions Blooms Taxonom y Underst Outcom es 5 Write the PDA with only one state that accepts the language{a m b n :n>m} Apply 10 6 Design a PDA for the following grammar Create 10 S->0A A->0AB/1 B->1 7 Convert the following PDA to CFG Underst 11 M=({q0,q1},{a,b},{z0,za},μ,q0,z0,Ф) δ is given by, δ(q0,a,z0)=(q0,zz) δ(q0,a,z)=(q0,zz0) δ(q0,b,z)=(q1,ϵ) δ(q1,b,z)=(q1,ϵ) δ(q1,ϵ,z0)=(q1,ϵ) UNIT - IV 1 Construct a Turing Machine that accepts the language L = {a 2n b n n 0}. Give the transition diagram for the Turing Machine obtained. 2 Construct a Turing Machine that gives two s compliment for the given binary representation. 3 Construct a Turing Machine to accept the following language. L = { w n x n y n z n n 1} 4 Construct a Turing Machine which shift non block symbols 2 cells to the right. UNIT - V 1 Explain PCP MPCP with examples. Underst 13 2 Explain Turing theorem,halting problems, Turing Reducibility. Underst 13 3 Explain Type 3 Type 2 grammars with example. Apply 4 4 Explain Type 1 Type 0 grammars with example. Apply 4 11

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